Silver Legion of America

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Silver Legion of America
Other nameSilver Shirts
LeaderWilliam Dudley Pelley[1]
FoundedJanuary 31, 1933 (1933-01-31)[2]
Dissolved1941
HeadquartersAsheville, North Carolina[3]
Publications • Liberation
 • Pelley's Silvershirt Weekly
 • The Galilean
 • The New Liberator
Political wingChristian Party[4][5]
Membership15,000 (c. 1934)[6][7]
100,000 (claimed)[8]
IdeologyChristian fascism
Clerical fascism[9]
Racial segregation[10]
White nationalism[11]
Non-interventionism[12]
Political positionRadical right[13][14]
Far-right
ReligionChristianity
Active regionsSmall communities in the Midwest and small communities in the Pacific Northwest[15][16]
Colors  Silver,   scarlet and   blue
Slogan"Loyalty, Liberation, and Legion"
Anthem"Battle Hymn of the Republic"
Party flag
Silver Legion of America flag.svg

The Silver Legion of America, commonly known as the Silver Shirts, was an underground American fascist and Nazi sympathizer organization founded by William Dudley Pelley and headquartered in Asheville, North Carolina.[17]

History[edit]

Pelley was a former journalist, novelist and screenwriter turned spiritualist who, by 1931, had begun to promote antisemitic views, asserting that Jews were possessed by demons.[18] He formed the Silver Legion with the goal to bring about "spiritual and political renewal", inspired by the success of Adolf Hitler's Nazi movement in Germany.[18]

A nationalist, fascist group,[12] the paramilitary Silver Legion wore a uniform modeled after the Nazi's brown shirts (SA),[18] consisting of a silver shirt with a blue tie, along with a campaign hat and blue corduroy trousers with leggings. The uniform shirts bore a scarlet letter L over the heart, which according to Pelley was "standing for Love, Loyalty, and Liberation."[18] The blocky slab serif L-emblem was in a typeface similar to the present-day Rockwell Extra Bold. The organizational flag was a plain silver field with such a red L in the canton at the upper left. By 1934, the Legion claimed 15,000 members.[6]

Legion leader Pelley called for a "Christian Commonwealth" in America that would combine the principles of nationalism, and theocracy, while excluding Jews and non-whites.[19] He claimed he would save America from Jewish communists just as "Mussolini and his Black Shirts saved Italy and as Hitler and his Brown Shirts saved Germany."[20] Pelley ran in the 1936 presidential election on a third-party ticket under the Christian Party banner. Pelley hoped to seize power in a "silver revolution" and set himself as dictator of the United States. He would be called "the Chief" just like other fascist world leaders who had similar titles such "Der Führer" for Adolf Hitler and "II Duce" for Benito Mussolini.[21] However, the Democratic President Franklin D. Roosevelt handily won the reelection, and Pelley failed to figure among the top four. By around 1938, the Silver Legion's membership had declined to about 5,000.[7]

Pelley disbanded the organization after the December 1941 Attack on Pearl Harbor.[18]

On January 20, 1942, Pelley was sentenced to serve two to three years in prison by Superior Court Judge F. Don Phillips, in Asheville, North Carolina, for violating terms of probation of a 1935 conviction for violating North Carolina security laws. The same sentence had been suspended pending good behavior, but the court found that during that period Pelley had published false and libelous statements, published inaccurate reports and advertising, and supported a secret military organization.[22]

In popular culture[edit]

  • Sinclair Lewis's novel It Can't Happen Here depicts a fascist takeover of the United States by an anti-Roosevelt demagogue who claims inspiration from the Silver Legion.[23]
  • The grand strategy game Hearts of Iron IV depicts the Silver Legion as its fascist archetype of the United States, as the Free American Empire.[24]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

