Silicon Wadi (Hebrew: סיליקון ואדי, lit: "Silicon Valley") is an area with a high concentration of high-technology companies on the coastal plain of Israel, similar to Silicon Valley in the U.S. state of California, and is the reason Israel is nicknamed the Start-Up Nation. The area covers much of the country, although especially high concentrations of high-tech industry can be found in the area around Tel Aviv, including small clusters around the cities of Ra'anana, Petah Tikva, Herzliya, Netanya, the academic city of Rehovot and its neighbour Ness Ziona. In addition, high-tech clusters can be found in Haifa and Caesarea. More recent high-tech establishments have been raised in Jerusalem, and in towns such as Yokneam Illit and Israel's first "private city," Airport City, near Tel Aviv.
Origin of the term
Israeli high-tech firms originally began to form in the 1960s. In 1961 ECI Telecom was founded, followed in 1962 by Tadiran and Elron Electronic Industries regarded by many to be the "Fairchild of Israel." The number of internationally successful firms grew slowly, with only one or two new successful firms each year until the early 1990s. Motorola was the first US corporation to set up an R&D unit in Israel, in 1964. The center initially developed wireless products including remote irrigation systems and later developed leading chips such as the 68030. Following the 1967 French arms embargo, Israel was forced to develop a domestic military industry, focusing on developing a technological edge over its neighbors. Some of these military firms started to seek and develop civilian applications of military technology. In the 1970s more commercial innovations began, many of which were based on military R&D, including: Scitex digital printing systems, which were based on fast rotation drums from fast-rotation electronic warfare systems, and Elscint, which developed innovative medical imaging and became a leading force in its market.
High-tech firms continued to struggle throughout this period with marketing and many products, such as a mini-computer developed in the 1970s by Elbit, who were unable to successfully commercialise the product.
World software market takes off
Slowly, the international computing industry shifted the emphasis from hardware (in which Israel had no comparative advantage) to software products (in which human capital plays a larger role). The country became one of the first nations to compete in global software markets. By the 1980s a diverse set of software firms had developed. Each found niches which were not dominated by US firms and between 1984 and 1991 "pure" software exports increased from $5 million to $110 million. Many of the important ideas here were developed by graduates of Mamram, the Israeli computer corps, established by the IDF in the 1960s.
During the 1980s and early 1990s several successful software companies emerged from Israel, including: Amdocs (established in 1982 as Aurec Information), Cimatron (established in 1982), Magic Software Enterprises (established in 1983), Comverse (established in 1983 as Efrat Future Technologies), Aladdin Knowledge Systems (established in 1985), NICE Systems (established in 1986), Mercury Interactive (established in 1989) and Check Point Software Technologies (established in 1993).
The 1990s saw the real takeoff of high-tech industries in Israel, with international media attention increasing awareness of innovation in the country. Growth increased, whilst new immigrants from the Soviet Union increased the available high-tech workforce. Peace agreements including the 1993 Oslo Peace Accord increased the investment environment and Silicon Wadi began to develop into a noticeable high-tech cluster.
In 1998, Mirabilis, an Israeli company that developed the ICQ instant messaging program, which revolutionized communication over the Internet, was purchased by America Online (AOL) for $407 million in cash, 18 months after it was founded and having no revenues. The free service attracted a user base of 15 million in that period and by 2001, ICQ had over 100 million users worldwide.
The success of Mirabilis triggered the dot-com boom in Israel; thousands of start-up companies were established between 1998 and 2001, while venture capital raised by Israeli companies reached $1,851 million in 1999, peaking at $3,701 million in 2000. Over fifty Israeli companies had initial public offerings on NASDAQ and other international stock markets during that period.
