This article is written like a travel guide rather than an encyclopedic description of the subject. (April 2018)
Krong Preah Sihanouk
Top: Urban commercial center
Center left: Road sign in Sangkat 4
Center right: Sculpture at Independence Beach
Bottom: Koh Rong Island
|City||City of Sihanoukville|
|Named for||Norodom Sihanouk|
|• Mayor||Y Sokleng (CPP)|
|• Total||80 km2 (30 sq mi)|
|Elevation||15 m (45 ft)|
|• Rank||Ranked 7th|
|• Urban density||834/km2 (2,160/sq mi)|
|Time zone||UTC+7 (ICT)|
Sihanoukville (Khmer: ក្រុងព្រះសីហនុ, Krong Preah Sihanouk), also known as "Kampong Som" (Khmer: កំពង់សោម), is a coastal city in Cambodia and the capital of Sihanoukville Province, at the tip of an elevated peninsula in the country's south-west on the Gulf of Thailand. The city is flanked by an almost uninterrupted string of beaches along its entire coastline and coastal marshlands bordering the Ream National Park in the east. The city has one navigable river, the mangrove lined Ou Trojak Jet running from Otres Pagoda to the sea at Otres. A number of thinly inhabited islands – under Sihanoukville's administration – are near the city, where in recent years moderate development has helped to attract a sizable portion of Asia's individual travelers, students, and backpackers.
The city, which was named in honour of former king Norodom Sihanouk, had a population of around 89,800 people and approximately 66,700 in its urban center in 2008. Sihanoukville city encompasses the greater part of six communes (Sangkats) of Preah Sihanoukville Province. A relatively young city, it has evolved in parallel with the construction of the Sihanoukville Autonomous Port, which commenced in June 1955, as the country's gateway to direct and unrestricted international sea trade. The only deep water port in Cambodia includes an oil terminal and a transport logistics facility. As a consequence, the city grew to become a leading national center of trade, commerce, transport, and process manufacturing.
As a result of its economic diversity, the region's natural environment, and the recreational potential, an increasing number of seasonal and permanent foreign residents make Sihanoukville one of the most culturally varied and dynamic population centers in Cambodia. As of 2014[update] tourism remains insignificant in comparison with neighboring Thailand. Sihanoukville's future will largely be defined by the authorities' ability to successfully manage natural resources on the one hand and the necessities of urban and insular development, increasing visitor numbers, expanding infrastructure, the industrial sector and population growth, on the other.
Despite being the country’s premier sea side destination, after decades of war and upheaval the town and its infrastructure remain very much disjointed and architecturally unimpressive. Infrastructure problems persist, in particular related to water and power supply, while international standard health facilities remain limited.
In recent years, Sihanoukville has seen unprecedented levels of Chinese investment into the city with numerous casinos having opened up throughout the city. Demographically, the city's ethnic make up has changed with thousands of mainland Chinese workers, developers and investors settling in the city much to the dismay of locals. Mandarin signage is increasingly replacing Khmer and English signage in the city and crime in the form of drunken violence and organized crime are increasing. Sihanoukville is one of the major cities on China's One Belt One Road Initiative.
- 1 Etymology
- 2 History
- 3 Geography
- 4 Environment
- 5 Climate
- 6 Economy
- 7 Transport
- 8 Demographics
- 9 Health
- 10 Security
- 11 Culture
- 12 Administration
- 13 Religion
- 14 Education
- 15 International relations
- 16 References
- 17 Further reading
- 18 External links
The official name of the city in Khmer is: krong ('city'), preah ('holy') Sihanouk (name of the former king), which adds up to: 'City of the holy Sihanouk' or 'Honorable Sihanouk City'. King Norodom Sihanouk (reigned 1941-1955, 1993-2004) was and still is revered as father of the (modern) nation. The name Sihanouk is derived from Sanskrit through two Pali words: siha ('lion'), and hanu ('jaws').
The alternative name, Kompong Saom (also romanized as Kompong Som and Kampong Som), (Khmer: កំពង់សោម) means 'Port of the Moon' or 'Shiva's Port'. Saom is derived from the Sanskrit word saumya, the original (Rig Vedic) meaning of which was Soma, the 'juice or sacrifice of the moon-god', but evolved into Pali 'moon', 'moonlike' 'name of Shiva'. The word kampong or kompong is of Malay origin and means 'village' or 'hamlet'. Its meaning underwent extension towards 'pier' or river 'landing bridge'.
Classical period (before 1700)
Prior to the ports' and city's foundation works of 1955, the port of Kompong Som must have been only of regional significance due to the absence of navigable waterways that connect the port with the kingdom's settlement centers. During the many centuries of pre-Angkorian and Angkorian history – from Funan to Chenla and during the Khmer Empire, regional trade was centered at O Keo (Vietnamese: Óc Eo) in the Mekong Delta, now the province of Rạch Giá in Vietnam. The township of Prei Nokor (Saigon) was a commercial center of the Khmer Empire.
The Chronicle of Samtec Cauva Vamn Juon, one of the 18th and 19th century Cambodian Royal Chronicles, briefly mentions the region as the country was split into three parts during a nine year civil war from 1476 to 1485: "In 1479, Dhammaraja took on the throne at Chatomuk (Phnom Penh) and controlled the provinces of Samraong Tong, Thbong, Kompong Saom, Kampot up to the Bassak, Preah Trapeang, Kramuon Sah, Koh Slaket and Peam" (mouth of the Mekong).
Early modern period (c. 1700–1863)
From the end of the 17th century, Cambodia lost control of the Mekong River route as Vietnamese power expanded into the lower Mekong. During the Nguyen-Siamese War (1717–1718) a Siamese fleet burned the port of Kompong Som in 1717 but was defeated by the Vietnamese at Banteay Meas/Ha Tien. A Cambodian king of the late-18th century, Outey-Reachea III allied with a Chinese pirate, Mac-Thien-Tu, who had established an autonomous polity based in Ha Tien and controlled the maritime network in the eastern part of the Gulf of Thailand. Ha Tien was at a point where a river linking to the Bassac River flows into the Gulf of Thailand. Landlocked Cambodia tried to keep its access to maritime trade through Ha Tien. In 1757 Ha Tien acquired the ports of Kampot and Kompong Som as a reward for Mac's military support to the King of Cambodia. Until its destruction in 1771 the port developed into an independent duty-free entrepôt linked with several Chinese trading networks.
Alexander Hamilton, who traveled to the Gulf of Thailand in 1720, wrote that "Kompong Som and Banteay Meas (later Ha Tien) belonged to Cambodia, as Cochin-China was divided from Cambodia by a river (Bassac River) of three leagues broad." and "King Ang Duong constructed a road from his capital of Oudong to Kampot". Kampot remained the only international seaport of Cambodia. "The traveling time between Udong and Kampot was eight days by oxcart and four days by elephants." French Résident Adhemard Leclère wrote: "...Until 1840s, the Vietnamese governed Kampot and Péam [Mekong Delta], but Kompong Som belonged to Cambodia. The Vietnamese constructed a road from Ha Tien to Svai village—on the border with Kompong-Som—via Kampot."
