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Silicon Wadi

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Tel Aviv skyline, Tel Aviv is considered the powerhouse of the Israeli high technology ecosystem
Matam high-tech park in Haifa
Intel building in Petah Tikva
IBM building in Petah Tikva

Diamond Exchange District in Ramat Gan

Silicon Wadi (Hebrew: סִילִיקוֹן וָאדִי, lit.'Silicon Valley') is a region in Israel that serves as one of the global centres for advanced technology. It spans the Israeli coastal plain, and is cited as among the reasons why the country has become known as the world's "start-up nation" (see science and technology in Israel).[1][2] The highest concentrations of high-tech industry in the region can be found around Tel Aviv, including small clusters around the cities of Raʽanana, Petah Tikva, Herzliya, Netanya, Rehovot, and Ness Ziona. Additional clusters of high-tech industry can be found in Haifa and Caesarea. More recent high-tech establishments have been raised in cities such as Jerusalem and Beersheba, in towns such as Yokneam Illit, and in Airport City. Israel has the third highest number of startups by region and the highest rate of startups per capita in the world.[3][4]



The term "Silicon Wadi" is a pun-name derived from a similarly high-tech region in the United States known as Silicon Valley, which is located in California. The word "wadi" derives from the Arabic "واد", meaning 'valley'.



Israeli high-tech firms originally began to form in the 1960s.[5] In 1961 ECI Telecom was founded, followed in 1962 by Tadiran and Elron Electronic Industries regarded by many to be the "Fairchild of Israel."[5] The number of internationally successful firms grew slowly, with only one or two new successful firms each year until the early 1990s. Motorola was the first U.S. corporation to set up an R&D unit in Israel, in 1964.[5] The center initially developed wireless products including remote irrigation systems and later developed leading chips such as the 68030.[5] Following the 1967 French arms embargo, Israel was forced to develop a domestic military industry, focusing on developing a technological edge over its neighbors.[5] Some of these military firms started to seek and develop civilian applications of military technology.[5] In the 1970s more commercial innovations began, many of which were based on military R&D, including: Scitex digital printing systems, which were based on fast rotation drums from fast-rotation electronic warfare systems,[5] and Elscint, which developed innovative medical imaging and became a leading force in its market.[6]

High-tech firms continued to struggle throughout this period with marketing and many products, such as a mini-computer developed in the 1970s by Elbit, who were unable to successfully commercialise the product.[5]In the 1970s, Intel and IBM both opened offices in Israel, IBM opened in 1972 and Intel opened in 1974.[7][8]

Role in the global software market


Slowly, the international computing industry shifted the emphasis from hardware (in which Israel had no comparative advantage) to software products (in which human capital plays a larger role).[5] The country became one of the first nations to compete in global software markets.[5] By the 1980s a diverse set of software firms had developed. Each found niches which were not dominated by U.S. firms and between 1984 and 1991 "pure" software exports increased from $5 million to $110 million. Many of the important ideas here were developed by graduates of Mamram, the Israeli computer corps, established by the IDF in the 1960s.[5]

During the 1980s and early 1990s several successful software companies emerged from Israel, including: Amdocs (established in 1982 as Aurec Information), Cimatron (established in 1982), Magic Software Enterprises (established in 1983), Comverse (established in 1983 as Efrat Future Technologies), Aladdin Knowledge Systems (established in 1985), NICE Systems (established in 1986), Mercury Interactive (established in 1989) and Check Point Software Technologies (established in 1993).