Silicon Wadi today
For more than 50 years, local demand fueled Israeli industrial expansion, as the country's population grew rapidly and the standard of living rose. More recently, world demand for Israeli advanced technologies, software, electronics, and other sophisticated equipment has stimulated industrial growth. Israel's high status in new technologies is the result of its emphasis on higher education and research and development. Cultural factors contributing to the expansion include chutzpah and openness to immigration. The government also assists industrial growth by providing low-rate loans from its development budget. The main limitations experienced by industry are the scarcity of domestic raw materials and sources of energy and the restricted size of the local market. One certain advantage is that many Israeli university graduates are likely to become IT entrepreneurs or join startups, about twice as much as US university graduates, who are also attracted to traditional corporate executive positions, according to Charles A. Holloway, co-director of the Center for Entrepreneurial Studies and a professor at the Stanford Graduate School of Business of Stanford University. ICQ, for instance, is one of the world's most famous Israeli software products, developed by 4 young entrepreneurs. IBM has its IBM Content Discovery Engineering Team in Jerusalem, which is part of a number of IBM R&D Labs in Israel.
RAD Group's prominence
According to research conducted by Prof. Shmuel Ellis, Chair of the Management Department at Tel Aviv University's Faculty of Management, together with Prof. Israel Drori of the School of Business Administration at the College of Management and Prof. Zur Shapira, Chair of the Management and Organizations Department at New York University, the RAD Group, founded in 1981 by brothers Yehuda and Zohar Zisapel, has been "the most fertile ground" for creating Israeli entrepreneurs, having produced 56 "serial entrepreneurs" who established more than one start-up each. RAD Group "graduates" were responsible for the establishment of a total of 111 significant high-tech initiatives.
Due to the small size of Israel, the concentration of high-tech firms across much of the country is enough for it to be recognised as one large cluster. Most activity is located in the densely populated areas of metropolitan Tel Aviv, Haifa (Matam), and Jerusalem (Technology Park, Malha, Har Hotzvim and JVP Media Quarter in Talpiot), and the Startup Village Ecosystem in the Yokneam area, although some secondary with additional activity include the corridor to Beer Sheba, including Kiryat Gat, and the Western Galilee. In all, this is an area no larger than 6000 square kilometers, half of the extended Silicon Valley's geographical coverage.
Many international technology companies have research and development facilities in this region, including companies such as Intel, IBM, Google, Facebook, Hewlett-Packard, Philips, Cisco Systems, Oracle Corporation, SAP, BMC Software, Microsoft, Motorola and CA. Many Israeli high-tech companies are based in the region, including Zoran Corporation, CEVA, Inc., Aladdin Knowledge Systems, Mellanox, NICE Systems, Horizon Semiconductors, RAD Data Communications, RADWIN, Radware, Tadiran Telecom, Radvision, Check Point Software Technologies, Amdocs, Babylon Ltd., Elbit, Israel Aerospace Industries and the solar thermal equipment designer and manufacturer Solel, with most of them being listed on the NASDAQ, which even has an Israel Index. Intel developed its dual-core Core Duo processor at its Israel Development Center located at the Merkaz Ta'asiya ve'Meida (Matam – Scientific Industries Center) in the city of Haifa. In 2006, more than 3,000 start-ups were created in Israel, a number that is only second to the US. Newsweek Magazine has also named Tel Aviv as one of the world's top ten "Hot High-Tech Cities". In 1998, Tel Aviv was named by Newsweek as one of the ten technologically most influential cities in the world. In 2012, the city was also named one of the best places for high-tech startup companies, placed only second behind its California counterpart.
The importance of Silicon Wadi was first recognised internationally by Wired magazine, who in 2000, ranked locations by the strength of cluster effects, giving the Israeli high-tech cluster the same rank as Boston, Helsinki, London, and Kista in Sweden, second only to Silicon Valley.
- A cluster of software companies, who are monetizing "free" software downloads by adware or altering user's systems, has been dubbed Download Valley.
