|Molar mass||149.888 g/mol|
|Density||4.42 g/cm3, solid|
|Melting point||250 °C (482 °F; 523 K) explosive|
|Solubility in other solvents||2.0×10−8 g/L|
|Ibam, No 72|
|Main hazards||Very toxic, explosive|
Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa).
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Structure and chemistry
3 (aq) + NaN
3 (aq) → AgN
3 (s) + NaNO
X-ray crystallography shows that AgN3 is a coordination polymer with square planar Ag+ coordinated by four azide ligands. Correspondingly, each end of each azide ligand is connected to a pair of Ag+ centers. The structure consists of two-dimensional AgN3 layers stacked one on top of the other, with weaker Ag–N bonds between layers. The coordination of Ag+ can alternatively be described as highly distorted 4 + 2 octahedral, the two more distant nitrogen atoms being part of the layers above and below.
In its most characteristic reaction, the solid decomposes explosively, releasing nitrogen gas:
- 2 AgN
3 (s) → 3 N
2 (g) + 2 Ag (s)
The first step in this decomposition is the production of free electrons and azide radicals; thus the reaction rate is increased by the addition of semiconducting oxides. Pure silver azide explodes at 340 °C, but the presence of impurities lowers this down to 270 °C. This reaction has a lower activation energy and initial delay than the corresponding decomposition of lead azide.
AgN3, like most heavy metal azides, is dangerously explosive. Decomposition can be triggered by exposure to ultraviolet light or by impact. Ceric ammonium nitrate is used as an oxidising agent to destroy AgN
3 in spills.
- Marr H.E. III., Stanford R.H. Jr. (1962). "The unit-cell dimensions of silver azide". Acta Crystallographica 15 (12): 1313–1314. doi:10.1107/S0365110X62003497.
- Jacqueline Akhavan (2004). The chemistry of explosives (2nd ed.). Royal Society of Chemistry. pp. 30–31. ISBN 0-85404-640-2.
- Schmidt, C. L. Dinnebier, R.; Wedig, U.; Jansen, M. (2007). "Crystal Structure and Chemical Bonding of the High-Temperature Phase of AgN3". Inorganic Chemistry 46 (3): 907–916. doi:10.1021/ic061963n. PMID 17257034.
- Andrew Knox Galwey; Michael E. Brown (1999). Thermal decomposition of ionic solids (vol.86 of Studies in physical and theoretical chemistry. Elsevier. p. 335. ISBN 0-444-82437-5.
- Margaret-Ann Armour (2003). Hazardous laboratory chemicals disposal guide, Environmental Chemistry and Toxicology (3rd ed.). CRC Press. p. 452. ISBN 1-56670-567-3.
- Jehuda Yinon; Shmuel Zitrin (1996). Modern Methods and Applications in Analysis of Explosives. John Wiley and Sons. pp. 15–16. ISBN 0-471-96562-6.
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