The British Empire followed a distinct policy by the 1850s, seeking to consolidate its influence. Eyewitness reports give rare insights, as Foreign Secretary Lord Palmerston's agent John Crawfurd reports: "Cambodia was...the Keystone of our policy in these countries, - the King of that ancient Kingdom is ready to throw himself under the protection of any European nation...The Vietnamese were interfering with the trade at Kampot, and this would be the basis of an approach..." Palmerston concluded: "The trade at Kampot - one of the few remaining ports, could never be considerable, in consequence of the main entrance to the country, the Mekong, with all its feeders flowing into the Sea through the territory of Cochin China The country, too, had been devastated by recent Siam - Vietnam wars. Thus, without the aid of Great Britain, Kampot or any other port in Cambodia, can never become a commercial Emporium." Crawfurd later wrote: "The Cambodians...sought to use intervals of peace in the Siam - Vietnam wars to develop intercourse with outside nations. The trade at Kampot which they sought to foster was imperiled by pirates. Here is a point where the wedge might be inserted, that would open the interior of the Indo-Chinese Peninsula to British Commerce, as the great River of the Cambodians traverses its entire length and even affords communication into the heart of Siam".
French rule (1863–1954)
Under French rule Vietnam, Laos, and Cambodia became a single administrative and economic unit. The coastal region Circonscription Résidentielle with Kampot as its capital contained the arrondissements of Kampot, Kompong Som, Trang, and Kong-Pisey. The establishment of another international trading center near the existing city of Saigon was not considered necessary. Focus remained the Mekong and the idea to establish an alternative route to Chinese and Thai markets along an uninterrupted navigable waterway all the way south to the Mekong Delta.
An insurrection that took place from 1885 to 1887 further discouraged French ambition. It started in Kampot and quickly spread to Veal Rinh, Kampong Seila, and Kompong Som, where the insurgents were led by a Chinese pirate named Quan-Khiem. He managed to control the northern part of Preah Sihanouk for some time until he—an old man—was arrested by the local governor.
The most notable infrastructural improvements of this period were the construction of Route Coloniale No. 17, later renamed National Road No.3 and the national railway system, although work on the "Southern Line", from Phnom Penh to Sihanoukville, only began in 1960.
After independence (since 1954)
The city's and province's alternative name Kampong som (Kampong Som) was adopted from the local indigenous community. After the dissolution of French Indochina in 1954, it became apparent that the steadily tightening control of the Mekong Delta by Vietnam required a solution to gain unrestricted access to the seas. Plans were made to construct an entirely new deep-water port. Kompong Saom (Kampong Som) was selected for water depth and ease of access. In August 1955, a French/Cambodian construction team cut a base camp into the unoccupied jungle in the area that is now known as Hawaii Beach. Funds for construction of the port came from France and the road was financed by the United States.
During the Vietnam War the port became a military facility for both sides: in the service of National Front for the Liberation of South Vietnam and after 1970, under the government of Lon Nol, in the service of the United States.
The port was the last place to be evacuated by the US Army, only days before Khmer Rouge guerrillas took control of the government in April 1975. The events surrounding the taking of the US container ship SS Mayaguez and its crew on 12 May by the Khmer Rouge and the subsequent rescue operation by US Marines played out on the waters of Koh Tang off the coast of Sihanoukville. During the two days of action, the US commenced air strikes on targets on the mainland of Sihanoukville including the port, the Ream Naval Base, an airfield, the railroad yard and the petroleum refinery in addition to strikes and naval gun fire on several islands.
After the fall of the Khmer Rouge regime in 1979 and the subsequent opening of the economy, the port of Sihanoukville resumed its importance in the development and recovery of the country. With the further opening of new markets in 1999, the city regained its role in the economic growth of Cambodia.
The Sihanoukville Municipality was elevated to a regular province on 22 December 2008 after King Norodom Sihamoni signed a royal decree converting the municipalities of Kep, Pailin, and Sihanoukville into provinces.
In 2006 the Koh Puos (Cambodia) Investment Group submitted an application, planning to invest US$276 million in converting the 116 hectare Koh Puos, Snake Island, into a luxury residential and resort complex. After the completion of certain elements of the infrastructure, the investor announced alterations of the original blueprints, as "Reapplying for permission will happen in 2014..." according to the Council of the Development of Cambodia.
On 26 May 2011 Preah Sihanouk area joined the Paris-based club, Les Plus Belles Baies Du Monde, ('the most beautiful bays in the world'). The organisation officially accepted the Bay of Cambodia as one of its members at its 7th General Assembly.
Sihanoukville town is at the tip of the rolling hills of a peninsula on the Gulf of Thailand. To its northwest and at its center it rises up to 15 metres (49 ft) above sea level, whereas the land gently and steadily flattens towards extended coastal plains, marshlands and beaches in the south and southeast. These hills, that provide a great variety of housing ground, good perspectives on the coastal plains, the beaches, the rivers, the sea and the islands define the region's natural character and value. The Gulf of Thailand's shallow depths and the local climate are moderate in contrast to the South China Sea to the east and the Indian Ocean to the west, where Pacific typhoons and monsoonal extremes are permanent perils.
Architecture and cityscape
As a result of its clearly defined purpose, its very brief but turbulent history and its location, Sihanoukville is distinct from other urban centers in Cambodia. Established after the period of the French Protectorate, bourgeois colonial style quarters as in Kampot, Siem Reap, or Phnom Penh do not exist. Architecture and street layout are subject to modern concepts of reduction and functionality. Cambodian architect Vann Molyvann designed objects, public buildings with a distinct function, some still operational. This brief era of New Khmer Architecture ended in 1970. Inconsistency and chaos during the long civil wars had far greater impact on the city's current image.
In 1959 the first urban plan for the city was completed for a population of 55,000 residents; it included cycle paths and green spaces. The plan also clearly marked out zoning for the port, the railway network, the town center with municipal offices, business and residential housing, and finally a tourist zone to the south along the beaches. A feasibility study by the United States Operations Mission (USOM) looked at drawing on a new water supply from the Prek Tuk Sap and existing lagoons; these were subsequently improved (cut off from the sea) and used as the initial source for town supply. The reservoirs are still operational, although insufficient for today's demands.
The years of turmoil that followed meant that little of the original plan was implemented. The current state of structural inconsistency is testimony to decades of upheaval as layout planning was by no means a subject of aesthetic considerations and applied sciences.
Between the National Bank complex and Victory Beach Pier is one of the very few spots in town that gives the impression of having been planned in advance. The area connects with the city center along a single highway via typical irregular successions of residential buildings, bare of any distinct features and landmarks. These highways were designed to connect the very few and widely dispersed actual settlement foundations. The neighborhoods lack intimacy, due to a one-dimensional infrastructure. The city's center is a sequence of alternating single blocks of solid urban edifices, such as banks, middle-class hotels, gas stations, pharmacies, Chinese bakeries and electronics retailers followed by long rows of low-end food stalls, makeshift shops, motor-bike repair services, mini-markets, laundry, gas, lock-picker services and mobile phone shops.
Gallery of Ochheuteal/Serendipity Beach area
Tuk-tuks, Serendipity Road
Island Ferry Pier, 2015. Foreground: construction of new citywide sewage system
Due to the proximity of the sea, mangroves line large parts of the rivers.
The mangrove-lined Ou Trojak Jet river runs from Otres Pagoda to Otres Beach is Sihanoukville's longest river. In the tidal mangrove area barramundi, mangrove jacks and barracuda are the prize target for sport anglers, the lower section harbours a marina. Restaurants along the south bank of the river serve fresh seafood supplied by the local inshore fishing boats.