Israeli venture capital industry
The origins of the now thriving venture capital industry in Israel can be traced to a government initiative in 1993 named the Yozma program ("Initiative" in Hebrew); which offered attractive tax incentives to any foreign venture-capital investments in Israel and offered to double any investment with funds from the government. As a result, Between 1991 and 2000, Israel's annual venture-capital outlays, nearly all private, rose nearly 60-fold, from $58 million to $3.3 billion; companies launched by Israeli venture funds rose from 100 to 800; and Israel's information-technology revenues rose from $1.6 billion to $12.5 billion. By 1999, Israel ranked second only to the United States in invested private-equity capital as a share of GDP. And it led the world in the share of its growth attributable to high-tech ventures: 70 percent.
Israel's thriving venture capital industry has played an important role in financing and funding Silicon Wadi. The financial crisis of 2007–08 affected the availability of venture capital locally. In 2009, there were 63 mergers and acquisitions in the Israeli market worth a total of $2.54 billion; 7% below 2008 levels ($2.74 billion), when 82 Israeli companies were merged or acquired, and 33% lower than 2007 proceeds ($3.79 billion) when 87 Israeli companies were merged or acquired. Numerous high tech Israeli companies have been acquired by global corporations for its provision of reliable and quality corporate personnel. The March acquisition of Israeli company Mellanox for $6.9 billion by Nvidia Corporation is a definite contender for the largest M&A deal in 2019. Generally, Israeli startups are becoming so attractive that US companies tend to acquire them more than anyone else: they account for half of all transactions in 2018. Thus, Israels eventually became a "net seller".
Israel's venture capital industry has about 70 active venture capital funds, of which 14 international VCs with Israeli offices. Additionally, there are some 220 international funds, including Polaris Venture Partners, Accel Partners and Greylock Partners, that do not have branches in Israel, but actively invest in Israel through an in-house specialist.
In 2009, the life sciences sector led the market with $272 million or 24% of total capital raised, followed by the software sector with $258 million or 23%, the communications sector with $219 million or 20%, and the Internet sector with 13% of capital raised in 2009.
Multinational technology companies operating in Israel
As of 2010, more than 35,000 personnel were employed in multinationals research and development centers across Israel. In recent years, East Asian multinationals and investors, especially from Mainland China, have actively invested and opened up offices in Israel, including Chinese technology giants such as Alibaba, Baidu, Tencent and Kuang-Chi. Around 60 foreign R&D centers are engaged in a diverse range of activities including biotechnology, chemicals, industrial machinery, communication equipment, scientific instruments, medical devices, flash memory storage equipment, computer hardware components, software, semiconductors and internet.
|Company||Year established in Israel||No of employees in Israel||Major acquisitions in Israel|
|IBM||1949||2,000||Ubique, I-Logix, XIV, Guardium, Diligent Technologies, Storwize, Worklight, Trusteer, EZSource Cloudigo|
|Intel||1974||9,200||DSPC Envara, Comsys, InVision Biometrics, Telmap Mobileye, Moovit|
|Microsoft||1989||750||Maximal, Peach Networks, Whale Communications, Gteko, YaData, 3DV Systems Secure Islands|
|Applied Materials||1991||1,200||Orbot Instruments, Opal Technologies, Oramir Semiconductor|
|Qualcomm||1993||450||EPOS (ultrasound positioning), DesignArt Networks (femtocell), iSkoot, Wilocity (WiGig), CSR/Zoran Israel imaging unit; also invested in multiple Israeli startups via Qualcomm Ventures|
