Sigismund Báthory

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The native form of this personal name is Báthory Zsigmond. This article uses the Western name order.
Sigismund Báthory
Prince of Transylvania, Wallachia and Moldavia, Prince of the Holy Roman Empire, Count of the Székelys and Lord of Parts of the Kingdom of Hungary
Zsgmondbáthory.jpg
Portrayal of Sigismund
Prince of Transylvania
Reign 1586–1598
Predecessor Stephen Báthory
Regent János Ghyczy
Duke of Racibórz and Opole
Reign 1598
Prince of Transylvania
Reign 1598–1599
Successor Andrew Báthory
Prince of Transylvania
Reign 1601–1602
Born 1573
Várad, Principality of Transylvania
(now Oradea, Romania)
Died 27 March 1613 (aged 39–40)
Libochovice, Kingdom of Bohemia
Burial St. Vitus Cathedral, Prague, Kingdom of Bohemia
Spouse Maria Christierna of Habsburg
House Báthory family
Father Christopher Báthory
Mother Elisabeth Bocskai
Religion Roman Catholic

Sigismund Báthory (Hungarian: Báthory Zsigmond; 1573 – 27 March 1613) was Prince of Transylvania several times between 1586 and 1602, and Duke of Racibórz and Opole in Silesia in 1598. He was the son of the Roman Catholic Christopher Báthory (an elder brother of Stephen Báthory, Prince of Transylvania), and the Calvinist Elisabeth Bocskai. After being elected King of Poland in 1575, Stephen Báthory made Sigismund's father voivode to administer Transylvania in his absence. Sigismund was still a child when the Diet of Transylvania elected him voivode at his dying father's request in 1581. Initially, a council of twelve noblemen appointed by his father administered Transylvania. Stephen Báthory charged three noblemen with the government in 1583, but two years later he made János Ghyczy the sole regent for Sigismund.

After Stephen Báthory died in 1586, Sigismund adopted the title of prince, but Ghyczy continued to rule on his behalf. Sigismund was one of the candidates to the throne of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, but the Sejm (or general assembly) elected Sigismund III Vasa king in 1587. The Diet of Transylvania proclaimed Sigismund to be of age in 1588, but only after he agreed to expel the Jesuits. Pope Sixtus V excommunicated him, but the excommunication was lifted in 1590, and the Jesuits returned a year later. Sigismund also invited Italians to settle at his royal court. His blatant favoritism towards the Catholics made him unpopular among his Protestant subjects.

Sigismund's relationship with his cousins, Balthasar and Andrew Báthory, was also tense, especially after he decided to join the Holy League that Pope Clement VIII set up against the Ottoman Empire. Sigismund renounced the throne in July 1594, but the commanders of the Transylvanian army convinced him to revoke his abdication. At their proposal, Sigismund ordered the execution of the noblemen who opposed a war against the Ottomans. Transylvania officially joined the Holy League in early 1595. He married Maria Christierna of Habsburg, a niece of the Holy Roman Emperor, Rudolph II, but the marriage was never consummated. Michael the Brave, Voivode of Wallachia, and Ștefan Răzvan, Voivode of Moldavia, acknowledged Sigismund's suzerainty. Their united forces defeated an Ottoman army in the Battle of Giurgiu. However, Sigismund could not capture Temesvár (now Timișoara in Romania) and the Christian forces were decimated in the Battle of Mezőkeresztes in 1596.

His defeats and his unhappy marriage contributed to his abdication in early 1598. In exchange for Transylvania, he received the duchies of Racibórz and Opole from Rudolph II, but he returned to Transylvania in late summer. After all his attempts to make peace with the Ottoman Empire failed, he renounced Transylvania in favor of Andrew Báthory and settled in Poland in 1599. Transylvania was regularly pillaged by unpaid mercenaries and Ottoman marauders during the following years. Sigismund returned at the head of a Polish army in 1601, and the Diet of Transylvania again elected him prince. His troops were defeated in the Battle of Goroszló, but he controlled large parts of the principality with the assistance of Ottoman troops. He again renounced in July 1602 and settled in Bohemia. Rudolph II tried to persuade him to lay claim to Transylvania against Stephen Bocskai (who was Sigismund's uncle) in 1605 and 1606, but he did not accept the offer. Sigismund spent fourteen months in jail in Prague before he died in his estate in Bohemia.

