|Sikorsky H-34 / S-58|
|First flight||8 March 1954|
|Status||out of production, still in civilian service|
|Primary users||United States Army
United States Navy
United States Marines
|Produced||1954–1970  (Foreign production of derivatives and sub-types continued under license after the Sikorsky production ended.)|
|Developed from||Sikorsky S-55|
The Sikorsky H-34 (company designation S-58) is a piston-engined military helicopter originally designed by American aircraft manufacturer Sikorsky as an anti-submarine warfare (ASW) aircraft for the United States Navy. It has seen extended use when adapted to turbine power by the British licensee as the Westland Wessex and Sikorsky as the later S-58T.
H-34s served, mostly as medium transports, on every continent with the armed forces of twenty-five countries. It saw combat in Algeria, the Dominican Republic, Nicaragua, and throughout Southeast Asia; other uses included saving flood victims, recovering astronauts, fighting fires, and carrying presidents. It was one of the last piston-powered helicopter designs before its replacement by turbine-powered types such as the UH-1 Huey and CH-46 Sea Knight. A total of 2,108 H-34s were manufactured between 1953 and 1970.
- 1 Development
- 2 Operational history
- 3 Variants
- 4 Operators
- 5 Accidents and incidents
- 6 Aircraft on display
- 7 Specifications (H-34 Choctaw)
- 8 Notable appearances in media
- 9 See also
- 10 References
- 11 Further reading
- 12 External links
The Sikorsky S-58 was developed as a lengthened and more powerful version of the Sikorsky Model S-55, or UH-19 Chickasaw, with a similar nose, but with a tail-dragger rear fuselage and landing gear, rather than the high-tail, 4-post pattern. It retained the nose-mounted piston engine with the drive shaft passing through the cockpit placed high above the cargo compartment.
The aircraft first flew on 8 March 1954. The first production aircraft was ready in September and entered in service for the United States Navy initially designated HSS-1 Seabat (in its anti-submarine configuration) and HUS-1 Seahorse (in its utility transport configuration) under the U.S. Navy designation system for U.S. Navy, United States Marine Corps (USMC) and United States Coast Guard (USCG) aircraft. The U.S. Army and Marine Corps, respectively, ordered it in 1955 and 1957. Under the United States Army's aircraft designation system, also used by the United States Air Force, the helicopter was designated H-34. The U.S. Army also applied the name Choctaw to the helicopter. In 1962, under the new unified DoD aircraft designation system, the Seabat was redesignated SH-34, the Seahorse as the UH-34, and the Choctaw as the CH-34.
Roles included utility transport, anti-submarine warfare, search and rescue, and VIP transport. In its standard configuration, transport versions could carry 12 to 16 troops, or eight stretcher cases if utilized in the MedEvac role, while VIP transports carried significantly fewer people in much greater comfort. A small fleet of H-34 helicopters served US Presidents Dwight D. Eisenhower and John F. Kennedy from 1958 to 1961 using the call sign Army One.
A total of 135 H-34s were built in the U.S. and assembled by Sud-Aviation in France, 166 were produced under licence in France by Sud-Aviation for the French Air Force, Navy and Army Aviation (ALAT).
The CH-34 was also built and developed under license from 1958 in the United Kingdom by Westland Aircraft as the turboshaft engined Wessex which was used by the Royal Navy and Royal Air Force. The RN Wessex was fitted out with weapons and ASW equipment for use in an antisubmarine role. The RAF used the Wessex, with turboshaft engines, as an air/sea rescue helicopter and as troop transporter. Wessexes were also exported to other countries and produced for civilian use.
The helicopters used by the French Army Light Aviation (ALAT), including the Sikorsky H-34, aggregated over 190,000 flying hours in Algeria (over 87,000 for the H-21 alone) and helped to evacuate over 20,000 French combatants from the combat area, including nearly 2,200 at night. By the time the war in Algeria had ended, eight officers and 23 non-commissioned officers from ALAT had given their lives in the course of their duties.
The use of armed helicopters during the Algerian War, coupled with helicopter transports which can insert troops into enemy territory, gave birth to some of the tactics of airmobile warfare that continue today.