|Cisco Systems||1997||1,500||CLASS Data Systems, HyNEX, Seagull Semiconductor, PentaCom, P-Cube, Riverhead Networks, Intucell, Sheer Networks, NDS Group|
|Hewlett-Packard||1998||6,000||Indigo Digital Press, Scitex Vision, Nur Macroprints, Mercury Interactive, Shunra|
|SAP AG||1998||800||OFEK-Tech, TopTier Software, TopManage, A2i, Gigya|
|Alcatel Lucent||1998||250||LANNET, Chromatis Networks, Mobilitec|
|GE Healthcare||1998||400||Nuclear and MR businesses of Elscint, Diasonics Vingmed|
|BMC Software||1999||450||New Dimension Software, Identify Software|
|CA Technologies||1999||300||Security-7, Abirnet, XOSoft, Oblicore, Nolio|
|Philips Electronics||1999||700||Elscint, Veon, CDP Medical|
|Broadcom||2000||500||VisionTech, M-Stream, Siliquent Technologies, Dune Networks, Percello, Provigent, SC Square|
|Marvell Technology Group||2000||1,600||Galileo Technology|
|Siemens||2000||900||eship-4u, Tecnomatix Technologies, Solel Solar Systems|
|EMC Corporation||2004||1,000||Kashya, nLayers, proActivity, Illuminator, ZettaPoint, Cyota, XtremIO|
|eBay||2005||400||Shopping.com, Fraud Sciences, The Gift Project, SalesPredict, Corrigon Ltd.|
|2006||600||LabPixies, Quiksee, modu (patents only), Waze SlickLogin|
|VMware||2008||200||B-Hive networks, nlayers, Digital Fuel, Wanova|
|Micron Technology||2010||1,300||Acquired Numonyx, a joint venture by Intel Corporation and STMicroelectronics|
|Apple Inc.||2012||450||Anobit, PrimeSense LinX Computational Imaging Ltd|
|Covidien||2012||1,200||Oridion Systems, superDimension, PolyTouch|
|2013||110||Onavo, Pebbles Interfaces|
|Kuang-Chi||2016||120||Agent Vi, Beyond Verbal, eyeSight Technologies|
- Download Valley
- Economy of Israel
- List of Israeli companies quoted on the Nasdaq
- List of multinationals with research and development centres in Israel
- List of technology centers
- Made in JLM
- Science and technology in Israel
- Start-up Nation: The Story of Israel's Economic Miracle
- Startup Village, Yokneam
- "Business as usual". Financial Times.
- Viva Tel Aviv! Archived 25 August 2011 at the Wayback Machine
- Chua, Amy (2003). World On Fire. Knopf Doubleday Publishing. pp. 219-220. ISBN 978-0385721868.
- Catherine de Fontenay and Erran Carmel, Israel’s Silicon Wadi: The forces behind cluster formation Archived 14 September 2012 at the Wayback Machine, June 2002
- Elscint Ltd. - Company history FundingUniverse
- Yair Goldfinger, serial entrepreneur / An intensely private technology angel, The Marker[permanent dead link]
- "Is the ICQ experiment working?". CNET News. 9 May 2001.
- "Page not found" (PDF). oecd.org.
- Chutzpah of Israeli Startups, "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 8 December 2009. Retrieved 5 December 2009.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
- Gordon, Buzzy (26 May 2000). "Silicon Wadi not that far from Silicon Valley, prof says". j. Retrieved 4 January 2012.
- New Jersey Technology Council Archived 28 September 2007 at the Wayback Machine
- IBM Research | IBM Haifa Labs Archived 1 July 2007 at the Wayback Machine
- "The Mother of the Start-Ups: The RAD Group Gave Birth to 110 Companies". The Marker. 18 January 2012.
- Israel Saves Intel Archived 24 August 2007 at the Wayback Machine
- "Business as usual". Financial Times.
- "Error-2010-f3". israelemb.org.
- "Tel Aviv One of The World's Top High-Tech Centers". Jewish Virtual Library. American-Israeli Cooperative Enterprise. Retrieved 14 October 2012.
- "After Silicon Valley, Tel Aviv Ranks Best for Tech Startups: Study". Bloomberg.
- "Tel Aviv named top startup center". ISRAEL21c.
- Hirschauge, Orr (15 May 2014). "Conduit Diversifies Away From 'Download Valley'". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 5 September 2018.
- Orpaz, Inbal; Smolsky, Raz (11 June 2015). "Amazon to Expand Its Operations in Israel". Haaretz. Retrieved 5 September 2018.