This section contains content that is written like an advertisement. (May 2016) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)
All the islands listed below fall under administration of Sihanoukville's Mittakpheap District. The majority is either in the process of or has been assigned for extensive tourism. Koh Rong and Koh Rong Sanloem in particular have so far undergone years of uncoordinated development. A number of guesthouses and bungalow resorts offers accommodation of greatly varying standard by the beaches or in the lush jungle. Despite the very moderate infrastructure, visitor numbers have risen quickly and Koh Rong has been declared a stop on the Banana Pancake Trail.
- Koh Rong, កោះរ៉ុង: Koh Rong, 26 km (16 mi) west of Sihanoukville, is the biggest of the islands of Sihanoukville Province. It encompasses an area of 78 km2 (30 sq mi). The terrain is predominantly hilly with a sizable mountain 316 metres (1,037 ft) at the island's north-west. The hills provide water for creeks, lagoons and estuaries. The island’s interior is almost completely forested. Although there are already lots of guest houses and pubs in and around Koh Tuich village, the island remains virtually deserted – its sheer size dwarfs all settlement centres. As of 2016[update], there is a well-functioning ferry network between Sihanoukville and Koh Rong.
- Koh Rong Sanloem: South of Koh Rong and smaller beaches are on the west and east coast. It resembles its bigger neighbour Koh Rong in shape and geography – although a bit thinner, it is covered in dense forest, generally more flat (still, though there are sizable hills) and has noticeably less landmass in relation to its coastline. Marine life around Koh Rong Sanloem is very diverse and offers many diving spots. As of 2016[update], there is a well-functioning ferry network between Sihanoukville and Koh Rong Sanloem.
- Koh Kaong Kang/Thass: Mangrove Island, Ile des Paletuviers (old French name), Koh Kaong Kang/Thass – one of the inner islands – it is a popular place for snorkelers. Koh Kaong Kang/Thass is very flat, hence freshwater is scarce - one of the reasons why nobody lives there permanently.
- Koh Koun: 'Child Island', 'Ile de Cone' (old French name), a small island between Koh Rong and Koh Rong Sanloem, has no beach and is uninhabited.
- Koh Tuich: 'Small Island', a tiny island off Koh Rong's Koh Tuich village. There is a little pagoda on it in service since around 2010.
- Koh Puos: also known as 'Snake Island' or 'Morakot Island'. This island lies 800 metres (2,625 ft) off Sihanoukville's Victory Beach. It is under development by Russian investors and converted into a luxury holiday destination and high standard residential area. Snake Island is linked to the mainland via a regular road bridge since around July 2011. The bridge is currently not open for public traffic.
- Koh Dek Koul: This small island lies 7 kilometres (4 mi) off Victory Beach and only a further few hundred metres off Snake Island. The Russian Mirax Luxury Resort corporation operates a hotel business on this predominantly rocky island.
- Koh Bong Po-oun/Song Saa: – 'Siblings/Lovers Islands' – Les Frères (old French name), renamed to Koh Song Saa. Two tiny islets off Koh Rong's north-east.
The urban area suffers from polluted water supplies which render tap water non-potable. Waste management policies and practices are deficient or lacking altogether.
The maximum mean is about 30 °C (86 °F) ; the minimum mean, about 24 °C (75 °F). Maximum temperatures of higher than 32 °C (90 °F), however, are common and, just before the start of the rainy season, they may rise to more than 38 °C (100 °F). Minimum night temperatures sporadically fall below 20 °C (68 °F). in January, the coldest month. May is the warmest month - although strongly influenced by the beginning of the wet season, as the area constitutes the easternmost fringe of the south-west monsoon. Tropical cyclones only rarely cause damage in Cambodia.
The total annual rainfall average ranges between 1,000 and 1,500 millimeters (39.4 and 59.1 in). The maximal amounts fall in July, August and September. Relative humidity is high throughout the entire year; usually exceeding 90 percent. During the dry season daytime humidity rates average around 50 percent or slightly lower, climbing to about 90 percent during the rainy season.
|Climate data for Sihanoukville, Cambodia|
|Average high °C (°F)||31.3
|Average low °C (°F)||23.9
|Average precipitation mm (inches)||28.3
|Source: world weather online |
Sihanoukville was established as an international marine gateway and as a result the local economy is largely defined by its deep water port and the nearby oil terminal. Attached is a regularly modernized cargo storage and logistics facility which serves numerous shipping companies, freight forwarders, suppliers, and maintenance contractors. All of these are based in the port's vicinity. The Phnom Penh–Sihanoukville transport corridor is the premier national trade route, accounting for about 75 percent of Cambodia's trade traffic.
Other sizable economic sectors of the city are fisheries, aqua-culture, and frozen shrimp processing, the garment industry, food production, and processing, the constantly growing tourism industry with a noticeably developed service branch and the associated real estate market.
Sihanoukville Special Economic Zone
The Sihanoukville Special Economic Zone (SSEZ) is an overseas economic and trade cooperation zone which was designed to promote favorable market conditions such as: policy advantages, a safe political environment, favorable trade status, completed infrastructure supporting, low labor costs, and excellent services. In addition to its areas around the port, a sizable industrial center, exclusively composed of Chinese companies has been developed since 2010.
Trading accounts for a high percentage of the city's economy. The city imports goods from Thailand, Hong Kong, Singapore, and China while it exports goods to the United States, Canada, Germany, and the United Kingdom. The city often re-exported many of the goods it imported such as electronics, cigarettes, vehicles and gold. Today, the city's main export is garments, but it also produces and exports timber, logs, and rubber in small quantities.
Cambodia is one of the few least developed countries (LDCs) to export over US$2 billion. Since Cambodia became the first LDC to join the World Trade Organization (WTO) in 2004, trade has steadily increased, and the U.S. has been Cambodia's largest trading partner. Comparing to US$2.3 billion of export to the U.S and US$153 million of export to Cambodia in 2010, from January to October 2011, Cambodia's exports to the U.S. were US$2.29 billion and U.S. exports to Cambodia were US$152.6 million.
The city's development strategy focuses on tourism, port expansion, and industrial growth. Tourism development is expected to be an economic driver leading to the development of a national commercial center and is already producing rapid growth in the surrounding area. It is anticipated that the port, as a hub for the expansion of maritime transport, will attract additional industry. An industrial zone has been established that includes petrochemical production and food processing based on local fisheries and other elements. With new investments in these areas and associated development strategies, planners anticipate increased urbanization of Sihanoukville, alongside growing economic opportunities that will lead to migration from rural areas.
Foreign investment in Cambodia has increased significantly since 2004 led by Asian investors from countries such as Malaysia, China, Korea, Thailand, and Vietnam. Approved investment proposals by the Council for the Development of Cambodia totaled around US$500 million in 2011. Chinese investments has since modified the city's character, partly destroying its Cambodian aesthetics and culture. The Diplomat reported that "unchecked development by Chinese investors has come at a cost, freezing out locals and changing the city’s character." Evictions of native Cambodians due to economic investments by the Chinese has led to ethnic conflicts, with the government supporting the Chinese investors.