Early Life[edit]

Sigismund was the son of Christopher Báthory and his second wife, Elisabeth Bocskai.[1] He was born in Várad (now Oradea in Romania) in 1573, according to the Transylvanian historian, István Szamosközy.[2] At the time of Sigismund's birth, his uncle, Stephen Báthory, was the voivode of Transylvania.[3] After being elected king of Poland in late 1575, Stephen Báthory adopted the title of Prince of Transylvania and made Sigismund's father voivode.[4] Stephen Báthory set up a separate chancellery in Kraków to supervise the administration of the principality.[5]

Sigismund's father and uncle were Roman Catholic, but his mother was Calvinist.[2] According to the Jesuit Antonio Possevino, Sigismund demostrated his devotion to Catholicism already at the age of seven.[2] His mother mocked him for his piety, saying that he only wanted to secure his uncle's goodwill.[2] Sigismund was especially hostile towards the Anti-Trinitarians in his youth.[2] His mother died in early 1581.[2]

Reign[edit]

Voivode[edit]

The eastern regions of the Carpathian Basin
Principality of Transylvania shortly before Sigismund's birth

Christopher Báthory fell seriously ill after his wife's death.[3] At his request, the Diet of Transylvania elected Sigismund voivode in Kolozsvár (present-day Cluj-Napoca in Romania) around 15 May 1581.[6][1] Since Sigismund was still a minor, his dying father tasked a council of twelve noblemen with the government of Transylvania.[3] Christopher Báthory's cousin, Dénes Csáky, and his brother-in-law, Stephen Bocskai, headed the council.[3] Báthory died on 27 May.[6]

The Ottoman Sultan, Murad III, confirmed Sigismund's election on 3 July 1581, reminding him to his obligation of paying a yearly tribute of 15,000 florins.[7] However, Pál Márkházy, a young nobleman who lived in Istanbul, offered to double the tribute and to pay an additional tax of 100,000 florins if he was made the ruler of Transylvania.[8] The Grand Vizier, Koca Sinan Pasha, supported Márkházy's claim.[8] Taking advantage of the situation, Murad demanded the same payments from Sigismund, but Stephen Báthory and the "Three Nations of Transylvania" resisted.[8] After receiving the customary tribute from Transylvania, the sultan again confirmed Sigismund's rule in November 1581.[8]

Stephen Báthory took charge of Sigismund's education.[9] He confirmed the position of Sigismund's Jesuit tutors, János Leleszi and Gergely Vásárhelyi.[9] According to Szamosközy, Stephen Báthory also ordered that Sigismund's companions should primarily talk of foreign lands, wars and huntings with him during the dinners.[9] He reorganized the government on 3 May 1583, charging Sándor Kendi, Farkas Kovacsóczy and László Sombori with the administration of Transylvania during Sigismund's minority.[9][10] The Diet proposed Stephen Báthory to dismiss them, but he only dissolved the council on 1 May 1585.[11] He replaced the three councillors with the devout Calvinist János Ghyczy, making him regent for Sigismund.[1][11]

Prince under guardianship[edit]

Stephen Báthory died on 13 December 1586.[11] Sigismund adopted the title of prince of Transylvania.[12] He was still a minor and Ghyczy continued to rule as regent.[1][13] Sigismund was one of the candidates to the throne of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth.[14] His advisors knew that he had little chance to win, but they wanted to demonstrate that the Báthorys had a valid claim to rule the Commonwealth.[15] Kovacsóczy officially announced Sigismund's application at the Sejm (or general assembly) on 14 August 1587.[16] Five days later, the assembly elected Sigismund III Vasa king.[17] During the ensuing war of succession, the Transylvanian troops supported Sigismund III against Maximilian of Habsburg, who had also laid claim to Poland and Lithuania.[18]

