Siege of Sevastopol (1854–1855)
|Siege of Sevastopol|
|Part of the Crimean War|
Siege of Sevastopol by Franz Roubaud
|Commanders and leaders|
|Casualties and losses|
||Total casualties: 102,000 killed, wounded, and died from disease|
The siege of Sevastopol (at the time called in English the siege of Sebastopol) lasted from October 1854 until September 1855, during the Crimean War. The allies (French, Sardinia, Ottoman, and British) landed at Eupatoria on 14 September 1854, intending to make a triumphal march to Sevastopol, the capital of the Crimea, with 50,000 men. The 56-kilometre (35 mi) traverse took a year of fighting against the Russians. Major battles along the way were Alma (September 1854), Balaklava (October 1854), Inkerman (November 1854), Tchernaya (August 1855), Redan (September 1855), and, finally, Malakoff (September 1855). During the siege, the allied navy undertook six bombardments of the capital, on 17 October 1854; and on 9 April, 6 June, 17 June, 17 August, and 5 September 1855.
Sevastopol is one of the classic sieges of all time. The city of Sevastopol was the home of the Tsar's Black Sea Fleet, which threatened the Mediterranean. The Russian field army withdrew before the allies could encircle it. The siege was the culminating struggle for the strategic Russian port in 1854–55 and was the final episode in the Crimean War.
During the Victorian Era, these battles were repeatedly memorialized. The siege of Sevastopol was the subject of Crimean soldier Leo Tolstoy's Sebastopol Sketches and the subject of the first Russian feature film, Defence of Sevastopol. The Battle of Balaklava was made famous by Alfred, Lord Tennyson's poem "The Charge of the Light Brigade" and Robert Gibb's painting The Thin Red Line. A panorama of the siege itself was painted by Franz Roubaud.
The allies (French, Ottoman, and British) landed at Eupatoria on 14 September 1854. The Battle of the Alma (20 September 1854), which is usually considered the first battle of the Crimean War (1853–1856), took place just south of the River Alma in the Crimea. An Anglo-French force under Jacques Leroy de Saint Arnaud and FitzRoy Somerset, 1st Baron Raglan defeated General Alexander Sergeyevich Menshikov's Russian army, which lost around 6,000 troops.
Moving from their base at Balaklava at the start of October, French and British engineers began to direct the building of siege lines along the Chersonese uplands to the south of Sevastopol. The troops prepared redoubts, gun batteries, and trenches.
With the Russian army and its commander Prince Menshikov gone, the defence of Sevastopol was led by Vice Admirals Vladimir Alexeyevich Kornilov and Pavel Nakhimov, assisted by Menshikov's chief engineer, Lieutenant Colonel Eduard Totleben. The military forces available to defend the city were 4,500 militia, 2,700 gunners, 4,400 marines, 18,500 naval seamen, and 5,000 workmen, totalling just over 35,000 men.
The Russians began by scuttling their ships to protect the harbour, then used their naval cannon as additional artillery and the ships' crews as marines. Those ships deliberately sunk by the end of 1855 included Grand Duke Constantine, City of Paris (both with 120 guns), Khrabryi, Imperatritsa Maria, Chesma, Rostislav, and Yagondeid (all 84 guns), Kavarna (60 guns), Konlephy (54 guns), steam frigate Vladimir, steamboats Thunderer, Bessarabia, Danube, Odessa, Elbrose, and Krein.
By mid-October, the Allies had some 120 guns ready to fire on Sevastopol; the Russians had about three times as many.
On 5 October (old style date, 17 October new style)[a] the artillery battle began. The Russian artillery first destroyed a French magazine, silencing their guns. British fire then set off the magazine in the Malakoff redoubt, killing Admiral Kornilov, silencing most of the Russian guns there, and leaving a gap in the city's defences. However, the British and French withheld their planned infantry attack, and a possible opportunity for an early end to the siege was missed.
At the same time, to support the Allied land forces, the Allied fleet pounded the Russian defences and shore batteries. Six screw-driven ships of the line and 21 wooden sail were involved in the sea bombardment (11 British, 14 French, and two Ottoman Turkish). After a bombardment that lasted over six hours, the Allied fleet inflicted little damage on the Russian defences and coastal artillery batteries while suffering 340 casualties among the fleet. Two of the British warships were so badly damaged that they were towed to the arsenal in Constantinople for repairs and remained out of action for the remainder of the siege, while most of the other warships also suffered serious damage due to many direct hits from the Russian coastal artillery. The bombardment resumed the following day, but the Russians had worked through the night and repaired the damage. This pattern would be repeated throughout the siege.