Sihanoukville Port Special Economic Zone
The Sihanoukville Autonomous Port has an independent administration. In combination with the related logistics and transport sector it is the city's economic backbone.
At present, the total operational land area of the Sihanoukville Autonomous Port is around 124.76 ha. The Old Jetty was constructed in 1956 and became operational in 1960. The jetty is 290 metres (950 feet) long by 28 metres (92 feet) wide and can accommodate four vessels with medium gross register tonnage (GRT) at both sides. The exterior berth is −8.50 to −13 metres (−27.9 to −42.7 feet) depth, while the interior berth is −7.50 to −8.50 metres (−24.6 to −27.9 feet) depth.
In order to cope with the increasing rates of cargo throughput, the Government of Cambodia had constructed a 350 m (1,148 ft) long new quay with −10.5 m (−34 ft) maximum draft in 1966. At present, this new quay can accommodate three vessels with −7 m (−23 ft) draft medium GRT. The construction of the container terminal, 400 m (1,312 ft) long by −10.5 m (−34 ft) depth and a 6.5 ha (16 acres) container yard was completed in March 2007.
|Sihanoukville Autonomous Port Traffic Rates|
|Gross Throughput (Tons)||1,772,361||1,503,050||1,380,847||1,586,791||1,818,877||2,057,967||1,405,338|
|Not Included Fuel||1,454,856||1,242,011||1,131,699||1,320,102||1,428,992||1,605,672||958,279|
|Not Include Fuel &Cont.||650,329||308,153||107,929||197,573||193,573||291,114||162,520|
|Container throughput (TEUs)||181,286||213,916||211,141||231,036||253,271||258,775||157,639|
|Vessel calling (units)||878||730||686||912||876||954||642|
The primary destinations of Sihanoukville Autonomous Port are: Singapore, Hong Kong, Bangkok, Ho Chi Minh, Shanghai, Laem Chabang, Yantian and Kaohsiung. It has a frequency of scheduled services of 38 per week.
Roads and streets
- National Highway 4 (NH4): Phnom Penh and Sihanoukville are connected via National Road 4. The road was built and financed by the United States to accommodate heavy freight containers and gasoline tank trucks connecting the deep-water port with Phnom Penh. There are three toll stations along its length of around 250 km (155 mi). However, it is considered the most dangerous road of Cambodia. Residential areas and the attached local traffic merges with the speeding traffic. Traffic accidents result.
- National Highway 3: Connects Sihanoukville with Kampot Province. The road joins NR4 at Prey Nob District at the junction town of Veal Rinh. It is sealed, but lacks traffic signs. Free roaming cattle and other livestock regularly block road traffic. The road underwent significant refurbishment in 2008 and forms part of an international "north-south economic corridor" from Kunming in China to Bangkok in Thailand.
- National Highway 48: Connects Sihanoukville and Phnom Penh with Koh Kong Province to the southwest. The road ends at the Thai-Cambodian border.
Although Cambodia's traffic laws are the same as those of any other country, with respect to the country's membership of the ASEAN, that requires recognition of ratified agreements, regular traffic only functions on a basic level and in times of low density. Conduct is still traditional as smaller and slower vehicles are expected to yield to big vehicles, usually driven by perceived wealthier and socially superior people. Nationwide, pedestrians have to walk beside the roads and are - again traditionally - considered poor, inferior and bare of any prerogative. Sidewalks in all cities are being completely occupied and obstructed by businesses and/or used as parking lots, rendering them completely useless - although not allowed according to article 5 of the General provisions of the Traffic Law: "Sidewalks are the roadsides in cities or towns, which are prepared for pedestrians. The sidewalks are not allowed for vehicles to park."
Law enforcement has been accused of failing to enforce international norms. A habit of running predictable checkpoints has developed over the last years. Tourists on rental bikes and common people are often stopped and forced to pay, often based on mere assumptions and unsupported claims. Drivers of vehicles with perceived social status remain generally unmolested. Consequently, the deterrent effect of these activities is very low.
In all urban and residential areas an overabundance of motorbikes exists due to the absence of any form of public transportation and taxi-cars. For non-residential and inexperienced people Sihanoukville city remains unsafe for driving. Drivers of motorbikes often do not wear helmets, drive indiscriminately on any side of the street and it is common to see motorbikes with more than two passengers or vehicles driven by children. Traffic lights are often ignored.
Public and individual transport
The city does not have any form of public transportation. Local administration does issue transport licences for any individual of the informal urban transportation system of motor-taxis (moto-dups) and tuk-tuks. The system is not administered by authorities, as anybody can become a motor-taxi - or tuk-tuk driver. As a consequence, prices of services are ad-hoc, insurance non-existent and service quality varies considerable. The overwhelming majority of drivers do not have knowledge of street names and/or numbers.
Sihanoukville International Airport, (KOS) formerly called Kang Keng Airport (ព្រលានយន្តហោះ កង កេង), named after the Minister of Health of the Khmer Republican regime during the 1970s. Airport is in Ream Commune in central Sihanoukville Province. It lies close to the National Highway 4, only around 500 metres (1,600 feet) from Ream beach atop a former mangrove lagoon, just about 18 kilometres (11 miles) from Sihanoukville City.
Long distance buses and taxis
The central long-distance bus station for all transport business operators is on National Highway 4 in the city's north-east near the Autonomous Port. Transport business operators maintain booking offices in the urban centers.
Sihanoukville is served by many competing companies with daily scheduled services from and to all major population centers in Cambodia. Direct destinations are Phnom Penh, Koh Kong (city), and Kampot. Some companies offer services to Ho Chi Minh City in Vietnam and to Siem Reap near Angkor Wat. Buses operate from the early morning until the afternoon plus a daily night-bus/sleeper.
Privately operated taxi stands for long distance transportation are found at the central bus station, in the commercial urban center and the tourist center in the South.
Marine transport, island access, ferries
The last daily national official marine ferry service from/to Sihanoukville city to/from Krong Koh Kong ceased operation with the completion of National Highway 48 in 2007.
Koh Rong island and Koh Rong Sanloem island have daily ferry service.
Access to smaller islands is generally provided by local holiday resorts, Otres marina, dive operators or private operators. Additionally, small long-tail boats and medium size cruising boats can be individually hired for sightseeing, fishing, diving and drinking trips at Otres marina, guest-houses, travel agencies and diving operators.
Marina Oceania - the first marina in Cambodia operational and fully equipped since 2013 for yachts and boats up to 25 metres (82 feet) with 4-to-5-metre-deep (13-to-16-foot) berths for 20 boats. It is at the local port's pier, near Koh Preab Island. (coordinates: 10° 39' 59" N / 103° 30' 41" E).
Holiday cruise ships infrequently stop at the port during their voyages in Southeast Asia.
The railway network of Cambodia was re-constructed for freight transport during the last years by Toll Holdings, which has obtained a building and maintenance concession from the Royal Cambodian Railway. The "Southern line", constructed 1960-1969 with a length of 264 km (164 mi), connects Sihanoukville Port Special Economic Zone with the capital Phnom Penh.
The 2008 census of Cambodia counted 89,846 inhabitants of Sihanoukville City and approximately 66,700 in its urban center.
