Silver diammine fluoride
|Trade names||FAgamin, Topamine, Saforide, Advantage Arrest, Cariesop, Bioride, FluoroplatV, Riva Star|
|Synonyms||Diammine Silver Fluoride, Diamine silver fluoride (chemically erroneous)|
|Chemical and physical data|
|Molar mass||160.927643 g/mol|
Silver diammine fluoride (also spelled "diamine") is a topical medicament (drug) used to treat and prevent dental caries (cavities) and relieve dentinal hypersensitivity. Silver diammine fluoride has been available in many countries including China, Japan, Germany, Nepal, Brazil, Argentina, New Zealand, Australia and others for many decades. The product was cleared for sale by the U.S. FDA as a class II medical device for the treatment of dentinal hypersensitivity.
Silver diammine fluoride (SDF) is a clear liquid that will stain most oxidizable surfaces black upon exposure to light due to the formation of a silver oxide layer. Skin and soft tissue will discolor within minutes to hours after contact and fade away (via surface shedding) within a few days. Dentin and enamel with no demineralization present may receive surface (pellicle) stains that can be removed with pumice, while demineralized tooth structure will stain more permanently black. A mild but transient increase in erythema in the gingiva near the tooth treated by silver diammine fluoride may occur. Silver diammine fluoride is corrosive to metal and glass. Contact with metal produces hydrogen gas and hydrogen fluoride while contact with glass will form silicon tetrafluoride. It is a light-sensitive clear liquid with a strong ammonia smell (when there is excess present) and should be stored in a cool, dark, dry place in a plastic container (LDPE or HDPE).
SDF should not be placed in patients who are allergic to silver or patients suffering from ulcerative gingivitis or stomatitis.
Chemistry and nomenclature
Silver diammine fluoride is an ammine (ammonia) complex of silver fluoride. The ammonia ligands are thus "ammine", but the term "amine" is sometimes used incorrectly for this chemical. In addition to that spelling difference, it is sometimes also called "ammoniacal silver fluoride", which is also sometimes improperly spelled as "ammonical silver fluoride".
- "SILVERDIAMINEFLUORIDE (CAS No. 34445-07-3) Suppliers @ ChemicalRegister.com". chemicalregister.com. Retrieved 14 July 2016.
- Rosenblatt, A.; Stamford, T. C. M.; Niederman, R. (2009). "Silver diamine fluoride: a caries "silver-fluoride bullet"". Journal of Dental Research. 88: 116–125. doi:10.1177/0022034508329406.
- J.L. Castillo, S. Rivera, T. Aparicio, R. Lazo, T.-C. Aw, L.L. Mancl, P. Milgrom (Nov 2010). "The Short-term Effects of Diammine Silver Fluoride on Tooth Sensitivity a Randomized Controlled Trial". Journal of Dental Research. 90: Issue 2.
- Horst, Jeremy A; Ellenikiotis, Hellene; Milgrom, Peter M (January 2016). "UCSF Protocol for Caries Arrest Using Silver Diamine Fluoride: Rationale, Indications, and Consent". Journal of the California Dental Association. 44 (1): 16–28. ISSN 1043-2256. PMC 4778976. PMID 26897901.
- Lou, YL; Botelho, MG; Darvell, BWD (2012). "Erratum to "Reaction of silver diammine fluoride with hydroxyapatite and protein" [J. Dent. 39 (2011) 612–618]". J Dent. 40 (1): 91–93. doi:10.1016/j.jdent.2011.10.009.