Siege of Fort St Philip (1756)

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Siege of Fort St. Philip
Part of the Seven Years' War
Prise Port Mahon Minorque 20 mai 1756.jpg
Attack and capture of Fort St. Philip on the island of Menorca, 29 June 1756, after the naval battle.
DateApril – 29 June 1756
Fort St Philip, near Mahón, Menorca, Mediterranean
Result French victory
 Great Britain  France
Commanders and leaders
Kingdom of Great Britain William Blakeney Kingdom of France Duke de Richelieu
Kingdom of France Roland-Michel Barrin de La Galissonière
2,860 [1] 15,000
Casualties and losses
400 dead or wounded[citation needed] 800 dead
2,000–3,000 wounded[citation needed]

The siege of Fort St Philip (commonly known in Britain as the fall of Minorca or siege of Minorca) took place in 1756 during the Seven Years' War.


The siege of Fort St. Philip in Menorca

A French force under the command of the Duke de Richelieu landed on the island and besieged the British garrison at St. Philip's Castle, forcing them to surrender after a lengthy siege. A British relief force under Admiral John Byng sailed with the purpose of saving the island, but after the naval Battle of Minorca, Byng withdrew to Gibraltar, and the resistance of the garrison finally collapsed. Byng was later blamed for the loss of Menorca (historically called "Minorca" by the British), and executed by firing squad. One involved in the British navy in this operation was Arthur Phillip, later to be first Governor of New South Wales.

The garrison's resistance had been considered lengthy and honourable enough for them to be allowed to march out carrying their arms and be shipped back home to Britain, a common convention at the time. Blakeney was absolved of any blame for the loss of the island, and was later awarded an Irish peerage in recognition of his defence of Fort St Phillip.[2]


Hyacinthe Gaëtan de Lannion was appointed the first French Governor of Menorca. A British naval squadron led by Sir Edward Hawke sent out to replace Byng, arrived off Menorca shortly after the surrender. As Hawke did not have enough troops on board to land and mount a siege to retake the island he departed, cruising in the waters off Marseilles for three months before sailing home. He was later criticised for failing to mount a blockade of the island, which might have forced it to surrender through starvation.[3]

The French held on to Menorca for the remainder of the war, the only British territory they were to occupy, and at the Treaty of Paris it was returned to Britain in exchange for Guadeloupe. Menorca was captured from the British again in 1781 during the Anglo-Spanish War, after which it was ceded to Spain.

Order of Battle[edit]

British Army[edit]

Land forces which formed part of the garrison included:[4]

French Army[edit]

The French invasion force consisted of:[5][6][7][8][9]

Arriving later as reinforcements:

See also[edit]


  1. ^ History, Debates & Proceedings of Parliament 1743-1774; Volume III. Debrett. 1792. p. 295.
  2. ^ "No. 9642". The London Gazette. 7 December 1756. p. 1.
  3. ^ Pope p.193-94
  4. ^ "The Seven Years' War in Europe, 1756-1763". 2007-10-20. Archived from the original on 2007-10-20. Retrieved 2020-08-24.
  5. ^ Louis Susane, Historie de La Cavalerie Fraçais, Volumes I–III.
  6. ^ Louis Susane, Historie de L'Ancienne Infanterie Français, Volumes I–VIII.
  7. ^ Louis Susane, Historie de L'Artillerie Français.
  8. ^ "1756 – Siege of Fort St. Philip – Project Seven Years War". Retrieved 2020-08-24.
  9. ^ "1756 - French expedition against Minorca - Project Seven Years War". Retrieved 2020-08-24.


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  • Browning, Reed. The Duke of Newcastle. Yale University Press, 1975.
  • Longmate, Norman. Island Fortress: The Defence of Great Britain, 1603-1945. Harper Collins, 1993
  • McLynn, Frank. 1759: The Year Britain Became Master of the World. Pimlico, 2005.
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