In late October and early November, the battles of Balaclava and Inkerman took place beyond the siege lines. Balaclava gave the Russians a morale boost and convinced them that the Allied lines were thinly spread out and undermanned. But after their defeat at Inkerman, the Russians saw that the siege of Sevastopol would not be lifted by a battle in the field, so instead they moved troops into the city to aid the defenders. Toward the end of November, a winter storm ruined the Allies' camps and supply lines. Men and horses sickened and starved in the poor conditions.
While Totleben extended the fortifications around the Redan bastion and the Malakoff redoubt, British chief engineer John Fox Burgoyne sought to take the Malakoff, which he saw as the key to Sevastopol. Siege works were begun to bring the Allied troops nearer to the Malakoff; in response, Totleben dug rifle pits from which Russian troops could snipe at the besiegers. In a foretaste of the trench warfare that became the hallmark of the First World War, the trenches became the focus of Allied assaults.
The Allies were able to restore many supply routes when winter ended. The new Grand Crimean Central Railway, built by the contractors Thomas Brassey and Samuel Morton Peto, which had been completed at the end of March 1855 was now in use bringing supplies from Balaclava to the siege lines. The 24 mile long railroad delivered more than five hundred guns and plentiful ammunition. The Allies resumed their bombardment on 8 April (Easter Sunday). On 28 June (10 July), Admiral Nakhimov died from a head wound inflicted by an Allied sniper.
On 24 August (5 September) the Allies started their sixth and the most severe bombardment of the fortress. Three hundred and seven cannon fired 150,000 rounds, with the Russians suffering 2,000 to 3,000 casualties daily. On 27 August (8 September), thirteen Allied divisions and one Allied brigade (total strength 60,000) began the last assault. The British assault on the Great Redan failed, but the French, under General Mac-Mahon, managed to seize the Malakoff redoubt and the Little Redan, making the Russian defensive position untenable. By the morning of 28 August (9 September), the Russian forces had abandoned the southern side of Sevastopol.
Although defended heroically and at the cost of heavy Allied casualties, the fall of Sevastopol would lead to the Russian defeat in the Crimean War. Most of the Russian casualties were buried in Brotherhood cemetery in over 400 collective graves. The three main commanders (Nakhimov, Kornilov, and Istomin) were interred in the purpose-built Admirals' Burial Vault.
Battles during the siege
- Skirmish at River Bulganek (19 September 1854)
- Battle of Alma (20 September 1854)
- First bombardment of Sevastopol (17 October 1854)
- Battle of Balaclava (25 October 1854)
- Battle of Little Inkerman (26 October 1854)
- Battle of Inkerman (5 November 1854)
- Aborted Russian attack at Balaklava (10 January 1855)
- Battle of Eupatoria (17 February 1855)
- Aborted allied attack at Chernaya (20 February 1855)
- Russian army assaults and seizes the Mamelon (22 February 1855)
- French assault on the "White Works" repulsed (24 February 1855)
- Second bombardment of Sevastopol (9 April 1855)
- British assault "the Rifle Pits" successfully (19 April 1855)
- Battle of the Quarantine Cemetery (1 May 1855)
- Third bombardment of Sevastopol (6 June 1855)
- Allies successfully assault the "White Works", Mamelon and "The Quarries" (8-9 June 1855)
- Fourth bombardment of Sevastopol (17 June 1855)
- Allied assaults on the Malakoff and Great Redan repulsed (18 June 1855)
- Battle of the Chernaya (16 August 1855)
- Fifth bombardment of Sevastopol (17 August 1855)
- Sixth bombardment of Sevastopol (7 September 1855)
- Allies assault the Malakoff, Little Redan, Bastion du Mat and the Great Redan (8 September 1855)
- Russians retreat from Sevastopol on 9 September 1855
Fate of Sevastopol cannon
The British sent cannons seized at Sevastopol to many towns in Britain, and several important cities across the Empire.[b] Additionally, several were sent to the Royal Military College, Sandhurst, and the Royal Military Academy, Woolwich. These cannon are now all kept at the Royal Military Academy Sandhurst (renamed after the closing of RMA Woolwich shortly after the Second World War) and are displayed in front of Old College, next to cannon from Waterloo and other battles. Many of the cannon sent to towns in Britain were melted down during the Second World War to help the war effort, though several of these have subsequently been replaced by replicas.[c]
The cascabel (the large ball at the rear of old muzzle-loaded guns) of several cannon captured during the siege was said to have been used to make the British Victoria Cross, the highest award for gallantry in the British Armed Forces. However, Hancocks, the manufacturer, confirms that the metal is Chinese, not Russian, bronze. The cannons used are in the Firepower Museum in Woolwich and are clearly Chinese. There would be no reason why Chinese cannon would be in Sevastopol in the 1850s and it is likely that the VC guns were, in fact, British trophies from the China war in the 1840s held in the Woolwich repository. Though it had been suggested that the VCs should be made from Sevastopol cannons, it seems that in practice, they were not. Testing of medals which proved not to be of Russian bronze has given rise to stories that some Victoria Crosses were made of low grade material at certain times but this is not so – all Victoria Crosses have been made from the same metal from the start.