Sigismund's cousins, Balthasar and Stephen Báthory, returned from Poland to Transylvania.[13][19] Balthasar wanted to take charge of the government, making his court at Fogaras (present-day Făgăraș in Romania) the center of those who opposed Ghychy's rule.[13][19] Kovacsóczy, the chancellor of Transylvania, remained neutral in the conflict.[13]

In October 1588, the Diet proposed to declare the sixteen-year-old Sigismund of age if he banished the Jesuits from Transylvania.[13] He did not accept the offer, especially because he did not want to expel his confessor, Alfonso Carillo.[13] The Diet was dissolved, but Sigismund's cousins convinced him not to resist, because the Diet was dominated by Protestant delegates.[13] The Diet was again convoked in late 1588.[13][20] The Diet ordered the expulsion of the Jesuits and declared Sigismund to be of age on 8 December.[13][20]

Internal conflicts[edit]

Sigismund took the customary oath of the Transylvanian monarchs on 23 December 1588.[20] Pope Sixtus V excommunicated him for the expulsion of the Jesuits.[21] Sigismund's cousin, Cardinal Andrew Báthory urged the pope to lift the ban, saying that the prince's Protestant advisors had forced him to throw out the friars.[21] The pope authorized Sigismund to employ a confessor in May 1589.[22] The excommunication was revoked on Easter 1590.[22]

Sigismund made several attempts to strengthen the position of the Roman Catholic Church, especially through appointing Catholics to the highest positions of state administration.[23] Carillo and other Jesuit friars returned to Sigismund's court in disguise in early 1591.[20][24] Sigismund met Andrew and Balthasar Báthory in August to seek their support for the legalization of the Jesuits' presence, but they refused to stand by the friars at the Diet.[24]

A young man
Sigismund's cousin and rival, Balthasar Báthory

Sigismund dispatched his favorite, István Jósika, to Tuscany to start negotiations about his marriage to Eleonora Orsini (a niece of Ferdinando I de' Medici), although his cousins had sharply opposed Jósika's appointment.[25] He also invited Italian artists and artisans to his court, making them his advisors or butlers.[26] Szamosközy described them as "the trashiest representatives of the noblest nation".[26] The representatives of the "Three Nations" criticized Sigismund for his prodigal way of life at the Diet in Gyulafehérvár in November.[27] To reduce his authority, the Diet prescribed that Sigismund should only make decisions in the royal council.[28][29] Sigismund deprived his cousins from the allowances that the royal treasury had paid to them.[27]

Gossips about conspiracies spread during the following months.[27] Sándor Kendi accused Sigismund's former tutor, János Gálffy, of deliberately stirring up debates between the prince and his cousins.[27] Other courtiers claimed that Balthasar Báthory was planning to dethrone Sigismund.[27] A Jesuit friar was informed at Vienna that Gálffy and his allies wanted to murder the prince and his cousins.[30] Sigismund stated that he was willing to renounce in favor of Balthasar if the members of the royal council favored his cousin in late 1591.[31] Although his offer was refuted, Kendi referred to Sigismund and Balthasar as the "two monsters and greatest disasters of the Transylvanian realm" during the debate.[31] Pope Clement VIII's legate, Attilio Amalteo, mediated a reconciliation between Sigismund and his cousins in summer 1592.[32] The pope also urged Sigismund to marry a Catholic princess from the House of Lorraine.[33]

Sigismund sent Transylvanian troops to Moldavia to assist Aaron the Tyrant at the sultan's demand.[32] The sultan also ordered him to pay double the amount of the yearly tribute.[32] Balthasar Báthory murdered Sigismund's secretary, Pál Gyulai, on 10 December 1592.[32] He also persuaded Sigismund to order the execution of Gálffy on 8 March 1593.[32] Sigismund went to Kraków in disguise in summer to start negotiations about his marriage with Anna, the sister of Sigismund III of Poland.[34] The Holy See had proposed the marriage, which could have also enabled Sigismund to rule Poland during the absence of the king who was also king of Sweden, but the plan came to nothing.[34]