- Gilder, George (Summer 2009), "Silicon Israel — How market capitalism saved the Jewish state", City Journal, 19 (3), retrieved 11 November 2009
- Venture Capital in Israel Archived 18 February 2006 at the Wayback Machine
- "FUNDING THE FUTURE: Advancing STEM in Israeli Education" (PDF). STEM Israel. 4 December 2012. Retrieved 18 March 2013.[permanent dead link]
- GmbH, finanzen net. "Nvidia is buying Mellanox Technologies in a $6.9 billion deal (NVDA) | Markets Insider". Business Insider. Retrieved 5 October 2019.
- "Through the Thorns to the Stars: Israeli Startups Ecosystem 2019". 8allocate. 8 July 2019. Retrieved 5 October 2019.
- "Startup M&A worldwide: a $1.2 trillion market led by US and Europe". startupeuropepartnership.eu (in Italian). 12 September 2018. Retrieved 5 October 2019.
- Biedermann, Ferry (18 July 2017). "China is increasingly becoming key for Israel's high-tech industry". CNBC.
- "Lotus Development Corp. to Bring Real-Time Dimension to Messaging and Groupware". 19 May 1998.
- "IBM Completes Acquisition of Telelogic AB". IBM Press room. IBM. 3 April 2008. Retrieved 20 October 2009.
- "IBM acquires Israel-based XIV for undisclosed sum". Reuters. 2 January 2008. Retrieved 16 March 2009.
- "IBM to buy Israeli start-up company for $225 million". Haaretz. 27 November 2009.
- "IBM Acquires Storage Company Diligent Technologies" (Press release). IBM. 18 April 2008. Retrieved 2 June 2008.
- "IBM to Acquire Storwize for Data Compression Capabilities" (Press release). IBM. 29 July 2010. Retrieved 29 July 2010.
- "IBM Advances Mobile Capabilities with Acquisition of Worklight" (Press release). IBM. 31 January 2012. Retrieved 31 January 2012.
- Ingrid Lunden. "IBM Buys Israel/US Cybersecurity Specialist Trusteer For $800M-$1B". TechCrunch. AOL.
- "IBM Acquires Israeli App Discovery Company EZSource". Jewish Business News. 2 June 2016. Retrieved 28 October 2016.
- Schindler, Max (25 September 2017). "Computing giant IBM buys up Israeli start-up Cloudigo". The Jerusalem Post. Missing or empty
- "Motorola Completes Terayon Acquisition". Associated Press. 20 July 2007.[dead link]
- Grimland, Guy (12 November 2009). "Motorola in first Israeli acquisition: Bitband". Haaretz.
- Grimland, Guy (27 June 2006). "Seven years after buying DSPC, Intel's selling it for half the price". Haaretz.
- "Intel buys Envara for $40m". Globes. 25 March 2004. Archived from the original on 13 May 2013.
- Belic, Dusan (6 July 2010). "Intel acquires Israel-based Comsys Mobile Communication and Signal Processing". InfoMobile. Archived from the original on 24 September 2015. Retrieved 18 December 2011.
- Shelah, Shmulik (30 October 2011). "Intel in talks to buy Israel's InVision Biometrics". Globes. Archived from the original on 31 August 2012.
- Reuters (2 October 2011). "Intel Reaches Deal to Acquire Telmap". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 11 September 2016.
- Hawkins, Andrew J. (4 May 2020). "Intel acquires transit data startup Moovit for $900 million". The Verge. Retrieved 29 June 2020.
- "Microsoft Corp acquires Maximal Intelligence". Thomson Financial. 21 June 2001. Retrieved 31 October 2008.
- "Microsoft To Acquire Peach Networks". Microsoft. 29 February 2000. Archived from the original on 23 December 2006.
- "Microsoft Corp acquires Whale Communications Ltd". Thomson Financial. 26 July 2006. Retrieved 31 October 2008.
- "Microsoft Corp acquires Gteko Ltd". Thomson Financial. 26 September 2006. Retrieved 31 October 2008.