French evaluations on the reported ground fire vulnerabilities of the CH-34 may have influenced the U.S. Army's decision to deploy the CH-21 Shawnee to Vietnam instead of the CH-34, pending the introduction into widespread service of the Bell UH-1 Iroquois. U.S. Army H-34s did not participate in Vietnam, and did not fly in the assault helicopter role, however a quantity were supplied to the Army of the Republic of Vietnam. These saw little use due to a lack of spare parts and maintenance.
Its higher availability and reliability due to its simplicity compared to the newer helicopters led Marines to ask for it by name. The phrases "give me a HUS", "get me a HUS" and "cut me a HUS" entered the U.S. Marine Corps vernacular, being used even after the type was no longer in use to mean "help me out".
USMC H-34s were also among the first helicopter gunships trialled in theatre, being fitted with the Temporary Kit-1 (TK-1), comprising two M60C machine guns and two 19-shot 2.75 inch rocket pods. The operations were met with mixed enthusiasm, and the armed H-34s, known as "Stingers" were quickly phased out. The TK-1 kit would form the basis of the TK-2 kit used on the UH-1E helicopters of the USMC.
An H-34 was featured in the famous early-Vietnam War Time-Life photo essay "One Ride With Yankee Papa 13", photographer Larry Burrows, which depicted stages of a disastrous combat mission in which several crew were wounded or killed.
The H-34 remained in service with United States Army and Marine Corps aviation units into the late 1960s; at this time it was also standard equipment in Marine Corps Reserve, Army Reserve and Army National Guard aviation units, eventually being replaced by the UH-1 Iroquois utility helicopter. Sikorsky terminated all production activities in 1968, a total of 1,821 having been built. All H-34 helicopters were retired from service in the U.S. military by the early 1970s; the type having the distinction of being the last piston-engined helicopter to be operated by the Marine Corps. On 3 September 1973, the last flight of a USMC UH-34 occurred as Bureau Number 147191 which had been formally assigned to Headquarters Squadron, FMF Pacific was flown from Quantico, Virginia to MCAS New River to be placed on static display.
France purchased an initial batch of 134 Choctaws; these were shipped in kit-form from the United States and locally assembled by Sud-Aviation. Later, a further 166 were domestically manufactured by Sud-Aviation; these were operated by the French Army Light Aviation (Army), French Naval Aviation (Navy) and Air force.
The Wessex was used as an anti-submarine and utility helicopter with the Royal Navy and as a transport and search and rescue helicopter with the Royal Air Force.
The H-34 was the primary VNAF helicopter until replaced by the Bell UH-1 Huey.
Israeli S-58s flew numerous combat missions after the end of the Six Days War; these missions were mainly against Palestinians infiltrating Israel or against their bases in Jordan. On 21 March 1968, various S-58s participated in the Battle of Karameh, bringing Israeli troops in and out of the theatre as well as evacuating the wounded. This was the last operation of the S-58 as it was retired shortly later, having been replaced by the newer Bell 205 and Aérospatiale Super Frelon.
The H-34's lift capacity was just sufficient to lift a Mercury space capsule. In 1961, the hatch of Mercury-Redstone 4 was prematurely detached and the capsule was filled with seawater. The extra weight was too much for the H-34 and the capsule, Liberty Bell 7, was emergency released and sank in deep water.
In the late 1980s and early 1990s, S-58T turbine-powered helicopters were operated by New York Helicopters in scheduled passenger airline service between JFK International Airport and East 34th Street Heliport, New York.
- U.S. Army version of the HSS-1 powered by a 1,525 hp R-1820-84, re-designated CH-34A in 1962, 359 built and 21 transferred from the U.S. Navy.
- Designation for H-34A used for weapon tests.
- Staff transport conversions of H-34A.
- H-34As converted with detail changes, became CH-34B in 1962.
- H-34B design with detail changes converted from H-34As, became CH-34C in 1962.
- Designation for CH-34C used for weapon tests.
- Staff transport conversions of CH-34C.
- Designation applied to aircraft given USAF serials to be transferred under MAP and MDAP.
- HUS-1L re-designated in 1962
- HUS-1 re-designated in 1962 and 54 new build.