Murad III declared war against the Holy Roman Emperor, Rudolph in August.[32] The sultan also ordered Sigismund to sent reinforcements to support the Ottoman army in Royal Hungary.[32] According to diplomatic sources, the grand vizier was planning to occupy Transylvania.[35] At the proposal of Jan Zamoyski, Chancellor of Poland, Sigismund sent envoys to Elizabeth I of England, asking her to intervene on his behalf at the Sublime Porte.[35] She ordered her ambassador at Istanbul, Edward Barton, to support Sigismund.[35] Pope Clement VIII wanted to persuade Sigismund to join the Holy League that the pope had organized against the Ottoman Empire.[36]

Rudolph's troops defeated the Ottomans in a series of battles in autumn 1593.[28][37] Sigismund decided to join the anti-Ottoman alliance if Rudolph acknowledged the independence of Transylvania of the Hungarian Crown.[36] However, the representatives of the Three Nations refused to declare war against the Ottoman Empire at three consecutive Diets between May and July.[28][38] Sigismund abdicated, tasking Balthasar Báthory with the government in late July.[39] Balthasar wanted to seize the throne, but Kovacsóczy, Kendi and the other leading officials decided to set up an aristocratic council to administer Transylvania.[40] Stephen Bocskai and the other commanders of the army, and his confessor jointly convinced Sigismund to return on 8 August.[28][39][40]

They persuaded him to order the arrest of Kovacsóczy, Kendi, Balthasar Báthory and twelve other noblemen (who had opposed the war against the Ottomans) on 28 August, accusing them of plotting against Sigismund.[40][41] Kendi and his brothers were beheaded along with two other members of the royal council; Balthasar Báthory, Kovacsóczy and Ferenc Kendi were strangled in prison.[28][42] All but one murdered noblemen were Protestants, mostly Unitarians.[43] Many of their relatives converted to Catholicism to prevent the confiscation of their estates.[43]

Holy League[edit]

Sigismund decided to join the Holy League together with Aaron the Tyrant, voivode of Moldavia, and Michael the Brave, voivode of Wallachia, on 5 October 1594.[39] The two voivodes had started direct negotiations with the Holy See, but Sigismund who claimed suzerainty over them wanted to secure that they would only conduct further negotiations with his mediation.[44] Sigismund's envoy, Stephen Bocskai, signed the document that confirmed the membership of Transylvania in the Holy League in Prague on 28 January 1595.[28] According to the treaty, Rudolph II recognized Sigismund's hereditary right to rule Transylvania and Partium and to use the title of prince, but he also stipulated that the principality was to be re-united with the Hungarian Crown if Sigismund's family died out.[45] The Diet of Transylvania confirmed the treaty on 16 April.[45] The Diet also prohibited religious innovations, which gave rise to the persecution of Szekler Sabbatarians in Udvarhelyszék.[46]

A bearded middle-aged man wearing a hat
Sigismund's maternal uncle, Stephen Bocskai, who urged Sigismund to join the Holy League

The Wallachian boyars and prelates recognized Sigismund's suzerainty over Wallachia on behalf of Michael the Brave in Gyulafehérvár on 20 May 1595.[44][47] According to the treaty, Michael was forbidden to enter into an alliance with foreign powers without Sigismund's approval.[44] The voivode's right to sentence his boyars to death was also limited.[44] The Diet of Transylvanian was authorized to impose taxes in Wallachia with a council of twelve boyars.[44][47] After Aaron the Tyrant refused to sign a similar treaty, Sigismund invaded Moldavia and captured him in Iași.[47][45] He made Ștefan Răzvan the new voivode on 3 June, forcing him to swore fealty to him.[47][45] Thereafter Sigismund styled himself "By the Grace of God, Prince of Transylvania, Wallachia and Moldavia, Prince of the Holy Roman Empire, Count of the Székelys and Lord of Parts of the Kingdom of Hungary".[48][49]

Sigismund married Maria Christierna of Habsburg, a niece of Rudolph II, on 6 August.[45] However, the marriage was never consummated.[50] Sigismund accused Margaret Majláth (who was the mother of his executed cousin, Balthasar Báthory) of witchcraft, causing his impotence.[51] Historian László Nagy notes that Sigismund's contemporaries made no reference to his relationship with women, showing that Sigismund was homosexual.[52]

