Signal transducing adaptor protein

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Src-associated adaptor protein Skap2 with 1u5e code

Signal transducing adaptor proteins (STAPs) are proteins that are accessory to main proteins in a signal transduction pathway.[1] Adaptor proteins contain a variety of protein-binding modules that link protein-binding partners together and facilitate the creation of larger signaling complexes. These proteins tend to lack any intrinsic enzymatic activity themselves,[2] instead mediating specific protein–protein interactions that drive the formation of protein complexes. Examples of adaptor proteins include MYD88,[3][4] Grb2 and SHC1.

Signaling components[edit]

Much of the specificity of signal transduction depends on the recruitment of several signalling components such as protein kinases and G-protein GTPases into short-lived active complexes in response to an activating signal such as a growth factor binding to its receptor.


Adaptor proteins usually contain several domains within their structure (e.g., Src homology 2 (SH2) and SH3 domains) that allow specific interactions with several other specific proteins. SH2 domains recognise specific amino acid sequences within proteins containing phosphotyrosine residues and SH3 domains recognise proline-rich sequences within specific peptide sequence contexts of proteins.

There are many other types of interaction domains found within adaptor and other signalling proteins that allow a rich diversity of specific and coordinated protein–protein interactions to occur within the cell during signal transduction.

Examples of adaptor proteins[edit]

Adaptor proteins include:

  • BCAR3 – Breast cancer anti-estrogen resistance protein 3
  • CBL – Casitas B-lineage Lymphoma
  • FRS2 – Fibroblast growth factor receptor substrate 2
  • GAB2 – GRB2-associated binding protein 2
  • GRAP – GRB2-related adaptor protein
  • GRAP2 – GRB2-related adaptor protein 2
  • GRB2 – Growth factor receptor-bound protein 2
  • IRS1 – Insulin receptor substrate 1
  • LDLRAP1 – low-density lipoprotein receptor adaptor protein 1
  • MYD88 - Myeloid differentiation primary response gene 88
  • NCDN - Neurochondrin
  • NCK1 – NCK adaptor protein 1
  • NCK2 – NCK adaptor protein 2
  • NOS1AP – nitric oxide synthase 1 (neuronal) adaptor protein
  • PIK3AP1 – phosphoinositide-3-kinase adaptor protein 1
  • SH2B1 – SH2B adaptor protein 1
  • SH2B2 – SH2B adaptor protein 2
  • SH2B3 – SH2B adaptor protein 3
  • SH2D3A -SH2 domain containing 3A
  • SH2D3C – SH2 domain containing 3C
  • SNTA1 – Syntrophin, alpha 1
  • SHB – Src homology 2 domain containing adaptor protein B
  • SLC4A1AP – solute carrier family 4 (anion exchanger), member 1, adaptor protein

See also[edit]


  1. ^ "Role of Signal Transducing Adaptor Protein (STAP) Family in Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia". Retrieved 24 August 2018.
  2. ^ Signal+Transducing+Adaptor+Proteins at the U.S. National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH)
  3. ^ "Entrez Gene: MYD88 Myeloid differentiation primary response gene (88)".
  4. ^ Bonnert TP, Garka KE, Parnet P, Sonoda G, Testa JR, Sims JE (January 1997). "The cloning and characterization of human MyD88: a member of an IL-1 receptor related family". FEBS Letters. 402 (1): 81–4. doi:10.1016/S0014-5793(96)01506-2. PMID 9013863. S2CID 44843127.

Further reading[edit]