Signal Hill, California
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|Signal Hill, California|
|City of Signal Hill|
Location of Signal Hill in Los Angeles County, California
|Country||United States of America|
|Incorporated||April 22, 1924|
|• City council||Edward H. J. Wilson
Tina L. Hansen
Michael J. Noll
Lori Y. Woods
|• Total||2.191 sq mi (5.673 km2)|
|• Land||2.189 sq mi (5.669 km2)|
|• Water||0.002 sq mi (0.004 km2) 0.08%|
|Elevation||148 ft (45 m)|
|Population (April 1, 2010)|
|• Estimate (2013)||11,332|
|• Density||5,000/sq mi (1,900/km2)|
|Time zone||Pacific Time Zone (UTC-8)|
|• Summer (DST)||PDT (UTC-7)|
|GNIS feature IDs||1661443, 2411899|
Signal Hill is a city (2.2 mi², 5.7 km²) atop a hill in California located in the Greater Los Angeles area. An enclave completely surrounded by the city of Long Beach, Signal Hill was incorporated on April 22, 1924, roughly three years after oil was discovered there. As of the 2010 census, the city population was 11,465.
- 1 History
- 2 Government
- 3 Emergency services
- 4 Economy
- 5 Education
- 6 City parks
- 7 Geography
- 8 Demographics
- 9 See also
- 10 References
- 11 External links
The hill that the city is named after is 365 feet (110 m) above the surrounding town of Long Beach. Because of this height, it was used by the local Tongva Indians for signal fires that could be seen throughout the surrounding area and even out to Catalina Island, 26 miles (42 km) away.
After the Spanish claimed Alta California ("Upper California," or what is now the state of California), Signal Hill eventually became part of the first large rancho grant to be allotted under Spanish rule in Alta California. The Rancho San Pedro (Dominguez Rancho) land grant exceeded 74,000 acres (300 km2) as granted to a soldier, Juan Jose Dominguez, who accompanied Junipero Serra, by Governor Fages through authority of King Carlos III of Spain in 1784.
Between 1913 and 1923 an early California movie studio, Balboa Amusement Producing Company (also known as Balboa Studios), was located in Long Beach and used 11 acres (45,000 m²) on Signal Hill for outdoor locations. Buster Keaton and Fatty Arbuckle were two of Balboa Studio actors who had films shot on Signal Hill.
Before oil was discovered in Signal Hill, there were large homes built on the hill itself, and in the lower elevations was an agricultural area where fruits, vegetables, and flowers were grown.
Discovery of oil
Signal Hill changed forever when oil was discovered. The hill would soon become part of the Long Beach Oil Field, one of the most productive oil fields in the world. On June 23, 1921, Shell Oil Company's Alamitos #1 well  erupted. The gas pressure was so great the gusher rose 114 ft (35 m) in the air. Soon Signal Hill was covered with over 100 oil derricks, and because of its prickly appearance at a distance became known as "Porcupine Hill". Today, many of the oil wells and pumpjacks are gone, although quite a few still remain. Signal Hill is now a mix of residential and commercial areas.
The city was incorporated on April 22, 1924. Among the reasons for incorporation was avoiding annexation by Long Beach with its zoning restrictions and per-barrel oil tax. Proving to be a progressive city, Signal Hill elected as its first mayor, Mrs. Jessie Nelson. She was California's first female mayor.
Jessie Elwin Nelson, co-founder of the City of Signal Hill, was its first mayor and one of the first women mayors in Southern California. Born Jessie Elwin Lemaster in 1880 in Clarksville, Tennessee, she came to Long Beach with her husband, Zachariah T. Nelson. She immediately took an active interest in the affairs of Signal Hill, then in unincorporated Los Angeles County. As a local columnist for the Long Beach Telegram and Long Beach Press, she wrote the first story about the discovery of oil in the area in 1921. After helping to defeat a movement to annex Signal Hill to Long Beach, Nelson started her own movement to incorporate Signal Hill, successfully winning incorporation in 1924. Nelson was elected a member of the board of city trustees and was named mayor, although she was unable to fulfill her term due to health issues. For all her contributions, she is known as “the Mother of Signal Hill" and died in 1929. (LBUSD Fall 2011 Newsletter; Genealogy.com, Jessie Elwin Nelson)
One of the city's more colorful residents was boxer Tod Faulkner (also known as "Kid Mexico") who was the state's bantamweight champion in 1914 and the state's welterweight champion in 1925. He invested his money into businesses and real estate in Signal Hill, including an eight lane bowling alley, restaurant, cocktail lounge, auditorium, and movie house. He also had an illegal bingo parlor that was ignored by the local police for many years. He was well known for his large annual Christmas parties for children from Signal Hill and Long Beach. Eventually, Faulkner was arrested for gambling, tax evasion, and election fraud (Davis, 2006, p. 62-64).
Ernest T. "Tex" Hickox started the company, Fresh Juice, at 3100 Orange Avenue in 1949. He made homemade orange juice and became the first drive-in dairy in Signal Hill. His signature "Vitamin C Kick" became a tart, popular drink in homes and bars throughout the community. He later expanded his business to include catering services to the community. Hickox lost his lease in 1973, thus closing a major landmark. He died from colon cancer shortly thereafter. His twin sons moved to Washington State where they currently reside.