The 1990s saw the real takeoff of high-tech industries in Israel, with international media attention increasing awareness of innovation in the country.[5] Growth increased, whilst new immigrants from the Soviet Union increased the available high-tech workforce.[5] Many of these immigrants were highly skilled and educated which strengthened Israeli enterpeneurship research centers and universities.[9] Peace agreements including the 1993 Oslo Peace Accord increased the investment environment and Silicon Wadi began to develop into a noticeable high-tech cluster.[5]

Dot-com boom


In 1998, Mirabilis, an Israeli company that developed the ICQ instant messaging program, which revolutionized communication over the Internet,[10] was purchased by America Online (AOL) for $407 million in cash, 18 months after it was founded and having no revenues. The free service attracted a user base of 15 million in that period and by 2001, ICQ had over 100 million users worldwide.[11]

The success of Mirabilis triggered the dot-com boom in Israel; thousands of start-up companies were established between 1998 and 2001, while venture capital raised by Israeli companies reached $1,851 million in 1999, peaking at $3,701 million in 2000. Over fifty Israeli companies had initial public offerings on NASDAQ and other international stock markets during that period.[12]

Silicon Wadi today


The government assists industrial growth by providing low-rate loans from its development budget. The main limitations experienced by industry are the scarcity of domestic raw materials and sources of energy and the restricted size of the local market. One certain advantage is that many Israeli university graduates are likely to become IT entrepreneurs or join startups, about twice as much as U.S. university graduates, who are also attracted to traditional corporate executive positions, according to Charles A. Holloway, co-director of the Center for Entrepreneurial Studies and a professor at the Stanford Graduate School of Business of Stanford University.[13] ICQ, for instance, is one of the world's most famous Israeli software products, developed by 4 young entrepreneurs.[14] IBM has its IBM Content Discovery Engineering Team in Jerusalem,[15] which is part of a number of IBM R&D Labs in Israel.

Tel Aviv is a global innovation hub with multiple international companies including not only Volkswagen, Hyundai, Visa and Citi, have built their centers of innovation in the Tel Aviv region.[16] Tel Aviv university in 2023 launched an aggregation center for innovation. Sampo, Jaguar and Amazon have also launched or are launching centers.[16] Investment in Israeli startups in 2023 was $7 billion.[16]

Israel has the third highest number of startups by region and the highest rate of startups per capita in the world.[3][4]

The RAD Group, founded in 1981 by brothers Yehuda and Zohar Zisapel, has been "the most fertile ground" for the creation of Israeli entrepreneurs, having produced 56 "serial entrepreneurs" who established more than one start-up each. RAD Group "graduates" were responsible for the establishment of a total of 111 significant high-tech initiatives.[17]

The world's first Quantum computing center which has several different quantum computers able to hold different quibit modalities was opened in the university of Tel Aviv in June 2024.[18][19]

Around 30 Quantum startups are active in Israel as of 2024 acccording to Aviv Zeevi.[20]

As of the middle of 2021, 29 unicorns, companies worth more than $1 billion, have been founded by Israelis.[9] The scaleup of Israeli startups has led to Israel being dubbed "the scaleup nation".[9] Total unicorns founded by Israelis, no matter their headquarters' location accounts for 71 unicorns.[9]


The Jerusalem Technology Park
Hewlett-Packard, Intel, and Micron production plants in Kiryat Gat

Due to the small size of Israel, the concentration of high-tech firms across much of the country is enough for it to be recognised as one large cluster. Most activity is located in the densely populated areas of metropolitan Tel Aviv, Haifa (Matam), and Jerusalem (Technology Park, Malha, Har Hotzvim and JVP Media Quarter in Talpiot), and the Startup Village Ecosystem in the Yokneam area, although some secondary with additional activity include the corridor to Beer Sheba, including Kiryat Gat, and the Western Galilee. In all, this is an area no larger than 6000 square kilometers, half of the extended Silicon Valley's geographical coverage.[5]



In 2006, more than 3,000 start-ups were created in Israel, a number that is only second to the U.S.[21] Newsweek Magazine has also named Tel Aviv as one of the world's top ten "Hot High-Tech Cities".[22] In 1998, Tel Aviv was named by Newsweek as one of the ten technologically most influential cities in the world.[23] In 2012, the city was also named one of the best places for high-tech startup companies, placed only second behind its California counterpart.[24][25]