György Borbély, Ban of Karánsebes, invaded the Ottoman territories.[45] He captured Lippa (now Lipova in Romania) and fortresses along the Maros River before the end of August.[45][53] Koca Sinan Pasha broke into Wallachia, forcing Michael the Brave to retreat towards Transylvania.[54] Michael routed the invaders in the Battle of Călugăreni, but he could not prevent them from seizing Târgoviște and Bucharest.[54] He withdrew to Stoenești to await the arrival of the Transylvanian and Moldavian troops.[54]

Since the Ottoman army outnumbered the forces at Sigismund's disposal, he propose the Székelys who had been put into serfdom to restore their liberties if they joined his army.[55][53] The Székelys accepted his offer, enabling Sigismund to launch a counter-invasion against the Ottomans in Wallachia in early October.[53][45] The united forces of Transylvania, Wallachia and Moldavia defeated the retreating Ottoman army in the Battle of Giurgiu on 25 October.[56] Although the victory was not decisive, the battle enabled the two voivodes to maintain their alliance with the Holy League.[57]

Horsemen fight against each other on a bridge and along a river while ships deliver soldiers on the river
Battle of Giurgiu which ended with the victory of the united forces of Transylvania, Wallachia and Moldavia over the retreating Ottoman army

Ignoring the Székely warriors' preeminent role during the war, the Diet of Transylvania denied to restore their freedom on 15 December.[53][58] Sigismund left for Prague to start negotiations with Rudolph II in early January 1596, tasking his wife and Stephen Bocskai with the government.[58] The Székelys tried to secure their freedom, but Bocskai pushed their movement with extrardinary cruelty during the "Bloody Carnival" in early 1596.[53][58]

Rudolph II promised Sigismund to sent reinforcements and money to continue the war against the Ottomans.[58][59] Sigismund returned to Transylvania on 4 March.[58][59] He laid siege to Temesvár (now Timișoara in Romania), but he lifted the siege as soon as he was informed that an Ottoman army of 20,000 strong was marching towards the fortress.[59] The Ottoman Sultan Mehmed III invaded Royal Hungary in summer.[60] Sigismund joined his forces with the royal army, which was under the command of Maximilian of Habsburg.[60] However, the Ottomans routed their united army in the Battle of Mezőkeresztes between 23 and 26 October.[53]

In January 1597, Sigismund again went to Prague to meet Rudolph II and offered to abdicate.[60] After he returned to Transylvania, he restored the Roman Catholic bishopric in Gyulafehérvár on 1 May.[60] He sent envoys to Italy to demand the supreme command of a new Christian army, but his delegates at Istanbul started negotiations about his reconciliation with the sultan.[61] However, the failure of his marriage and the defeats of the Holy League had diminished Sigismund's self-confidence.[62] He sent his envoys to Prague to offer his abdication to Rudolph II in September 1597.[61][60]

Abdications and returns[edit]

The agreement about Sigismund's abdication was signed in Prague on 23 December 1597.[63] Rudolph II granted the Silesian duchies of Racibórz and Opole and a yearly subsidy of 50,000 thalers to Sigismund.[61] The agreement was kept secret for months and the Diet of Transylvania acknowledged Sigismund's abdication only on 23 March 1598.[63] Maria Christierna took charge of the government until the arrival of Maximilian of Habsburg whom Rudolph II had been appointed to administer Transylvania.[61]

Sigismund did not like the two Silesian duchies.[64][62] Bocskai, who had been dismissed after Sigismund's abdication, also urged him to return.[53] Sigismund came to Kolozsvár on 21 August.[64] In the following day, Bocskai convoked the Diet to his military camp at Szászsebes (now Sebeș in Romania) and the delegates proclaimed Sigismund prince.[64] Most Transylvanians accepted the decision, but György Király, the deputy captain of Várad, remained loyal to Rudolph II.[65] In September, an Ottoman army invaded the principality, capturing the fortresses along the Maros.[66] Sigismund sent his envoys to the commander of the army, Mehmed, convincing him to attack Várad instead of breaking into Transylvania proper.[65]

