Signal Foundation

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Signal Foundation
Signal Technology Foundation
PredecessorOpen Whisper Systems
FoundedJanuary 10, 2018; 3 years ago (2018-01-10)[1]
Type501(c)(3) nonprofit organization
82-4506840 [2]
FocusOpen-source privacy technology
Headquarters650 Castro Street, Suite 120-223 [3]
Area served
Key people
SubsidiariesSignal Messenger LLC.
Revenue (2018)
$609,365 [5]
Staff (2020)
36 [6]

The Signal Foundation, officially the Signal Technology Foundation,[2][3] is an American non-profit organization founded in 2018 by Moxie Marlinspike and Brian Acton.[4] Its mission is "to develop open-source privacy technology that protects free expression and enables secure global communication."[7]

The foundation shares its name with the Signal messaging app.


On February 21, 2018, Moxie Marlinspike and WhatsApp co-founder Brian Acton announced the formation of the Signal Foundation, a 501(c)(3) nonprofit organization.[4][8] The foundation was started with an initial $50 million in funding from Acton, who had left WhatsApp's parent company, Facebook, in September 2017.[8] The Freedom of the Press Foundation had previously served as the Signal project's fiscal sponsor and continued to accept donations on behalf of the project while the foundation's non-profit status was pending.[4]

The initial $50M in funding was a loan, not a donation, from Brian Acton to the new non-profit Signal Technology Foundation. By the end of 2018, the loan had increased to $105,000,400, which is due to be repaid on February 28, 2068. The loan is unsecured and at 0% interest.[5]


As of October 2020, the Signal Foundation board of directors has three members:[7]

Acton is also the president.[5]

Signal Messenger LLC[edit]

Signal Messenger
Formation10 January 2018; 3 years ago (2018-01-10)[9]
TypeLimited liability company[10]
ProductsSignal, Signal Protocol
Key people
Parent organization
Signal Technology Foundation
AffiliationsFreedom of the Press Foundation[4][11]

Signal Messenger LLC. was founded simultaneously with the Signal Technology Foundation and operates as its subsidiary. Its CEO is Moxie Marlinspike[10] and it is responsible for the development of the Signal messaging app[12] and the Signal Protocol.


  1. ^ "Signal Technology Foundation". OpenCorporates. Delaware Department of State: Division of Corporations. 15 July 2018. Retrieved 13 February 2019.
  2. ^ a b "Signal Technology Foundation". Nonprofit Explorer. Pro Publica Inc. Retrieved 6 June 2019.
  3. ^ a b c "Statement of Information" (PDF). California Secretary of State. 28 August 2018. Retrieved 13 February 2019.
  4. ^ a b c d e Marlinspike, Moxie; Acton, Brian (21 February 2018). "Signal Foundation". Retrieved 21 February 2018.
  5. ^ a b c "Signal Technology Foundation - Form 990 for period ending December 2018". Nonprofit Explorer. ProPublica. Retrieved 15 February 2020.
  6. ^ Wiener, Anna (19 October 2020). "Taking Back Our Privacy". The New Yorker. Retrieved 25 October 2020.
  7. ^ a b "Signal Foundation". Retrieved 25 October 2020.
  8. ^ a b Greenberg, Andy (21 February 2018). "WhatsApp Co-Founder Puts $50M Into Signal To Supercharge Encrypted Messaging". Wired. Condé Nast. Retrieved 21 February 2018.
  9. ^ "Signal Messenger, LLC". OpenCorporates. Delaware Department of State: Division of Corporations. 15 July 2018. Archived from the original on 14 February 2019. Retrieved 13 February 2019.
  10. ^ a b c d "Statement of Information" (PDF). California Secretary of State. 3 October 2018. Archived from the original on 14 February 2019. Retrieved 13 February 2019.
  11. ^ Timm, Trevor (8 December 2016). "Freedom of the Press Foundation's new look, and our plans to protect press freedom for 2017". Freedom of the Press Foundation. Archived from the original on 2 February 2017. Retrieved 25 January 2017.
  12. ^ "Signal Terms & Privacy Policy". Signal Messenger LLC. 25 May 2018. Retrieved 21 January 2021.

Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]