- HUS-1Z re-designated in 1962
- HUS-1A re-designated in 1962
- HUS-1G re-designated in 1962
- YHSS-1 re-designated in 1962
- HSS-1 re-designated in 1962
- HSS-1F re-designated in 1962
- YHSS-1N re-designated in 1962
- HSS-1N re-designated in 1962
- SH-34J without ASW equipment for cargo and training purposes.
- Ex-USN UH-34Js operated by the U.S. Air Force
- Staff transport conversions of SH-34J.
- XHSS-1 Seabat
- Three Sikorsky S-58s for evaluation by the U.S. Navy, re-designated YHSS-1 then YSH-34G in 1962.
- HSS-1 Seabat
- Production Anti-Submarine model for the U.S. Navy, re-designated SH-34G in 1962, 215 built
- HSS-1F Seabat
- One HSS-1 re-engined with two YT-58-GE as a flying test bed, re-designated SH-34H in 1962.
- YHSS-1N Seabat
- One HSS-1 converted as the HSS-1N prototype, re-designated YSH-34J in 1962.
- HSS-1N Seabat
- Night/Bad weather version of the HSS-1 with improved avionics and autopilot, re-designated SH-34J in 1962, 167 built (an addition 75 HSS-1 airframes were built to CH-34C standard for West Germany).
- HUS-1 Seahorse
- Utility transport version of the HSS-1 for the U.S. Marine Corps, re-designated UH-34D in 1962, 462 built
- HUS-1A Seahorse
- Forty HUS-1s fitted with amphibious pontoons, re-designated UH-34E in 1962.
- HUS-1G Seahorse
- United States Coast Guard version of the HUS-1, re-designated HH-34F in 1962, six built.
- HUS-1L Seahorse
- Four HUS-1s converted for Antarctic operations with VXE-6, re-designated LH-34D in 1962.
- HUS-1Z Seahorse
- Seven HUS-1s fitted with VIP interior for the Executive Flight Detachment, re-designated VH-34D in 1962.
- Canadian military designation for the S-58B.
- Commercial designation for basic cargo variant, certified in 1956
- Commercial designation for improved cargo variant, certified in 1956
- Commercial passenger transport/airliner version, certified in 1956
- Commercial airliner/freighter version, certified in 1961
- Certified in 1971
- Certified in 1972 an increased maximum weight variant of the S-58B.
- Certified in 1972 an increased maximum weight variant of the S-58C.
- Certified in 1972 an increased maximum weight variant of the S-58D.
- Certified in 1972 an increased maximum weight variant of the S-58E
- Commercial conversion to turboshaft power using Pratt & Whitney Canada PT6T-3 Twin-Pac turboshaft with special nose cowling featuring distinctive twin rectangular air intakes, designations relate to original model:
- Turboshaft powered-converstion of the S-58B
- Turboshaft powered-converstion of the S-58D
- Turboshaft powered-converstion of the S-58E
- Turboshaft powered-converstion of the S-58F
- Turboshaft powered-converstion of the S-58H
- Turboshaft powered-converstion of the S-58J
- Orlando Heli-Camper
- RV conversion by Winnebago Industries and Orlando Helicopter, fitted with a Wright Cyclone R-1820-24 engine.
- Orlando Airliner
- Commercial conversion. 18-seat passenger transport helicopter.
- Westland Wessex
- Licence production and development in the United Kingdom.
- Air America
- United States Air Force
- United States Army
- United States Marine Corps
- United States Navy
- United States Coast Guard
Accidents and incidents
- 27 July 1960 Chicago Helicopter Airways Flight 698 a S-58C registered N879 crashed into Forest Home Cemetery, Forest Park, Illinois, United States with the loss of 11 passengers and two crew. The investigation concluded that the helicopter became uncontrollable as a result of structural disintegration in flight caused by a fatigue failure of the main rotor blade.
- 13 March 2011 Sikorsky S-58ET, N33602, suffered an engine failure, descended and veered off the side of an office building in El Segundo, California, while lifting an external air conditioning unit from the roof. The commercial pilot was seriously injured, the helicopter was substantially damaged and consumed by a post-impact fire. The helicopter was registered to Heli Flight, Inc., and operated by Aris Helicopters.