Sigismund's all attempts to make peace with the sultan failed.[53] He sent his envoys to Prague to negotiate with Rudolph II,[66] while his confessor, Carillo, started negotiations with Jan Zamoyski in Poland.[53] At Sigismund's invitation, his cousin, Andrew Báthory, returned from Poland.[66] Sigismund abdicated at the Diet in Medgyes (now Mediaș in Romania) on 21 March 1599.[66] Eight days later, the delegates of the Three Nations proclaimed Andrew Báthory prince, because they hoped that Andrew would be able to make peace with the Sublime Porte with the assistance of Poland.[66][67] Sigismund left Transylvania for Poland in June.[65][68] His marriage with Maria Christierna was declared invalid in Rome in August.[69]

A captured woman sits before flags, surrounded by captured men and a half naked woman holding a spear with the imperial twin-headed eagle
Allegory of the Battle of Goroszló

Andrew Báthory lost his throne and life fighting against Michael the Brave and his Székely allies in autumn.[70] Michael the Brave administered Transylvania as Rudolph II's governor, but his rule was unpopular among the noblemen, especially because of the pillaging raids made by his unpaid soldiers.[70][71] Sigismund announced that he would be ready to return to Transylvania already in 9 February 1600.[72] Moses Székely, a commander-in-chief during Michael the Brave's campaign against Moldavia in May, deserted Michael and came to Poland to meet Sigismund.[72] However, the elected leader of the Transylvanian noblemen, István Csáky, sought assistance from Rudolph II's military commander, Giorgio Basta, against Michael.[70][73] Basta invaded Transylvania and expelled Michael the Brave in September.[70][73]

Basta's unpaid soldiers regularly pillaged the principality, while Ottoman and Tatar marauders made frequent incursions across the frontiers.[70] Sigismund returned to Transylvania across Moldavia at the head of a Polish army on 24 March 1601.[70][74] The Diet proclaimed him prince in Kolozsvár on 3 April.[74] Basta and Michael the Brave invaded Transylvania in summer.[70] They routed Sigismund's army in the Battle of Goroszló on 3 August 1601.[70] After the battle, Sigismund fled to Moldavia, but he returned already on 6 September.[75]

The sultan's envoy confirmed Sigismund's position as prince of Transylvania in Brassó (now Brașov in Romania) on 2 October.[75] At the head of an army which also included Ottoman and Tatar soldiers, Sigismund expanded his rule over most regions of the principality,[76] but he could not capture Kolozsvár in late November.[75] He started new negotiations with Basta about his abdication in March 1602.[76][75] He did not trust his own supporters.[77] He referred to them as "intoxicated and brutish sons of a bitch" and asked István Csáky to help him to leave their camp on 2 July.[77] He left Transylvania for the last time on 26 July 1602.[78]

Last years[edit]

Basta's soldiers accompanied him to Tokaj.[77] Before long, he went to Prague to beg for Rudolph II's mercy.[77] He received the incolatus (or the right to own lands in Bohemia) in 1604.[77] After the Diet of Transylvania proclaimed Stephen Bocskai prince in February 1605, Rudolph wanted to persuade Sigismund to return to Transylvania, but he did not accept the offer.[79] The ambassadors of Venice and Spain, and the emperor again tried to convince him to lay claim to Transylvania in July 1606, but Sigismund refuted them, saying that he had no information about the affairs of his former principality.[77] In December, he again met Rudolph in Prague, but still resisted the emperor's offer.[77]