Notes

  1. ^ Beekman, Scott (2005-10-17). William Dudley Pelley: A Life in Right-Wing Extremism and the Occult. Syracuse University Press. pp. 2–3, 80–81, 87, 94, 162, 174, 206. ISBN 978-0-8156-0819-6.
  2. ^ Elliston, J. (2019, July 15). Asheville's Fascist. Retrieved from https://wncmagazine.com/feature/asheville’s_fascist
  3. ^ http://www.ajcarchives.org/AJC_DATA/Files/THR-SS1.PDF "The Silver Shirts: Their History, Founder, and Axtivities". August 24, 1933
  4. ^ Schultz, Will. "William Dudley Pelley (1885-1965)". North Carolina History Project. Retrieved February 4, 2020.
  5. ^ Barkun, Michael (1997). Religion and the Racist Right: The Origins of the Christian Identity Movement. UNC Press Books. p. 91. ISBN 9780807846384.
  6. ^ a b "Silver Shirts". Holocaust Online. Retrieved November 14, 2017.
  7. ^ a b Bernstein, Arnie (October 7, 2013). "6 Things You May Not Have Known About Nazis in America". The History Reader. Retrieved November 14, 2017.
  8. ^ Schultz, Will. "William Dudley Pelley (1885-1965)". North Carolina History Project. Retrieved November 14, 2017.
  9. ^ Schultz, Will. "William Dudley Pelley (1885-1965)". North Carolina History Project. Retrieved November 14, 2017.
  10. ^ Lemmon, Sarah McCulloh (December 1951). "The Ideology of the 'Dixiecrat' Movement". Social Forces. 30 (2): 162–71. doi:10.2307/2571628. JSTOR 2571628.
  11. ^ Lobb, David (1999). "Fascist apocalypse: William Pelley and millennial extremism" (PDF). Journal of Millennial Studies. 2 (2). ISSN 1099-2731. Retrieved May 8, 2015.
  12. ^ a b Van Ells, Mark D. (August 2007). "Americans for Hitler". americainwwii.com. Retrieved 18 November 2012.
  13. ^ David Brion Davis, ed. The Fear of Conspiracy: Images of Un-American Subversion from the Revolution to the present (1971) pp. xviii–xix
  14. ^ Diamond, pp. 5–6
  15. ^ Lipset & Raab, pp. 162–64
  16. ^ Toy, Eckard V., Jr. (1989). "Silver Shirts in the Northwest: Politics, Prophecies, and Personalities in the 1930s". The Pacific Northwest Quarterly. 80 (4): 139–146. JSTOR 40491076.
  17. ^ http://www.ajcarchives.org/AJC_DATA/Files/THR-SS1.PDF "The Silver Shirts: Their History, Founder, and Activities". August 24, 1933
  18. ^ a b c d e Atwood, Sarah (Winter 2018–2019). "'This List Not Complete': Minnesota's Jewish Resistance to the Silver Legion of America, 1936–1940" (PDF). Minnesota History. 66 (4): 142–155.
  19. ^ Schultz, Will. "William Dudley Pelley (1885-1965)". North Carolina History Project. Retrieved November 14, 2017.
  20. ^ "Jews in America: Jewish Gangsters". Retrieved November 14, 2017.
  21. ^ "Pelley's Silver Shirts". Retrieved November 14, 2017.
  22. ^ Associated Press, "Pelley of Silver Shirts Must Serve Prison Term," The San Bernardino Daily Sun, San Bernardino, California, Wednesday 21 January 1942, Volume 48, page 1.
  23. ^ Horowitz, Mitch (2009). Occult America.
  24. ^ "United States - Hearts of Iron 4 Wiki". hoi4.paradoxwikis.com. Retrieved 2021-01-12.

Further reading

  • Allen, Joe "'It Can't Happen Here?': Confronting the Fascist Threat in the US in the Late 1930s," International Socialist Review, Part One: whole no. 85 (Sept.-Oct. 2012), pp. 26–35; Part Two: whole no. 87 (Jan.-Feb. 2013), pp. 19–28.
  • Atwood, Sarah (Winter 2018–2019). "'This List Not Complete': Minnesota's Jewish Resistance to the Silver Legion of America, 1936–1940" (PDF). Minnesota History. 66 (4): 142–155.
  • Ribuffo, Leo Paul The Old Christian Right: The Protestant Far Right from the Great Depression to the Cold War. Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1983.
  • Spivak, John L. Secret Armies: The New Technique of Nazi Warfare. New York: Modern Age Books, 1939.
  • Werly, John The Millenarian Right: William Dudley Pelley and the Silver Legion of America. PhD dissertation. Syracuse University, 1972.
  • Yeadon, Glen. The Nazi Hydra in America. Joshua Tree, CA: Progressive Press, 2008.

External links[edit]