The population of the city is apart from descendants of the indigenous inhabitants not older than three generations as the product of recent history, such as the Cambodian diaspora and Cambodian humanitarian crisis of and after the Pol Pot era. Historic events which led to demographic upheavals in Cambodia are evident in the demographic trends of the city. With the arrival of displaced refugees, in subsequent decades and centuries, a non-Khmer, mixed Asian population grew to a high percentage of the total population in the core population in urban areas.
|Population Projections for Sihanoukville Province 2008-2016|
In addition to Khmer, ethnic groups like Vietnamese, Chinese, Cham, Thai, Korean, French, British, Europeans, Australians and Americans live in the urban area. Due to its status as an international port, high volume and density of commerce and the impact of the service sector related to the tourist industry, Krong Preah Sihanouk has a relative high Human Development Index (HDI)of 0.750, compared to the national average HDI of 0.523.
Cambodia still has one of the worst health infrastructures in Asia, although the situation is slowly changing for the better. The public health system has suffered from war and neglect and has had serious difficulties meeting the health needs of the population. Some government hospitals and other health units have been rehabilitated so that they are autonomous entities, staffed with qualified personnel. This has led to a significant improvement of health services. At the same time, modern standard private clinics, including local and foreign service providers, are increasing in number and are competing with state-owned hospitals.
Sanitation practices in rural Cambodia are often primitive. The water supply is the main problem; rivers and streams are common sources of drinking water and of water for cooking. These water sources are often the same ones used for bathing, washing clothes, and disposing of waste products. Adequate sewage disposal is nonexistent in most rural and suburban areas.
The police force, especially the traffic police, have often been shown to be corrupt and ineffective in the city and newspaper investigations have uncovered connections to organized crime and drug trafficking.
Embassies and consular officials have issued cautionary statements about travel to Sihanoukville following gang disputes and a number of high profile murders, rapes and robberies as well as a number of unexplained deaths of foreigners.
Like many towns and cities in Southeast Asia with sub-standard security and judicial systems, Sihanoukville has also been an attractive target for foreign criminals to hide and engage in nefarious activities. Russian tycoon Sergei Polonsky was deported from Cambodia in May 2015 to face embezzlement charges in Russia after years spent clashing with other Russians on the streets of Sihanoukville . A number of other criminals, including murderers, gangsters, pedophiles and fraudsters have also taken refuge in the coastal city.
The majority of municipal inhabitants are of East Asian descent, who profoundly characterize and influence local customs, moral, commerce, cuisine and tradition based on pan-East Asian beliefs and ideas. Cambodian culture is of distinct ancient Khmer origin, accompanied by century-old moderate Chinese and Vietnamese cultural influences. The prolonged presence of foreign and in particular Westerners in Cambodia and Sihanoukville town contributes to a noticeable varied, modern, multi-cultural manifestation, which is increasingly influenced by modern media.
The citizens of Sihanoukville city celebrate all religious, traditional and secular festivities such as Cambodian New Year (April), Chinese New Year (between January and February), Water Festival (November), Pchum Ben (honor to the ancestors in October) and Kathen Ceremony (offerings to the monks), 8 January (Day of Cambodian - Vietnamese Friendship) among others.
Many urban families of Chinese or Sino-Khmer descent in Sihanoukville city have for most of Cambodia's history constituted the commercial elite and urban upper classes. Besides the expressed Buddhist faith there is a strong dedication to Confucian work ethics, on commercial conduct and trade procedures while family bonds are very strong.
With more than 150 regular hotels in all price-categories among an undisclosed number of guest-houses, Sihanoukville can easily handle current visitor quota and can generally cope with all standard demands. As of 2016[update], the islands have a more than ample supply of accommodation, ranging from budget guesthouses and bungalows, to a luxury resort.
The city has a constantly changing, but large number and variety of restaurants and bars. Fresh seafood, especially crab, prawns and ocean fish are common. Due to the ease in which foreigners can set up business there is also a wide variety of places offering foreign cuisines - with the exception of Africa, the nations of all the continents are well represented. There are Western bakeries (3), BBQ Restaurants (7), Vegetarian Restaurans (5), cafés and coffee shops (17), espresso coffee shops (8) and countless bars and pubs (over 250).
As a tropical sea-side resort, Sihanoukville's night life is heavily influenced and characterized by the city's large number of beaches. All along the central tourist area between the Golden Lion Plaza and the Ochheuteal/Serendipity Beaches are international and Western styled night bars, live music venues and all-night beach discothèques.
Most young Cambodians generally prefer to frequent classic style night-clubs with air-conditioning, lavish interiors and which are dedicated to more traditional ways of service procedures and cultural expression.
At Weather Station (Victory) Hill, bar operators tend to adopt certain traditional Asian and local elements of recreational services. Many Westerners consider these establishments as clearly part of the sex industry. With respect to the fact that prostitution is illegal, bar operators publicly avoid procedures that violate local ethic standards.
Sihanoukville is the capital city of Sihanoukville province and is governed by its deputy governor. Sihanoukville occupies the greater part of four of the five communes or Sangkat (Sangkat Muoy Commune, Sangkat Pi Commune, Sangkat Bei Commune, Sangkat Buon Commune) of Sihanoukville provinces' Mittakpheap District. The port has its own autonomous administration. The Sangkats are divided into 19 villages.
|The communes of Mittakpheap District|
|1801-1||សង្កាត់ មួយ||Sangkat 1||37,440||3||Yes|
|1801-2||សង្កាត់ ពីរ||Sangkat 2||25,142||3||Yes|
|1801-3||ស្ទឹងហាវ បី||Sangkat 3||13,108||3||Majority|
|1801-4||សង្កាត់ បយន||Sangkat 4||13,108||6||Majority|
|1801-5||សង្កាត់ កោះរ៉ុង||Sangkat Koh Rong||1,108||4||No|
The Sihanoukville Autonomous Port lies within Sangkat 1 with an area of around 124.76 hectares (308.3 acres). The port is located 18 kilometres (11 mi) from the Kaong Kang Airport and 4 kilometres (2.5 miles) from Sihanoukville town centre. Ships' passengers are allowed to visit Sihanoukville town. The terminal itself offers apart from toilets, no further services, such as shopping centers, banking facilities or tourist offices, .
Kampong Seila district, which belonged to Koh Kong Province has, per Royal decree, been transferred to Sihanoukville Province in January 2009: "The administrative boundaries of Preah Sihanouk municipality and Koh Kong province shall be adjusted by sub-dividing land from Kampong Seila district in whole and partial land of Sre Ambil district in Koh Kong province to Preah Sihanouk municipality." Officials were assigned to create a National Workshop - also in relation to other provinces - and process all necessary administrative tasks. The National Institute of Statistics of Cambodia refers in its most recent and preliminary studies to a successful integration of the district, including maps, although official statistics and numbers are expected to come with the next full report. Preah Sihanouk Province's new official domain has incorporated Kompong Seila district.
- Upper Pagoda, "Wat Chotynieng", or "Wat Leu"; on a hill, overlooking Sihanoukville bay and dedicated to Samdech Preah Sangareach Chhoun Nath, a Cambodian Buddhist leader, who lived before the Khmer Rouge rule (1975).
- Lower Pagoda, "Wat Krom", in Sihanoukville town. It is dedicated to Yeay Mao, a popular southern Cambodian ancestral spirit surrounded by an illustrious legend. Both - Wat Leu and Wat Krom - are named according to their local geographic location, on top of the hill and down at the bottom of the hill.