In the California State Legislature, Signal Hill is in the 33rd Senate District, represented by Democrat Ricardo Lara, and in the 70th Assembly District, represented by Democrat Patrick O'Donnell.
The Signal Hill Police Department provides local law enforcement.
The Los Angeles County Fire Department, Station 60 provides fire protection and advanced life support services to the City of Signal Hill. Basic life support and ambulance transport is provided by Care Ambulance Service
The Long Beach Memorial Medical Center provides medical services to the City and LACFD Station 60.
According to the City's 2009 Comprehensive Annual Financial Report, the top employers in the city are:
|#||Employer||# of Employees|
|2||The Home Depot||303|
|6||Oil Well Service Company||225|
|8||The Home Depot||165|
Primary and secondary school
Signal Hill is served by Long Beach Unified School District.
There are three elementary schools within the city limits: Signal Hill Elementary School, Juan Bautista Alvarado Elementary School, and Burroughs Elementary School (A Teacher Resource Center is adjacent to the Burroughs campus). Juan Bautista Alvarado Elementary School is located on the site of the former all male boarding school, the Southern California Military Academy. There is one middle school within the city limits: Jessie Elwin Nelson Academy. High school students usually attend Long Beach Polytechnic High School (usually referred to as Long Beach Poly), although some students choose to attend Long Beach Wilson Classical High School. Signal Hill Elementary School has earned the California Achieving Schools Award, and the National Achieving Schools Award. Signal Hill and Alvarado are both California Distinguished Schools.
Colleges and universities
Community college students attend one of the two nearby campuses for Long Beach City College.
California State University, Long Beach is located less than five miles (8 km) away.
American University of Health Sciences (AUHS) is located within the city of Signal Hill. The university offers an education in Allied Healthcare, offering degrees such as a Bachelor of Science in Nursing (BSN), Master of Science in Clinical Research (MSCR), Bachelor of Science in Pharmaceutical Science (BSPS), and is currently working towards opening a Doctorate of Pharmacy (PharmD) program.
Although a small town, Signal Hill has several parks. The largest is Signal Hill Park at 10 acres (40,000 m2). It is adjacent to City Hall, the Community Center and the Library. The park has picnic tables, a playground, basketball courts, a softball field, and restrooms. There is also an amphitheater where there are weekly outdoor concerts during the summer.
Hilltop Park 3.2 acres (13,000 m2) is at the top of Signal Hill and is very popular for its great views. There are several telescopes in the park. There is also some public artwork in the park and a mist tower. This park is a popular location for hiding geocaches. On a clear day you can see as far as the Santa Monica mountains, downtown LA, the large mountains behind it, all of the communities in between, most of Long Beach, and all down the South Bay area to Newport Beach, and out to sea Catalina Island. It is a view of the LA Basin entailing roughly 10 million people. Part of the view is blocked by homes.
Reservoir Park 2.8 acres (11,000 m2) near the California Heights neighborhood of Long Beach is a large grassy area with picnic tables next to a 4.7 million gallon water reservoir.
Discovery Well Park 4.9 acres (20,000 m2), 1.8 acres (7,300 m2) flat is near the original well on Signal Hill.
There are also six pocket parks of roughly 0.5 acres (2,000 m2) or less, including Calbrisas Park, Hillbrook Park, Panorama Promenade, Raymond Arbor Park, Sunset View Park, and Temple View Park.
Near the Panorama Promenade, there is the Unity Sculpture, a 12' height sculpture atop a 4' pedestal with a seating courtyard that is dedicated in memory of the victims of September 11.
There are also several pedestrian-only trails that travel between various parks and roadways. Hiking along these trails, as well as on the sidewalks in Signal Hill is very popular. Some sections can be found that are between a 15% and 25% grade.
Proposed nature preserve
On the north slope of Signal Hill is a large area that is currently used for oil operations. This area has been proposed as a nature preserve.
The 2010 United States Census reported that Signal Hill had a population of 11,016. The population density was 5,029.0 people per square mile (1,941.7/km²). The racial makeup of Signal Hill was 4,650 (42.2%) White (30.3% Non-Hispanic White), 1,502 (13.6%) African American, 83 (0.8%) Native American, 2,245 (20.4%) Asian, 135 (1.2%) Pacific Islander, 1,778 (16.1%) from other races, and 623 (5.7%) from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 3,472 persons (31.5%).
The Census reported that 10,970 people (99.6% of the population) lived in households, 2 (0%) lived in non-institutionalized group quarters, and 44 (0.4%) were institutionalized.
There were 4,157 households, out of which 1,419 (34.1%) had children under the age of 18 living in them, 1,580 (38.0%) were opposite-sex married couples living together, 660 (15.9%) had a female householder with no husband present, 258 (6.2%) had a male householder with no wife present. There were 302 (7.3%) unmarried opposite-sex partnerships, and 156 (3.8%) same-sex married couples or partnerships. 1,128 households (27.1%) were made up of individuals and 245 (5.9%) had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.64. There were 2,498 families (60.1% of all households); the average family size was 3.33.