Aircraft on display
- The two SH-34J Seabats received by the Chilean Navy are readied for display in 2014. The example serialled Naval 52 was exhibited by the first time during Exponaval 2014, in December 2014.
The first example, Naval 51 is undergoing restoration at Museo Nacional Aeronáutico y del Espacio de Chile, at the former Los Cerrillos airport after many years displayed in wrong colour scheme.
- HSS-1, No. 182, is on display at the Base d'aéronautique navale d'Hyères, the military part of the Toulon–Hyères Airport in France. Serving until 1977 with 31F squadron, it was one of the last operational H-34's in French Naval Aviation. Now restored, No. 182 is displayed in the typical navy blue color of the French navy's helicopters of this time period.
- A former Royal Netherlands Navy SH-34J Seabat bearing the markings of number 134 operating from Valkenburg naval air station is on display with folded rotor blades and tail in the newly opened "Nationaal Militair Museum" situated at the former airbase of Soesterberg. Previously the aircraft was displayed in the National Airforce museum at Kamp van zeist which has since closed down.
- S-58T, H4K-64/30 / 20117 (cn 58-1117) at the Royal Thai Air Force Museum, Bangkok, Thailand.
- UH-34D Seahorse (S-58A) BuNo 150556 (cn 58-1683) at Royal Thai Air Force Museum, Bangkok, Thailand.
- United States
- UH-34D Seahorse on display on the flight deck of the USS Yorktown (CV-10) at the Patriot's Point Naval and Maritime Museum in Charleston, South Carolina.
- UH-34D Seahorse, BuNo 147191 (c/n 58-1142) (the last flying USMC H-34) is on display with tail markings both for HMX-1 and MCAS New River at the New River Aviation Memorial at the front gate of Marine Corps Air Station New River, (part of Camp Lejeune) in Jacksonville, North Carolina.
- HH-34J/H-34J Choctaw, BuNo 148963 (c/n 58-1366) Pacific Aviation Museum, Ford Island, Pearl Harbor, Hawaii
- H-34C Choctaw, s/n 054496, 1954, located at Carolinas Aviation Museum in Charlotte, North Carolina.
- UH-34J Sea Bat, BuNo 145694, built 1958, at the Wings of Freedom Aviation Museum at the former Naval Air Station Willow Grove (now Horsham Air National Guard Base), Willow Grove, Pennsylvania
- UH-34D Seahorse Serial BuNo 150553, built 1963, is on display on the hangar deck of the USS Hornet (CV-12) at the former NAS Alameda at Alameda, California.
- UH-34D, BuNo 150227, is on display at the National Museum of Naval Aviation at Naval Air Station Pensacola, Florida.
- UH-34D is on display at the Smithsonian National Air and Space Museum's Udvar-Hazy Center.
- LH-34D Seabat, BuNo 145717, is on display at the New England Air Museum, Bradley International Airport, Windsor Locks, CT
- SH-34J Sea Horse, is on display at Pueblo Weisbrod Aircraft Museum, Pueblo, Colorado, next to Pueblo Airport.
- VH-34C, Army Ser. No. 57-1684, is on display at the Pima Air and Space Museum adjacent to Davis-Monthan AFB in Tucson, Arizona.
Specifications (H-34 Choctaw)
- Crew: 2
- Capacity: 12 (A Model) 18 (C Model) troops or 8 stretchers
- Length: 56 ft 8.5 in (17.28 m)
- Rotor diameter: 56 ft 0 in (17.07 m)
- Height: 15 ft 11 in (4.85 m)
- Disc area: 2,463 ft² (228.85 m²)
- Empty weight: 7,900 lb (3,583 kg)
- Max. takeoff weight: 14,000 lb (6,350 kg)
- Powerplant: 1 × Wright R-1820-84 radial engine, 1,525 hp (1,137 kW)
- Maximum speed: 173 mph (150 kn, 278 km/h)
- Range: 293 km (182 mi)
- Service ceiling: 4,905 ft (1,495 m)
- Various (See Main Article: U.S. Helicopter Armament Subsystems)
Notable appearances in media
- Related development
- Aircraft of comparable role, configuration and era
- Related lists
- "S58 (CH-34, UH-34, VH-34, SH-34, HH-34, S-58A, C, D, S-58T)." Sikorsky Product History. Retrieved: 5 March 2013.