A cluster of software companies, who are monetizing "free" software downloads by adware or altering user's systems, has been dubbed Download Valley.[26][27]

Israeli venture capital industry

Jerusalem Venture Partners (JVP) compound in Jerusalem, one of Israel's largest venture capital firms

The origins of the now thriving venture capital industry in Israel can be traced to a $100 million government initiative in 1993 named the Yozma program ("Initiative" in Hebrew); which offered attractive tax incentives to any foreign venture-capital investments in Israel and offered to double any investment with funds from the government.[28] As a result, Between 1991 and 2000, Israel's annual venture-capital outlays, nearly all private, rose nearly 60-fold, from $58 million to $3.3 billion; companies launched by Israeli venture funds rose from 100 to 800; and Israel's information-technology revenues rose from $1.6 billion to $12.5 billion. By 1999, Israel ranked second only to the United States in invested private-equity capital as a share of GDP. And it led the world in the share of its growth attributable to high-tech ventures: 70 percent.[28]

Israel's thriving venture capital industry has played an important role in financing and funding Silicon Wadi. The financial crisis of 2007–08 affected the availability of venture capital locally. In 2009, there were 63 mergers and acquisitions in the Israeli market worth a total of $2.54 billion; 7% below 2008 levels ($2.74 billion), when 82 Israeli companies were merged or acquired, and 33% lower than 2007 proceeds ($3.79 billion) when 87 Israeli companies were merged or acquired.[29] Numerous high tech Israeli companies have been acquired by global multinational corporations for its provision of profit-driven technologies along with its reliable and quality corporate personnel.[30] The March acquisition of Israeli company Mellanox for $6.9 billion by Nvidia Corporation is a definite contender for the largest M&A deal in 2019.[31] Generally, Israeli startups are becoming so attractive that U.S. companies tend to acquire them more than anyone else: they account for half of all transactions in 2018.[32] Thus, Israels eventually became a "net seller".[33]

Israel's venture capital industry has about 70 active venture capital funds, of which 14 international VCs with Israeli offices. Additionally, there are some 220 international funds, including Polaris Venture Partners, Accel Partners and Greylock Partners, that do not have branches in Israel, but actively invest in Israel through an in-house specialist.

In 2009, the life sciences sector led the market with $272 million or 24% of total capital raised, followed by the software sector with $258 million or 23%, the communications sector with $219 million or 20%, and the Internet sector with 13% of capital raised in 2009.[29]

Multinational technology companies operating in Israel

SanDisk facility in Kfar Saba
Marvell Technology Inc. development centre in Petah Tikva
CA Technologies development centre in Herzliya

As of 2010, more than 35,000 Israeli personnel were employed in various research and development centers operated by multinational corporations with a presence across Israel. In recent years, East Asian multinational corporations and investors, especially from Mainland China, have actively invested and opened up offices in Israel, including Chinese technology giants such as Alibaba, Baidu, Tencent and Kuang-Chi.[34] Around 60 foreign R&D centers are engaged in a diverse range of activities including biotechnology, chemicals, industrial machinery, communication equipment, scientific instruments, medical devices, flash memory storage equipment, computer hardware components, software, semiconductors and internet.