The population was spread out with 2,624 people (23.8%) under the age of 18, 1,034 people (9.4%) aged 18 to 24, 3,476 people (31.6%) aged 25 to 44, 2,970 people (27.0%) aged 45 to 64, and 912 people (8.3%) who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 36.0 years. For every 100 females there were 97.3 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 94.9 males.
There were 4,389 housing units at an average density of 2,003.7 per square mile (773.6/km²), of which 2,141 (51.5%) were owner-occupied, and 2,016 (48.5%) were occupied by renters. The homeowner vacancy rate was 1.9%; the rental vacancy rate was 5.7%. 5,253 people (47.7% of the population) lived in owner-occupied housing units and 5,717 people (51.9%) lived in rental housing units.
According to the 2010 United States Census, Signal Hill had a median household income of $70,442, with 14.1% of the population living below the federal poverty line.
As of the census of 2000, there were 9,333 people, 3,621 households, and 2,096 families residing in the city. The population density was 4,182.0 inhabitants per square mile (1,615.9/km²). There were 3,797 housing units at an average density of 1,701.4 per square mile (657.4/km²). The racial makeup of the city was 45.5% White, 13.0% African American, 0.6% Native American, 16.5% Asian, 2.1% Pacific Islander, 16.2% from other races, and 6.2% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 29.0% of the population.
There were 3,621 households out of which 31.0% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 36.8% were married couples living together, 14.5% had a female householder with no husband present, and 42.1% were non-families. 30.6% of all households were made up of individuals and 5.2% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.56 and the average family size was 3.34.
In the city the population was spread out with 26.4% under the age of 18, 9.1% from 18 to 24, 35.3% from 25 to 44, 22.0% from 45 to 64, and 7.2% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 33 years. For every 100 females there were 97.1 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 96.1 males.
The median income for a household in the city was $48,938, and the median income for a family was $46,439. Males had a median income of $41,487 versus $36,460 for females. The per capita income for the city was $24,399. About 13.6% of families and 17.2% of the population were below the poverty line, including 31.1% of those under age 18 and 3.9% of those age 65 or over.
- Long Beach Oil Field has more details on the giant oilfield that includes Signal Hill
- Signal Hill (disambiguation) for other Signal Hills
- "California Cities by Incorporation Date" (Word). California Association of Local Agency Formation Commissions. Retrieved August 25, 2014.
- "City Council". Signal Hill, CA. Retrieved December 16, 2014.
- "2010 Census U.S. Gazetteer Files – Places – California". United States Census Bureau.
- "Signal Hill". Geographic Names Information System. United States Geological Survey. Retrieved December 16, 2014.
- "Signal Hill (city) QuickFacts". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved March 11, 2015.
- Schmitt, R. J., Dugan, J. E., and M. R. Adamson. "Industrial Activity and Its Socioeconomic Impacts: Oil and Three Coastal California Counties." MMS OCS Study 2002-049. Coastal Research Center, Marine Science Institute, University of California, Santa Barbara, California. MMS Cooperative Agreement Number 14-35-01-00-CA-31603. 244 pages; p. 47.
- Alamitos Well 1 Location: NE corner of Temple Ave and Hill St, Signal Hill. California Historic Landmark #580.
- "Fourth Supervisorial District Map." Retrieved on February 10, 2015
- "California's 47th Congressional District - Representatives & District Map". Civic Impulse, LLC.
- "Statewide Database". UC Regents. Retrieved November 23, 2014.
- "Signal Hill Police Department." Retrieved on February 9, 2015
- "City of Signal Hill website, Fire Department page." Retrieved on February 10, 2015.
- "Care Ambulance Coverage Map, Zone 3." Retrieved on February 10, 2015
- "Service Planning Area 7." Los Angeles County Department of Health Services. Retrieved on March 18, 2010.
- "World Airline Directory." Flight International. March 30, 1985. 88." Retrieved on July 23, 2009.
- "upper_rightc4.jpg." City of Signal Hill. Retrieved on July 23, 2009.
- "SEC News Digest Issue 84-34." Securities and Exchange Commission. February 17, 1984. 2/4. Retrieved on July 23, 2009.
- City of Signal HillCAFR
- Climate Summary for Signal Hill, California
- "Annual Estimates of the Resident Population for Incorporated Places: April 1, 2010 to July 1, 2015". Retrieved July 2, 2016.
- "Census of Population and Housing". Census.gov. Retrieved June 4, 2015.
- "2010 Census Interactive Population Search: CA - Signal Hill city". U.S. Census Bureau. Retrieved July 12, 2014.
- "American FactFinder". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved 2008-01-31.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Signal Hill, California.|
- Official website
- Chamber of Commerce
- The Story of Oil in California - Signal Hill at The Paleontological Research Institution
- The Geology of Signal Hill, CA at Museum of the Earth
- - Discover Well ALAMITOS NO. 1 June 25, 1921. California Registered Landmark NO. 580
- The Balboa Amusement Producing Company: The Unforgotten Studio of Long Beach