The museum was founded in 1929 by the Silesian Sejm, while the region was recovering from the Silesian Uprisings. In the interbellum, the Silesian Museum was one of the biggest museums in Poland. The Nazis however brought the collection to Bytom and tore the building down in 1940. In 1984 the museum was reinstated in a former hotel building.
Mainly ethnological and archaeological artefacts from the surrounding area, related to the History of Silesia. Furthermore some 233 works of Polish art, with as remarkable examples portraits by Stanisław Wyspiański and some paintings by Olga Boznańska. Other artists on display from the original collection, returned from Bytom, are:
- Jan Cybis
- Henryk Derczynski
- Tadeusz Makowski
- Józef Mehoffer
- Piotr Michałowski
- Tymon Niesiołowski
- Stanisław Witkiewicz
- Witold Wojtkiewicz
More contemporary artists on display are:
Furthermore there are historical objects and artefacts from the region, such as a flask vessel.
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