Sigismund received the domain of Libochovice in Bohemia.[77] After one of his employees accused him of plotting against the emperor, Sigismund was imprisoned for fourteen months in the jails of Prague Castle in 1610.[62][80] Sigismund died of stroke in Libochovice on 13 March 1613.[62] He was buried in a crypt in the St. Vitus Cathedral in Prague.[62]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d Szabó 2012, p. 184.
  2. ^ a b c d e f Nagy 1984, p. 97.
  3. ^ a b c d Nagy 1984, p. 99.
  4. ^ Barta 1994, pp. 261, 264.
  5. ^ Felezeu 2009, p. 27.
  6. ^ a b Granasztói 1981, p. 406.
  7. ^ Felezeu 2009, pp. 54-55.
  8. ^ a b c d Felezeu 2009, p. 55.
  9. ^ a b c d Nagy 1984, p. 100.
  10. ^ Granasztói 1981, p. 407.
  11. ^ a b c Granasztói 1981, p. 408.
  12. ^ Szegedi 2009, p. 101.
  13. ^ a b c d e f g h i Barta 1994, p. 293.
  14. ^ Horn 2002, p. 109.
  15. ^ Horn 2002, pp. 105-106.
  16. ^ Horn 2002, pp. 109-110.
  17. ^ Horn 2002, p. 110.
  18. ^ Horn 2002, pp. 117-119.
  19. ^ a b Nagy 1984, p. 101.
  20. ^ a b c d Granasztói 1981, p. 410.
  21. ^ a b Horn 2002, p. 133.
  22. ^ a b Horn 2002, p. 134.
  23. ^ Keul 2009, p. 127.
  24. ^ a b Horn 2002, p. 162.
  25. ^ Horn 2002, pp. 161, 163.
  26. ^ a b Nagy 1984, p. 103.
  27. ^ a b c d e Horn 2002, p. 164.
  28. ^ a b c d e f Barta 1994, p. 294.
  29. ^ Granasztói 1981, p. 411.
  30. ^ Horn 2002, p. 166.
  31. ^ a b Horn 2002, p. 167.
  32. ^ a b c d e f g Granasztói 1981, p. 412.
  33. ^ Horn 2002, p. 168.
  34. ^ a b Horn 2002, p. 177.
  35. ^ a b c Horn 2002, p. 178.
  36. ^ a b Horn 2002, p. 180.
  37. ^ Granasztói 1981, pp. 412-413.
  38. ^ Granasztói 1981, pp. 413-414.
  39. ^ a b c Granasztói 1981, p. 414.
  40. ^ a b c Horn 2002, p. 183.
  41. ^ Nagy 1984, p. 108.
  42. ^ Nagy 1984, pp. 108-109.
  43. ^ a b Keul 2009, p. 139.
  44. ^ a b c d e Pop 2009, p. 78.
  45. ^ a b c d e f g h Granasztói 1981, p. 415.
  46. ^ Keul 2009, p. 140.
  47. ^ a b c d Bolovan et al. 1997, p. 144.
  48. ^ Szekeres 2007, p. 118.
  49. ^ Pop 2009, p. 79.
  50. ^ Nagy 1984, p. 126.
  51. ^ Sz. Kristóf 2013, p. 348.
  52. ^ Nagy 1984, p. 131.
  53. ^ a b c d e f g h i Barta 1994, p. 295.
  54. ^ a b c Bolovan et al. 1997, p. 145.
  55. ^ Nagy 1984, p. 117.
  56. ^ Nagy 1984, p. 119.
  57. ^ Nagy 1984, p. 122.
  58. ^ a b c d e Granasztói 1981, p. 416.
  59. ^ a b c Nagy 1984, p. 123.
  60. ^ a b c d e Granasztói 1981, p. 417.
  61. ^ a b c d Nagy 1984, p. 135.
  62. ^ a b c d e Szabó 2012, p. 186.
  63. ^ a b Granasztói 1981, p. 418.
  64. ^ a b c Nagy 1984, p. 136.
  65. ^ a b c Nagy 1984, p. 137.
  66. ^ a b c d e Granasztói 1981, p. 419.
  67. ^ Barta 1994, pp. 295-296.
  68. ^ Granasztói 1981, p. 420.
  69. ^ Horn 2002, p. 215.
  70. ^ a b c d e f g h Barta 1994, p. 296.
  71. ^ Pop 2009, p. 296.
  72. ^ a b Granasztói 1981, p. 421.
  73. ^ a b Pop 2009, pp. 296-297.
  74. ^ a b Granasztói 1981, p. 422.
  75. ^ a b c d Granasztói 1981, p. 423.
  76. ^ a b Barta 1994, p. 297.
  77. ^ a b c d e f g h Nagy 1984, p. 141.
  78. ^ Granasztói 1981, p. 424.
  79. ^ Granasztói 1981, p. 428.
  80. ^ Granasztói 1981, p. 439.