- O'tres Pagoda, "Wat Otres", in Otres village. It is by the Ou Tro Jet River, it features a river water garden and sculptures of ancestral spirits in the form of animals both real and legendary.
- St. Michael's Church: It is the center of the Catholic communities. The church was built in 1960 by sailors, it is on the same hill as the Upper Pagoda, facing the sea.
- Iber Bikhalifah Mosque: It is the religious center of the local Muslim community. It is in Sihanoukville town, just in the populous, central Psah Leu (upper market) area.
Cambodian general education is based on the national school curriculum that consists of:
The basic education curriculum is divided into three cycles of three years each. The first cycle (grade 1–3) consists of 27–30 lessons per week lasting 40 minutes which are allocated to five main subjects. The second cycle (grade 4-6) consists of the same number of lessons but is slightly different. The third cycle (grade 7-9) consists of 32-35 lessons which are allocated to seven major subjects.
Upper secondary education
The upper secondary education curriculum consists of two different phases. The curriculum for the first phase (grade 10) is identical to the third cycle of primary education. The second phase (grade 11-12) has two main components: compulsory and electives.
The adult literacy rate in Sihanoukville is 95.37%.
The city has experienced shortages of teachers but the situation has improved during the last decade. The 2004 statistics show the following centers of education: 33 pre-schools with 1,670 children, 52 primary schools with 34,863 students, five colleges with 4,794 students; two high schools with 1,449 students; 10 vocational training with 961 students and 13,728 students in private schools. (see also chart below)
|Sihanoukville Educational Statistics 2004|
|Sihanoukville Educational Statistics 2014|
|Lycees with grade 10–12 only||1||31||31||1366||87|
Private educational institutes in Sihanoukville
- Life University
- University of Management and Economics
- Built Bright University
- Khmer Technology and Management Center
- Don Bosco Technical School
- Don Bosco Hotel School
Ribbon cutting ceremony of the Engineer Civic Action Project
His Majesty Norodom Sihamoni officially opened the Don Bosco Hotel School
Sovannaphumi Primary school, central Sihanoukville, October 2014
Twin towns — Sister cities
Sihanoukville is twinned with:
- "Administrative Areas in Sihanoukville Municipality by District and Commune" (PDF). Statistics Japan. Retrieved April 18, 2015.
- "General Population Census of Cambodia 2008" (PDF). National Institute of Statistics. Retrieved April 18, 2015.
- Philpotts, Robert (March 2006). A Port for Independence. UK: Blackwater Books. p. 18. ISBN 2-9513524-0-9.
- "Economic Corridors and Industrial Estates, Ports and Alternative Roads in Cambodia" (PDF). IDE-JETRO. Archived from the original (PDF) on June 16, 2015. Retrieved April 18, 2015.
- "Cambodia Re-emerges". The New York Times. October 19, 2003. Retrieved May 19, 2016.
- "Kompong Som". Sandbox Networks, Inc. Retrieved June 6, 2016.
- "The rise of Sihanoukville". The Phnom Penh Post. March 21, 2013. Retrieved April 18, 2015.
- "Sar Kheng Orders End to Illegal Fishing Off Coast". templenews org. September 8, 2015. Retrieved December 29, 2015.
- "East Asia Ports in their Urban Context" (PDF). Open Knowledge Repository. January 1, 2003. Retrieved April 18, 2015.
- "Officials Unable to Explain Mystery Ships". The Cambodia Daily. November 6, 2015. Retrieved November 6, 2015.
- "Sure, Sihanoukville would never win first prize in a pretty-town competition..." Lonely Planet. Retrieved June 25, 2016.
- "No Power Leads to No Water in Sihanoukville". The Cambodia Daily. April 2, 2013. Retrieved April 18, 2015.
- Laurenson, Jack. "Embassies Warn of Rise in Coastal Crime". Khmer Times. Retrieved 2017-06-20.
- "Rapes & Assaults Against Tourists Tarnish Sihanoukville's Charm". AEC News Today. 2015-08-11. Retrieved 2017-06-20.
- "The next Macau? China's big gamble in Cambodia". The Sydney Morning Herald. 20 June 2018.
- "This Cambodian city is turning into a Chinese enclave, and not everyone is happy". The Washington Post. 29 March 2018.
- "Sihanoukville, Preah S". Cambodia Geographic Names Database. Retrieved May 12, 2015.
- Cat Barton (September 7, 2007). "Cambodia: King Father Sihanouk holds ECCC at bay". Asian Human Rights Commission. Retrieved February 5, 2008.
- Headly, Robert K.; Chhor, Kylin; Lim, Lam Kheng; Kheang, Lim Hak; Chun, Chen. 1977. Cambodian-English Dictionary. Bureau of Special Research in Modern Languages. The Catholic University of America Press. Washington, D.C. ISBN 0-8132-0509-3
- "View Dictionary". Sanskritdictionary.com. Retrieved 2014-03-07.
- "kampong - definition of kampong in English from the Oxford dictionary". Oxford Dictionaries. Retrieved May 12, 2015.
- A History of Cambodia. Google Books. Retrieved May 12, 2015.
- "The History of the Vinh Te Canal". UNREPRESENTED NATIONS AND PEOPLES ORGANIZATION. January 27, 2004. Retrieved April 18, 2015.
- "PRE-ANGKORIAN SETTLEMENT TRENDS IN CAMBODIA'S MEKONG DELTA AND THE LOWER MEKONG" (PDF). University of Hawaii. Retrieved April 18, 2015.
- "Essay on Cambodian History from the middle of the 14th to the beginning of the 16th Centuries" (PDF). Sophia Angkor University. Archived from the original (PDF) on April 2, 2015. Retrieved April 18, 2015.
- Justin Corfield. "The History of Cambodia". Google Books. Retrieved June 7, 2015.
- Maritime China in Transition 1750-1850. Google Books. Retrieved April 18, 2015.
- "Kampot's Chinese Heritage Unearthed". Phnom Penh Post. January 31, 2013. Retrieved April 18, 2015.
- "Southeast Asia: A Historical Encyclopedia, from Angkor Wat to East... Volume 1". Google Books. Retrieved June 7, 2015.
- "Kampot of the Belle Époque: From the Outlet of Cambodia to a Colonial Resort" (PDF). Center for Southeast Asian Studies. Kyoto. Retrieved April 18, 2015.
- "London Company's Envoys Plot Siam" (PDF). Siamese Heritage. Retrieved May 7, 2015.
- "THE MEKONG EXPLORATION COMMISSION,1866–68: ANGLO-FRENCH RIVALRY IN SOUTH EAST ASIA" (PDF). Wikispaces. Retrieved April 18, 2015.
- "Sihanouk Ville" (PDF). Phnom Penh Tours. Retrieved May 7, 2015.
- "GOOD QUESTIONS WRONG ANSWERS - CIA's Estimates..." (PDF). The National Security Archive. Retrieved May 7, 2015.
- US Department of Defense document "History of the Pacific Air Forces 1 July 1974-31 Dec 1975". p 426. accessed 24 Nov 2013
- "Sihanoukville port sees 14 pct rise in cargo". The Cambodia Herald. June 13, 2013. Retrieved June 25, 2016.