- "Microsoft Corp acquires YaData Ltd". Thomson Financial. 27 February 2008. Retrieved 31 October 2008.
- Wingfield, Nick (13 May 2009). "Microsoft Swings at Wii With Videocam". Wall Street Journal.
- "Microsoft to acquire data protection firm Secure Islands. The deal will be used to bolster Microsoft's Azure Rights Management Service". PC World. 9 November 2015. Retrieved 9 November 2015.
- "Applied Materials Buys Orbot Instruments, Opal for $285 Mln; Opal chairman Meny Erad: "This is a great day for Israeli high-tech."". Globes. 26 November 1996.
- "SEC Info - Applied Materials Inc/DE - '10-Q' for 7/29/01". secinfo.com.
- Qualcomm Israel company profile
- Ben-yehuda, Eynav (24 June 2004), "Cisco Israel hiring 70 software engineers for the newly acquired Riverhead Networks", The Marker, archived from the original on 13 July 2011
- Cisco announces intent to acquire Intucell, Jan 2013
- "Cisco Systems to Acquire Sheer Networks". Cisco Systems. 26 July 2005. Archived from the original on 10 July 2007. Retrieved 15 April 2008.
- "CISCO acquires NDS". Cisco Systems. 15 March 2012. Retrieved 15 March 2012.
- "HP to Acquire Network Virtualization Business & Technology of Shunra". HP next. 4 March 2014.
- SAP - Dedicated Partner to Israel Archived 24 September 2015 at the Wayback Machine, Invest in Israel
- "Software Giant SAP Buys Israeli Startup Gigya for $350 Million". The Algemeiner. 25 September 2017.
- Lucent Technologies Completes Acquisition of Mobilitec, a Leading Provider of Content Delivery and Management Software Archived 11 September 2012 at the Wayback Machine
- Elbit sells off Elscint businesses through deals with Picker and GE Archived 11 March 2012 at the Wayback Machine Diagnostic Imaging 16 September 1998
- "GE Medical acquires Diasonics Vingmed". BizJournal. 9 April 1998.
- Staff writer (9 March 1999). "COMPANY NEWS; BMC SOFTWARE TO ACQUIRE NEW DIMENSION". The New York Times.
- Jean-Pierre Garbani; Simon Yates; Thomas Powell (27 March 2006). "BMC Software Acquires Identify Software To Reinforce Transaction Management". Forrester (market research). Archived from the original on 24 May 2008.
- "ehi LIVE". www.ehi.co.uk. Archived from the original on 19 August 2012. Retrieved 5 September 2018.
- "About Us". broadcom.com. Archived from the original on 26 April 2015.
- "Marvell to acquire LAN-chip supplier Galileo for $2.7 billion in stock". eetimes. 17 October 2000. Archived from the original on 13 July 2012. Retrieved 12 June 2011.
- EMC CEO: We'll make more acquisitions in Israel - Globes, 7 December 2011
- EMC Acquires XtremIO, May 2012
- Goldenberg, Roy (8 September 2011). "eBay buys Israeli start up The Gifts Project: The price is estimated to be in the tens of millions of dollars". Globes. Archived from the original on 3 November 2013.
- "eBay acquires Israeli co SalesPredict". Globes. 12 July 2016. Retrieved 28 October 2016.
- "eBay acquires Israeli visual search co Corrigon". Globe English. 6 October 2016. Retrieved 28 October 2016.
- "SanDisk Completes Acquisition of Msystems" (Press release). SanDisk. 19 November 2006. Retrieved 31 July 2010.
- "Google acquires Modu". cnet. Retrieved 20 May 2011.
- Google Bought Waze For $1.1B, Giving A Social Data Boost To Its Mapping Business
- "Google acquires Sound Based Password Developing Firm SlickLogin". IANS. news.biharprabha.com. Retrieved 17 February 2014.
- "The Evolution of Virtualization: Qumranet joins Red Hat" (Press release). 4 September 2008. Archived from the original on 21 April 2014.