British lithograph published March 1855, after a water-colour by William Simpson, shows winter military housing under construction with supplies borne on soldiers' backs. A dead horse, partially buried in snow, lies by the roadside.
Captain Julius Robert's Mortar Boats engaging the quarantine battery – Sebastopol August 15, 1855 - Lithograph T.G.Dutton
Attack on the Malakoff by William Simpson
Map of the French (blue) and British (red) lines during the siege. The defenders' positions are in green.
Monument to the Scuttled Ships, Crimea, Sevastopol. The sculptor Amandus Adamson 1905
- Sebastopol Sketches, a cycle of three historical fiction short stories written by Leo Tolstoy
- Defence of Sevastopol, Russia's first feature film
- In this article the first date given is the old style date, the date following is the modern equivalent. Conversions were completed using Calendar Converter by John Walker.
- Including, in the British Isles: Armagh, Aberdeen, Ashton-under-Lyne, Bamburgh, Banff, Bath, Berkswell, Berwick, Birkenhead, Birr, Blackburn, Boston, Braddan, Bradford, Bridgenorth, Bridgewater, Brighton, Bristol, Burnley, Caernarfon, Carlisle, Cambridge, Canterbury, Cardiff, Cardigan, Carlow, Carmarthen, Chelmsford, Cheltenham, Chester, Chobham, Cobh, Congleton, Coventry, Cricklade, Darlington, Dartmouth, Derby, Dublin, Dudley, Dumbarton, Dumfries, Dunfermline, Dun Laoghaire, Durham, Edinburgh, Ely, Ennis, Eton, Evesham, Flint Castle, Galway, Glasgow, Grantham, Great Yarmouth, Guernsey, Halifax, Harrogate, Hartlepool, Hastings, Hereford, Huntingdon, Knaresborough, Leamington Spa, Leicester, Leominster, Lewes, Lichfield, Limerick, Linlithgow, Lisburn, London, Londonderry, Lowestoft, Ludlow, Lymington, Maidstone, Malmesbury, Malton, Margate, Middlesbrough, Monmouth, Newcastle-under-Lyme, Newry, Nottingham, Oldham, Plymouth, Pontefract, Portsmouth, Preston, Reading, Retford, Ripon, Rochester, Salford, Manchester, Sandhurst, Scarborough, Shaftesbury, Sheffield, Southampton, Southsea, South Shields, Stockport, Stockton, Stoke on Trent, Sunderland, Swansea, Taunton, Tiverton, Tralee, Trim, Walsall, Warrington, Waterford, Welling, Wells, Whitby, Winchester, Wolverhampton, Woolwich, Wootton Bassett, Wrexham, and York.Outside the British Isles: Adelaide, Auckland, Brantford, Douglas, Alaska, Fort Erie, Ontario, Galt, Ontario, Georgetown, Guyana, Gibraltar, Hamilton, Ontario, Hobart, Tasmania, Kincardine, Ontario, Kingston, Ontario, Launceston, Tasmania, London, Ontario, Melbourne, Montreal, Quebec City, Sarnia, Ontario, Sitka, Alaska, Stratford, Ontario, Stroud, New South Wales, Sydney, Trois-Rivières, Quebec, and Toronto.