- "POLICY OPTIONS FOR CAMBODIA'S REAM NATIONAL PARK" (PDF). International Development Research Centre. Archived from the original (PDF) on July 1, 2013. Retrieved May 7, 2015.
- "King Sihamoni signed a royal decree that would change the municipalities of Kep, Sihanoukville and Pailin into provinces". Newsgroups derkeiler. January 1, 2009. Retrieved May 7, 2015.
- "Snake Island plans back to the drawing board". Phnom Penh Post. November 20, 2013. Retrieved June 1, 2015.
- "Luxury resort looks for new lease of life with redesigned blueprint". Phnom Penh Post. April 10, 2014. Retrieved June 1, 2015.
- "Cambodia Joins World's Most Beautiful Bay Club; Sihanoukville to Host First Sea Festival". PEMSEA. July 1, 2011. Retrieved May 7, 2015.
- "CITIES AND CLIMATE CHANGE INITIATIVE SIHANOUKVILLE CAMBODIA" (PDF). Urban Gateway. Retrieved May 7, 2015.
- "The City He Built". The New York Times. May 15, 2005. Retrieved June 1, 2015.
- "Vann Molyvann: my legacy will disappear". Phnom Penh Post. January 25, 2013. Retrieved June 1, 2015.
- "Sihanoukville Runs Dry During Water Crisis". The Cambodia Daily. April 1, 2013. Retrieved May 7, 2015.
- "Layout Of Sihanoukville". Bayon Pearnik. Retrieved June 1, 2015.
- "Sihanoukville". Footprint Travel Guides 2015. Retrieved June 1, 2015.
- "Hotels Warned Over Pumping Sewage Into Sea". The Cambodia Daily. May 9, 2015. Retrieved June 11, 2015.
- "Gallery Sihanoukville Islands & Fishing Trips Otres, Cambodia". otresmarina.com. Retrieved February 4, 2017.
- "THE NEW BANANA PANCAKE TRAIL: 2014'S TOP SOUTHEAST ASIA BACKPACKER SPOTS". Travel And Escape. Retrieved May 7, 2015.
- "Cambodia in Focus: Developing Tourist Resorts Islands". Embassyofcambodia.org.nz. Retrieved 2014-03-07.
- "List of Islands". Cambodia islands – Island Species Cambodia. Archived from the original on May 16, 2015. Retrieved December 17, 2017.
- Ellis-Petersen, Hannah (2018-04-24). "'Mountains and mountains of plastic': life on Cambodia's polluted coast". The Guardian. Retrieved 25 April 2018.
- "Sihanoukville weather in January". CambodiaWeather net com. Retrieved May 27, 2015.
- "Climatological Information for Sihanoukville, Cambodia", Hong Kong Observatory, 2003. Web: KOS-Airport.
- "$70 million earmarked for Sihanoukville terminals". The Phnom Penh Post. January 28, 2009. Retrieved May 7, 2015.
- "Investment Climate Survey in Cambodia" (PDF). ERIA for ASEAN. Retrieved May 7, 2015.
- "Cambodia Trade Corridor Performance Assessment - 4.1 Phnom Penh – Sihanoukville Corridor" (PDF). Worldbank. Retrieved October 12, 2016.
- "Preah Sihanouk Province". Council for the Development of Cambodia(CDC). Retrieved May 7, 2015.
- "Homage to the new Cambodia". The Telegraph. March 6, 2012. Retrieved October 12, 2016.
- "Investment Advantage". Cambodia Sihanoukville Special Economic Zone. Retrieved May 7, 2015.
- "Sihanoukville Special Economic Zone". Cambodia Sihanoukville Special Economic Zone. Retrieved May 7, 2015.
- "Cambodian, Chinese companies lay foundation of special economic zone in Sihanoukville". CAAI News Media. February 24, 2008. Retrieved June 25, 2016.
- "Cambodia Trade". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved May 7, 2015.
- "Industrial Agglomeration, Production Networks and Foreign Direct Investment Promotion: Cambodia's Experience" (PDF). ERIA: Economic Research Institute for ASEAN and East Asia. March 1, 2008. Retrieved May 7, 2015.
- "ECONOMIC AFFAIRS OFFICE - Doing Business in Cambodia". U.S. Department of State. Retrieved May 27, 2015.
- "Trade Information, Ministry of Commerce, Cambodia". Ministry of Commerce. Retrieved May 27, 2015.
- "Preah Sihanouk Province". Council for the Development of Cambodia(CDC), Cambodian Investment Board(CIB), Cambodian Special Economic Zone Board(CSEZB). Retrieved May 12, 2015.
- "Modernisation of Cambodia's main port of Sihanoukville continues amidst worldwide slowdown of traffic in bigger ports such as Los Angeles and Long Beach". derkeiler.com. January 22, 2009. Retrieved May 27, 2015.
- "Sihanoukville Autonomous Port(PAS)". SihanoukVille Web. Retrieved May 27, 2015.
- "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2014-10-17. Retrieved 2014-10-28.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
- "SOUTH CHINA SEA AND THE GULF OF THAILAND - SAILING DIRECTIONS p.182" (PDF). NATIONAL GEOSPATIAL-INTELLIGENCE AGENCY. May 1, 2014. Retrieved June 7, 2016.
- "Cargo giants call on Sihanoukville port". Phnom Penh Post. March 17, 2016. Retrieved June 25, 2016.
- "Travel Guide for Sihanoukville". realtravel.com. Archived from the original on February 8, 2009. Retrieved February 5, 2009.
- In isolated hills of Asia, new roads to speed trade., Thomas Fuller, New York Times, 2008-03-31.
- "Transport in Cambodia". The World Bank. Retrieved May 7, 2015.
- "Cambodia Traffic Law". SCO Cambodia. Retrieved May 12, 2015.
- "1985 Agreement on the Recognition of Domestic Driving Licenses Issued by ASEAN Countries". Centre for International Law. July 9, 1985. Retrieved May 7, 2015.
- "There are road rules - but who cares!". Phnom Penh Post. August 29, 2003. Retrieved June 1, 2015.
- "CAMBODIA Traffic deaths soar on rapid urbanisation". khmerisation. September 8, 2008. Retrieved May 7, 2015.
- "Foreign travel advice Cambodia". Gov.UK. Retrieved May 7, 2015.
- "Cambodia: more deaths on the roads than in minefields". International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescents. September 20, 2007. Retrieved February 5, 2009.
- "'Express service' skirts new driving license law". Phnom Penh Post. November 1, 2007. Retrieved June 1, 2015.
- Sok Khemara, Voa Khmer (January 3, 2009). "Police begin enforcement". Archived from the original on February 5, 2009. Retrieved February 5, 2009.
- "Training Course on Risk Factors Capacity Building of Helmet and Seat Belt Wearing and Drink-Driving". AKP. August 29, 2014. Retrieved May 12, 2015.
- "Road safety in Cambodia". WHO Cambodia. Retrieved May 12, 2015.
- "Getting Around Sihanoukville". sihanoukvillebackpacker.com. Retrieved February 5, 2009.
- "Bus Company in Cambodia - Transportation in Cambodia". Ministry of Tourism Cambodia (MOT). Retrieved May 12, 2015.
- "Cambodia - Bus Schedules and Companies". Canby Publications. Retrieved May 12, 2015.
- "Domestic Bus Schedules". i-Tourist Information. Archived from the original on November 17, 2015. Retrieved May 12, 2015.