- "H-34." Warplanes.net. Retrieved: 30 December 2010.
- helicopters during the war in Algeria, Military History
- Mesko 1984, pp. 4–6.
- Fails 1995, p. 9.
- Endres, Günter G. Jane's Helicopter Markets and Systems. Coulsdon, Surrey, UK: Jane's Information Group, 1996. ISBN 978-0-7106-1363-9.
- Fails 1995, p. 127.
- MARINES AND HELICOPTERS, 1962–1973, pp.127–128, retrieved 9 December 2014.
- "Sikorsky H-34 / CH-34 Choctaw."militaryfactory.com. Retrieved: 17 January 2011.
- The Vietnamese Air Force, 1951-1975. An Analysis of Its Role in Combat and Fourteen Hours at Koh Tang. Volume 3, USAF Southeast Asia monograph series 4 and 5. Washington D.C.: Office of Air Force History, 1985.
- Gunston 1982, p. 92.
- Wade, Mark. "Mercury MR-4." astronautix.com, 29 April 2009. Retrieved (from archive): 26 July 2011.
- Brown, Allan. "S-58ET from New York Helicopter." airliners.net. Retrieved: 17 January 2011.
- "The Flying Winnebago".
- "H-58." Fuerza Aerea Argentina. Retrieved: 7 March 2013.
- "World Air Forces 1968, p. 48." flightglobal.com. Retrieved: 1 March 2013.
- "World Air Forces 1968, p. 49." flightglobal.com. Retrieved: 1 March 2013.
- Griffin, 1969, p.17
- "SH-34J." Armada de Chile. Retrieved: 7 March 2013.
- "Sikorsky-HSS-1N-(S-58A)." Demand media. Retrieved: 7 March 2013.
- "World's Air Forces 1981, p. 332. flightglobal.com. Retrieved: 7 March 2013.
- "World Air Forces 1968, p. 51." flightglobal.com. Retrieved: 1 March 2013.
- "World Air Forces 1971, p. 928." flightglobal.com. Retrieved: 7 March 2013.
- "World's Air Forces 1981, p. 346." flightglobal.com. Retrieved: 7 March 2013.
- "World's Air Forces 2004, p. 65." flightglobal.com. Retrieved: 7 March 2013.
- "World Air Forces 1968, p. 52." flightglobal.com. Retrieved: 7 March 2013.
- "World Air Forces 1968, p. 52 (m)." flightglobal.com. Retrieved: 1 March 2013.
- "=World Air Forces 1971, p. 932." flightglobal.com. Retrieved: 7 March 2013.
- "World Air Forces 1968, p. 53." flightglobal.com. Retrieved: 1 March 2013.
- "World Air Forces 1968, p. 54." flightglobal.com. Retrieved: 1 March 2013.
- "World's Air forces 1981, p. 362." flightglobal.com. Retrieved: 7 March 2013.
- "Sikorsky H-34 / CH-34 Choctaw - Transport / Close-Support Helicopter - History, Specs and Pictures - Military Aircraft." Militaryfactory.com. Retrieved: 20 January 2014.
- "World Air Forces 1968, p. 60."flightglobal.com. Retrieved: 1 March 2013.
- "World's Air Forces 1981, p. 377." flightglobal.com. Retrieved: 7 March 2013.
- "World Air Forces 1968, p. 55." flightglobal.com. Retrieved: 7 March 2013.
- "Air America: Sikorsky UH-34s (1st series)." utdallas.edu. Retrieved: 10 August 2014.
- "US Air Force H-34." Helicopter History Site. Retrieved: 7 March 2013.
- "USCG HH-34.' USCG History. Retrieved: 7 March 2013.
- "World's Air Forces 1987, p. 104." flightglobal.com. Retrieved: 7 March 2013.
- "CAA 429 World Airline Accident Summary with reference to Civil Aeronautics Board Aircraft Accident Report SA-357." United Kingdom CAA Document.
- "NTSB Identification: WPR11FA163." ntsb.gov. Retrieved: 26 July 2011.