Sources[edit]

  • Barta, Gábor (1994). "The Emergence of the Principality and its First Crises (1526–1606)". In Köpeczi, Béla; Barta, Gábor; Bóna, István; Makkai, László; Szász, Zoltán; Borus, Judit. History of Transylvania. Akadémiai Kiadó. pp. 247–300. ISBN 963-05-6703-2. 
  • Bolovan, Ioan; Constantiniu, Florin; Michelson, Paul E.; Pop, Ioan Aurel; Popa, Cristian; Popa, Marcel; Scurtu, Ioan; Treptow, Kurt W.; Vultur, Marcela; Watts, Larry L. (1997). A History of Romania. The Center for Romanian Studies. ISBN 973-98091-0-3. 
  • Felezeu, Călin (2009). "The International Political Background (1541–1699); The Legal Status of the Principality of Transylvania in Its Relations with the Ottoman Porte". In Pop, Ioan-Aurel; Nägler, Thomas; Magyari, András. The History of Transylvania, Vo. II (From 1541 to 1711). Romanian Academy, Center for Transylvanian Studies. pp. 15–73. ISBN 973-7784-04-9. 
  • Granasztói, György (1981). "A három részre szakadt ország és a török kiűzése (1557–1605)". In Benda, Kálmán; Péter, Katalin. Magyarország történeti kronológiája, II: 1526–1848 [Historical Chronology of Hungary, Volume I: 1526–1848] (in Hungarian). Akadémiai Kiadó. pp. 390–430. ISBN 963-05-2662-X. 
  • Horn, Ildikó (2002). Báthory András [Andrew Báthory] (in Hungarian). Új Mandátum. ISBN 963-9336-51-3. 
  • Keul, István (2009). Early Modern Religious Communities in East-Central Europe: Ethnic Diversity, Denominational Plurality, and Corporative Politics in the Principality of Transylvania (1526–1691). Brill. ISBN 978-90-04-17652-2. 
  • Nagy, László (1984). A rossz hírű Báthoryak [The Báthorys of Bad Fame] (in Hungarian). Kossuth. ISBN 963-09-2308-4. 
  • Pop, Ioan-Aurel (2009). "Michael the Brave and Transylvania". In Pop, Ioan-Aurel; Nägler, Thomas; Magyari, András. The History of Transylvania, Vo. II (From 1541 to 1711). Romanian Academy, Center for Transylvanian Studies. pp. 75–96. ISBN 973-7784-04-9. 
  • Szabó, Péter Károly (2012). "Báthory Zsigmond". In Gujdár, Noémi; Szatmáry, Nóra. Magyar királyok nagykönyve: Uralkodóink, kormányzóink és az erdélyi fejedelmek életének és tetteinek képes története [Encyclopedia of the Kings of Hungary: An Illustrated History of the Life and Deeds of Our Monarchs, Regents and the Princes of Transylvania] (in Hungarian). Reader's Digest. pp. 184–187. ISBN 978-963-289-214-6. 
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  • Szekeres, Lukács Sándor (2007). Székely Mózes: Erdély székely fejedelme [Moses Székely: The Székely Prince of Transylvania] (in Hungarian). 
  • Sz. Kristóf, Ildikó (2013). "Witch-Hunting in Early Modern Hungary". In Levack, Brian P. The Oxford Handbook of Witchcraft in Early Modern Europe and Colonial America. Oxford University Press. pp. 334–354. ISBN 978-0-19-957816-0. 
Sigismund Báthory
Born: 1573 Died: 27 March 1613
Regnal titles
Preceded by
Christopher Báthory
Voivode of Transylvania
1581–1586
Office abolished
Preceded by
Stephen Báthory
Prince of Transylvania
1586–1598
Vacant
Title next held by
himself
Vacant
Royal domain
Title last held by
John Sigismund Zápolya
Duke of Opole and Racibórz
1598
Vacant
Royal domain
Title next held by
Gabriel Bethlen
Vacant
Title last held by
himself
Prince of Transylvania
1598–1599
Succeeded by
Andrew Báthory
Vacant
Title last held by
Andrew Báthory
Prince of Transylvania
1601–1602
Vacant
Title next held by
Moses Székely