- "Sihanoukville to Koh Rong – Speed Ferry Cambodia". Speed Ferry Cambodia. Retrieved 6 May 2016.
- "MARINA OCEANIA SIHANOUKVILLE CAMBODIA". MARINA OCEANIA. Archived from the original on April 20, 2015. Retrieved May 12, 2015.
- "Cruise Ship Docks at Preah Sihanoukville International Seaport". Cambodia Grand Tour. February 9, 2013. Retrieved May 12, 2015.
- "News Update". Toll Royal Railways (Cambodia). February 16, 2015. Retrieved May 12, 2015.
- "General Population Census of Cambodia 2008 - Provisional population totals" (PDF). National Institute of Statistics, Ministry of Planning. September 3, 2008.
- "POPULATION PROJECTIONS FOR CAMBODIA, 2008-2030" (PDF). The Statistics Bureau and the Director-General for Policy Planning of Japan. Retrieved May 12, 2015.
- Normal Template, . Retrieved 2012.
- "AN INVESTMENT GUIDE TO CAMBODIA - Water, sewerage and health services" (PDF). UNCTAD. Retrieved May 12, 2015.
- "Cambodia Public Health". PHOTIUS. Retrieved May 12, 2015.
- Laurenson, Jack. "Police Release Motodop Who Confessed to Rape". Khmer Times | News Portal Cambodia |. Retrieved 2017-06-20.
- Laurenson, Jack. "Drug Dealers Laughing at 'Crackdown'". Khmer Times | News Portal Cambodia |. Retrieved 2017-06-20.
- "Two Rapes in 3 Days Reveal Resort's Dark Side". Khmer Times | News Portal Cambodia |. Retrieved 2017-06-20.
- Vichea, Pang (2015-07-21). "Russian with throat cut found in Sihanoukville". Phnom Penh Post. Retrieved 2017-06-20.
- "Safety and security - Cambodia travel advice - GOV.UK". www.gov.uk. Retrieved 2017-06-20.
- Masters, Sam (2015-05-17). "Russian tycoon Sergei Polonsky deported by Cambodia to face". The Independent. Retrieved 2017-06-20.
- "Sergei Polonsky Jailed, Threatened with Deportation". Khmer Times | News Portal Cambodia |. Retrieved 2017-06-20.
- Woods, Ben (2014-12-01). "Russian Businessman Blames Fugitive Oligarch for Attack on Son". The Cambodia Daily. Retrieved 2017-06-20.
- Laurenson, Jack. "Dog Trainer Leo Clifton Accused of Cruelty, Fraud, Abuse". Khmer Times | News Portal Cambodia |. Retrieved 2017-06-20.
- "Convicted French Pedophile Still Involved in Cambodian NGO for Children". Retrieved 2017-06-20.
- "Suspects wanted for murder of Brit in Pattaya believed to be hiding in Sihanoukville". Samui Times. 2017-02-04. Retrieved 2017-06-20.
- "Cambodia Chinese Religion". Photius. Retrieved May 12, 2015.
- "Task Force Meeting 7th: Reporting Through Smartphone". Urban Voice Cambodia. October 23, 2014. Retrieved May 12, 2015.
- "A history of the Chinese in Cambodia by Jean-Michel Filippi". Phnom Penh Post. February 8, 2013. Retrieved June 20, 2015.
- The Chinese in Cambodia. Google Books. Retrieved May 12, 2015.
- "Cambodia Today - The Life of The Khmers Today". Holiday In Angkor Wat. Retrieved May 12, 2015.
- "Corruption hits urban families hardest, study shows". Phnom Penh Post. March 11, 2005. Retrieved May 12, 2015.
- "Sihanoukville Hotels & Guesthouses". Canby Publications. Retrieved May 12, 2015.
- "Song Saa Private Island: Stunning Barefoot Luxury In Cambodia". Forbes. January 4, 2014. Retrieved May 12, 2015.
- "Sihanoukville - Beach Resort - What to See in Cambodia - Cambodia Major Attractions". Tourism Cambodia. Retrieved May 14, 2015.
- "Sihanoukville - Beach Resort". Tourism Cambodia. May 17, 2014. Retrieved May 12, 2015.
- "Sihanoukville Bars & Nightlife". Canby Publications. May 17, 2014. Retrieved May 12, 2015.
- "Night-Life". Cambodia islands – Island Species Cambodia. Retrieved May 7, 2015.
- "The Sihanoukville Autonomous Port (PAS)". pas.gov.kh. Archived from the original on January 25, 2009. Retrieved February 5, 2009.
- "Map 18. Administrative Areas in Preah Sihanouk Province by District and Commune" (PDF). Statistics Japan. Retrieved May 14, 2015.
- "Port Autonome De Sihanoukville". Port Autonome De SihanoukVille. Archived from the original on November 5, 2014. Retrieved June 1, 2015.
- "Closing Speech by HE Sar Kheng at National Workshop on the Formulation of the 2013 NCDD Annual Work Plan and Budget on 11-12 December 2012, Phnom Penh" (PDF). NCDD. Retrieved May 12, 2015.
- "Preliminary Results of Cambodia Inter-censal Economic Survey 2014" (PDF). National Institute of Statistics. Retrieved May 12, 2015.
- "Census of Agriculture in Cambodia 2013 Preliminary Report" (PDF). National Institute of Statistics. Retrieved May 12, 2015.
- "ដ្ឋបាលខេត្តព្រះសីហនុ - Home". Sihanoukville Gov. Retrieved May 12, 2015.
- "ដCambodia Role of Buddhism in Cambodian Life". Photius. Retrieved May 12, 2015.
- "Cambodia - Public spending on education". Indexmundi. Retrieved May 12, 2015.
- "The Education System in Cambodia". Bookbridge. March 19, 2012. Retrieved May 12, 2015.
- "GENDER EQUALITY AND WOMEN'S EMPOWERMENT IN PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION" (PDF). United Nations Development Programme. Retrieved May 12, 2015.
- "Sihanoukville Faces Severe Teacher Shortage". The Cambodia Daily. October 18, 2004. Retrieved May 12, 2015.
- "UNICEF Annual Report 2012 for Cambodia, EAPRO" (PDF). UNICEF. Retrieved May 12, 2015.
- "Education Statistics 2013-2014". Ministry of Education, Youth and Sport. Retrieved May 14, 2015.
- Vann, Hokchrea (2003). Modern Khmer Cities. Cambodia: Reyum Press. ISBN 9789995055349.
- Chandler, David (1993). A History of Cambodia. Cambodia: Allen & Unwin. ISBN 9781863734653.
- Cœdès, George (1966). The making of South East Asia. University of California Press. ISBN 0-520-05061-4.
- Kitagawa, T. 2005, "'Kampot' of the belle époque: from the outlet of Cambodia to a colonial rule", in Southeast Asian Studies = Tonan Ajia kenkyu, vol. 42, no. 4,
- Kampot of the Belle Epoque: From the Outlet of Cambodia to a Colonial Resort
- Henri Mouhot: Travels in Siam, Cambodia, Laos, and Annam, White Lotus Co, Ltd., ISBN 974-8434-03-6
- Cœdès, George (1968). The Indianized States of Southeast Asia. University of Hawaii Press. ISBN 978-0824803681.