- Romero, Álvaro. "Presentaron al Sikorsky SH-34J Seabat Naval 52." Base Aeronaval Vina Del Mar, 8 December 2014. Retrieved: 13 March 2015.
- "Sikorsky HSS-1N." Armada de Chile. Retrieved: 13 March 2015.
- "Le Sikorsky de Palyvestre." Avions-légendaire.net, 29 July 2012. Retrieved: 22 August 2014. Retrieved: 13 March 2015.
- "Les Sikorsky H-34 et HSS-1." Les hélicoptères anciens en France, 22 August 2014. Retrieved: 13 March 2015.
- "Sikorsky S-58 (H-34 GIII)". hubschraubermuseum.de. Retrieved 9 October 2015.
- "Building 5: Helicopters and last propeller fighter." Royal Thai Air Force Museum. Retrieved: 17 January 2011.
- "UH-34D Seahorse, Sikorsky." Patriot's Point Naval and Maritime Museum. Retrieved: 26 July 2011.
- Burns, 1st Lt. Sarah (MCAS New River). "Squadron restores pre-Vietnam helicopters." JDNews.com, Jacksonville, Florida. Retrieved: 9 December 2014.
- "Sikorsky H-34 Choctaw/Seabat/Seahorse." Pacific Aviation Museum. Retrieved: 9 December 2014.
- "Helicopters." Carolinas Aviation Museum. Retrieved: 26 July 2011.
- "Sikorsky UH-34J 'Sea Bat'." Wings of Freedom Aviation Museum. Retrieved: 26 July 2011.
- "UH-34D Seahorse, Aircraft Carrier USS Hornet Museum." Aircraft Carrier USS Hornet Museum. Retrieved: 28 May 2012.
- "Aircraft On Display." National Naval Aviation Museum. Retrieved: 4 September 2012.
- O'Connell, Jim. "Pete VX-6." Radiocom.net. Retrieved: 4 September 2012.
- "Sikorsky UH-34D Seahorse." Smithsonian National Air and Space Museum. Retrieved: 21 November 2012.
- "Sikorsky LH-34D (S-58) 'Seabat." New England Air Museum.
- "SH-34J Sea Horse." Pueblo Weisbrod Aircraft Museum. Retrieved: 13 March 2015.
- "Choctaw." Pimaair.org. Retrieved: 13 March 2015.
- Apostolo 1984, p. 84.
- Apostolo, Giorgio. The Illustrated Encyclopedia of Helicopters. New York: Bonanza Books, 1984. ISBN 0-517-439352.*
- Duke, R.A. Helicopter Operations in Algeria [Translated French]. Washington, DC: Dept. of the Army, 1959.
- Fails, William R. Marines & Helicopters, 1962-1973. Darby, Pennsylvania: Diane Publishing, 1995. ISBN 0-7881-1818-8.
- Griffin, John A. Canadian Military Aircraft Serials & Photographs 1920–1968. Ottawa, Ontario, Canada: Queen's Printer, Publication No. 69-2, 1969.
- Gunston, Bill. An Illustrated Guide To the Israeli Air Force. London: Salamander Books, 1982. ISBN 978-0-668-05506-2.
- Leuliette, Pierre. St. Michael and the Dragon: Memoirs of a Paratrooper, New York: Houghton Mifflin, 1964.
- Mesko, Jim: Airmobile: The Helicopter War in Vietnam. Carollton, Texas: Squadron/Signal Publications, 1984. ISBN 0-89747-159-8.
- Riley, David. "French Helicopter Operations in Algeria." Marine Corps Gazette, February 1958, pp. 21–26.
- Shrader, Charles R. The First Helicopter War: Logistics and Mobility in Algeria, 1954-1962. Westport, Connecticut: Praeger Publishers, 1999. ISBN 0-275-96388-8.
- Spenser, Jay P. Whirlybirds: A History of the U.S. Helicopter Pioneers. Seattle, Washington: University of Washington Press, 1998. ISBN 0-295-97699-3.
- Padin, Núñez, Jorge Felix and Juan Carlos Cicalesi, eds. Sikorsky S-55/H-19 & S-58/T (Serie en Argentina) in Spanish. Bahía Blanca, Argentina: Fuerzas Aeronavales, 2011. ISBN 978-987-1682-13-3.
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