Company Year established in Israel No. of employees in Israel Major acquisitions in Israel
IBM 1949 2,000 Ubique,[35] I-Logix,[36] XIV,[37] Guardium,[38] Diligent Technologies,[39] Storwize,[40] Worklight,[41] Trusteer,[42] EZSource[43] Cloudigo[44]
Motorola 1964 1,500 Terayon,[45] Bitband[46]
Intel 1974 9,200 DSPC[47] Envara,[48] Comsys,[49] InVision Biometrics,[50] Telmap[51] Mobileye, Moovit,[52] Habana Labs
Microsoft 1989 750 Maximal,[53] Peach Networks,[54] Whale Communications,[55] Gteko,[56] YaData,[57] 3DV Systems[58] Secure Islands[59]
Applied Materials 1991 1,200 Orbot Instruments, Opal Technologies,[60] Oramir Semiconductor[61]
Qualcomm 1993[62] 450 EPOS (ultrasound positioning), DesignArt Networks (femtocell), iSkoot, Wilocity (WiGig), CSR/Zoran Israel imaging unit; also invested in multiple Israeli startups via Qualcomm Ventures
Cisco Systems 1997 1,500 CLASS Data Systems, HyNEX, Seagull Semiconductor, PentaCom, P-Cube, Riverhead Networks,[63] Intucell,[64] Sheer Networks,[65] NDS Group[66]
Hewlett-Packard 1998 6,000 Indigo Digital Press, Scitex Vision, Nur Macroprints, Mercury Interactive, Shunra[67]
SAP AG 1998 800 OFEK-Tech, TopTier Software, TopManage, A2i,[68] Gigya[69]
Alcatel Lucent 1998 250 LANNET, Chromatis Networks, Mobilitec[70]
GE Healthcare 1998 400 Nuclear and MR businesses of Elscint,[71] Diasonics Vingmed[72]
BMC Software 1999 450 New Dimension Software,[73] Identify Software[74]
CA Technologies 1999 300 Security-7, Abirnet, XOSoft, Oblicore, Nolio
Philips Electronics 1999 700 Elscint, Veon, CDP Medical[75]
Broadcom 2000 500 VisionTech, M-Stream, Siliquent Technologies, Dune Networks, Percello, Provigent, SC Square[76]
Marvell Technology Group 2000 1,600 Galileo Technology[77]
Siemens 2000 900 eship-4u, Tecnomatix Technologies, Solel Solar Systems
EMC Corporation 2004 1,000 Kashya, nLayers, proActivity, Illuminator, ZettaPoint, Cyota,[78] XtremIO[79]
eBay 2005 400 Shopping.com, Fraud Sciences, The Gift Project,[80] SalesPredict,[81] Corrigon Ltd.[82]
SanDisk 2006 650 M-Systems[83]
Google 2006 600 LabPixies, Quiksee, modu (patents only),[84] Waze[85] SlickLogin[86]
Red Hat 2008 200 Qumranet[87]
VMware 2008 200 B-Hive networks,[88] nlayers,[89] Digital Fuel,[90] Wanova[91]
Micron Technology 2010 1,300 Acquired Numonyx, a joint venture by Intel Corporation and STMicroelectronics[92]
Klarna 2011 40 Analyzd [93]
Apple Inc. 2012 450 Anobit,[94] PrimeSense[95] LinX Computational Imaging Ltd[96]
Covidien 2012 1,200 Oridion Systems,[97] superDimension, PolyTouch[98]
Facebook 2013 110[99] Onavo,[100] Pebbles Interfaces[101]
Amazon 2014[102] 150[26] Annapurna Labs[103][104]
Kuang-Chi 2016[105] 120 Agent Vi,[106] Beyond Verbal,[107] eyeSight Technologies[108]
Alibaba 2017[109] 100[110] Infinity, Twiggle[109]

Global ranking


The following global region rankings are a ranking of the Tel Aviv area, based on a 2024 study by Dutch research firm, Dealroom.[111]

Topic in 2023 Gross world


Per Capita World


VC investment 9 5
Number of Unicorns 3 2
Start up scaling 1 NA
% of VC-backed startups that become unicorn 1 1
Number of unicorns per billion VC invested since 2019 1 1
Number of Decacorns per startup 3 NA
% first time funding from EMEA 3 NA
% of VC backed funding from EMEA 1 NA
VC investment in cybersecurity 2 NA
VC investment in Generative Artificial intelligence 4 NA
VC investment in Autonoumous technology 4 NA

See also



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