- Those melted down during the Second World War include those at Bath, Cheltenham, Derby, Dunfermline, Hereford, Leominster, Lichfield, Portsmouth, Salford, Wells, Wootton Basset and Wrexham. Replica Sevastopol cannons can be found at Beckingham, Bridgewater, Chobham, Hereford, Huntingdon, Preston, Scarborough, South Shields, and Sunderland.
- Bellamy, Christopher (2001). Richard Holmes (ed.). The Oxford Companion to Military History: Crimean War. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-866209-2.
- Советская Военная Энциклопедия, М., Воениздат 1979, т.7, стр.279
- Maule, Fox (1908). The Panmure Papers. London: Hodder and Stoughton, quoted in David Kelsey's Crimean Texts. Archived from the original on 9 July 2009. Italic or bold markup not allowed in:
- David G. Chandler, Atlas of Military Strategy, Lionel Levental Ltd 1980, ISBN 0-85368-134-1, p.146
- Blake, The Crimean War, Pen and Sword 1971, p.114
- or 38,000: David G. Chandler, Atlas of Military Strategy, Lionel Levental Ltd 1980, ISBN 0-85368-134-1, p.145
- John Sweetman, Crimean War, Essential Histories 2, Osprey Publishing, 2001, ISBN 1-84176-186-9, p.89
- Советская Военная Энциклопедия, М., Воениздат 1979, т.7, стр.280
- Elphinstone, H.C (2003). Siege of Sebastopol 1854–55: Journal of the Operations Conducted by the Corps of Royal Engineers.
- Orlando Figes, The Crimean War: A History (Picador Publishing: New York, 2010) p. 230.
- Orlando Figes, The Crimean War: A History, pp. 208-220.
- Orlando Figes, The Crimean War: A History, p. 218.
- Orlando Figes, The Crimean War: A History, p. 236.
- Orlando Figes, The Crimean War: A History, p. 237.
- Orlando Figes, The Crimean War: A History, p. 233.
- Orlando Figes, The Crimean War: A History, p. 224.
- Orlando Figes, The Crimean War: A History, p. 238.
- Orlando, Figes, The Crimean War: A History, p. 238.
- Engels, Frederick. The War in the East. The Collected Works of Karl Marx and Frederick Engels. 13. pp. 521–527.
- Engels, Frederick. The Battle of Inkerman. The Collected Works of Karl Marx and Frederick Engels. 13. pp. 528–535.
- Orlaando Figes, The Crimean War: A History, p. 254.
- Frederick Engels, " The Battle of Inkerman" published on 27 November 1854 in the New York Herald and carried in the Collected Works of Karl Marx and Frederick Engels: Volume 13, pp. 528-535
- Orlando Figes, The Crimean War: A History, p. 356.
- Orlando Figes, The Crimean War: A History, p. 378.
- Troubetzkoy, Alexis S. (2006). The Crimean War: The Causes and Consequences of a Medieval Conflict Fought in a Modern Age. London: Constable & Robinson. p. 288.
- "Crimean Cannon International Database: Index of Locations". The Spas Research Fellowship.
- "Crimean Cannon International Database: Cannons Worldwide Index". The Spas Research Fellowship.
- However, there has been controversy about the fate of two cannons that were sent to Halifax, West Yorkshire. As they were removed from a local park and sold for scrap. "Two 1799 Russian 24 Pdrs. Watch The St. Lawrence River In Quebec"
- "The Russian SBML 18-pr at Waiouru" Archived 5 June 2010 at the Wayback Machine, Royal New Zealand Artillery Association
- Thorsheim, Peter (2015). Waste into Weapons: Recycling in Britain during the Second World War. Cambridge University Press. p. 160. ISBN 978-1316395509.
- "Guards Crimea Memorial". The London Encyclopaedia (3rd ed.). Pan Macmillan. 2011. p. 541. ISBN 9780230738782.
- Grant, Simon (2005). A Terrible Beauty Archived 7 August 2007 at the Wayback Machine from Tate etc magazine, issue 5, accessed 2007-09-27
- Greenwood, Adrian (2015). Victoria's Scottish Lion: The Life of Colin Campbell, Lord Clyde. UK: History Press. p. 496. ISBN 978-0-75095-685-7.
- Letters and Papers of Colonel Hugh Robert Hibbert (1828–1895) Mainly relating to service in the Crimean War, 1854–1855.
- Historical Dictionary of the Crimean War
- Henry Ottley. Remarkable Sieges: From The Siege Of Constantinople In 1453, To That Of Sebastopol, 1854 (1854). 2010.