- VMware to Acquire B-hive Networks to Further Enhance Virtualization Platform with Application Performance Management Archived 7 June 2013 at the Wayback Machine, VMware News Releases, 28 May 2008
- VMware to Acquire Several Management Products from EMC Ionix, Ben Verghese, VMware Blogs - 25 February 2010
- VMware To Acquire Digital Fuel, IT Financial and Business Management SaaS Company, VMware News Releases, 13 June 2011
- VMware To Acquire Wanova, Intelligent Desktop Solutions Provider Archived 25 May 2012 at the Wayback Machine, VMware News Releases, 22 May 2012
- "Micron Technology buys Numonyx Numonyx has 1,200 employees at its Israeli fab, where no layoffs are expected". Globes. 10 February 2010.
- "Klarna acquires Analyzd to tie social to finance and payments". TechCrunch. AOL. 4 May 2011. Retrieved 8 April 2016.
- "Apple Said to Acquire Israel's Anobit for About $390 Million". Bloomberg. 12 January 2012. Archived from the original on 1 June 2013.
- Apple Agrees to $350 Million Deal for Israel’s PrimeSense, Bloomberg
- Orr Hirschauge (14 April 2015). "Apple Buys Israeli Camera-Technology Company LinX". Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 13 November 2015.
- Covidien to Buy Jerusalem-Based Oridion for $346 Million, David Wainer, Bloomberg - 5 April 2012
- Covidien shopping spree could continue The medical device company has announced three acquisitions in Israel this year Archived 6 May 2012 at the Wayback Machine, Gali Weinreb, Globes 12 May 2012
- NIV ELIS (22 March 2015). "Facebook Israel to hire 40 new employees". Jerusalem Post. Retrieved 27 June 2015.
- Lunden, Ingrid (13 October 2013). "Facebook Buys Mobile Data Analytics Company Onavo, Reportedly For Up To $200M… And (Finally?) Gets Its Office In Israel". TechCrunch.
- "Facebook-owned company to buy Israeli hand-tracking start-up". Times of Israel. 17 July 2015. Retrieved 19 July 2015.
- Zack Whittaker. "Amazon opens Israel office to support startup efforts". ZDnet. Retrieved 27 June 2015.
- "Confirmed Amazon Is Buying Aannapurna Labs". Gigaom. 24 January 2015. Retrieved 24 January 2015.
- Orr Hirschauge (22 January 2015). "Amazon to Acquire Israel's Annapurna Labs - WSJ". Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 27 June 2015.
- Mitzner, Dennis (9 May 2016). "Chinese tech giant Kuang-Chi harnesses Israeli tech to build smart cities in China". TechCrunch.
- Solomon, Shoshana (15 September 2016). "Israel video analytics firm gets Kuang-Chi investment". Times of Israel.
- "Tel Aviv voice analytics firm secures $3m investment led by Kuang-Chi Group". Deal Street Asia. 1 September 2016.
- "Gesture tech firm eyeSight nabs $20 million Chinese investment". Times of Israel. 5 May 2016.
- "Alibaba to open Israel R&D center". Globes Israel. 11 October 2017.
- Coates, Stephen (10 October 2017). "Alibaba launches $15 billion overseas R&D drive". Reuters.
- Media related to Silicon Wadi at Wikimedia Commons
- Israel’s Silicon Wadi: The forces behind cluster formation — by Catherine de Fontenay and Erran Carmel, June 2002
- High-Tech Opportunities in Israel — Israel Ministry of Foreign Affairs, May 2002
- Wireless Valley, Silicon Wadi and Digital Island – Helsinki, Tel Aviv and Dublin and the ICT global production network — by Stephen Roper and Seamus Grimes, March 2005. (Subsequently, published in Geoforum)
- Entrepreneurship Models of the Countries that Leverage Silicon Valley by Mustafa Ergen
- American University: Israel: ICT Geographics
- VC Cafe — A blog by Eze Vidra, dedicated to covering Israeli startups and venture capital investments in the Silicon Wadi