Silver perchlorate

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Silver perchlorate
Silver perchlorate.png
Names
IUPAC name
Silver perchlorate
Other names
Perchloric acid, silver(1+) salt
Identifiers
7783-93-9 YesY
14242-05-8 (hydrate) N
ChemSpider 22968 YesY
EC number 232-035-4
Jmol-3D images Image
PubChem 24562
Properties
AgClO4
Molar mass 207.319 g/mol
Appearance Colorless hygroscopic crystals
Density 2.806 g/cm3
Melting point 486 °C (907 °F; 759 K) (decomposes)
557 g/100 mL (25 °C)
792.8 g/100 mL (99 °C)
Solubility soluble in organic solvents
Structure
cubic
Hazards
R-phrases R8 R34 R50
S-phrases S15 S17 S26 S36/37/39 S45
NFPA 704
Flammability code 1: Must be pre-heated before ignition can occur. Flash point over 93 °C (200 °F). E.g., canola oil Health code 2: Intense or continued but not chronic exposure could cause temporary incapacitation or possible residual injury. E.g., chloroform Reactivity code 2: Undergoes violent chemical change at elevated temperatures and pressures, reacts violently with water, or may form explosive mixtures with water. E.g., phosphorus Special hazard OX: Oxidizer. E.g., potassium perchlorateNFPA 704 four-colored diamond
Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa).
 N verify (what isYesY/N?)
Infobox references

Silver perchlorate is the chemical compound with the formula AgClO4. This white solid forms a monohydrate and is mildly deliquescent. It is a useful source of the Ag+ ion, although the presence of perchlorate presents risks. It is used as a catalyst in organic chemistry.

Production[edit]

Silver perchlorate is created by heating a mixture of perchloric acid with silver nitrate.

Alternatively, it can be prepared by the reaction between barium perchlorate and silver sulfate, or from the reaction of perchloric acid with silver oxide.

Solubility[edit]

Silver perchlorate is noteworthy for its solubility in aromatic solvents such as benzene (52.8 g/L) and toluene (1010 g/L).[1] In these solvents, the silver cation binds to the arene, as has been demonstrated by extensive crystallographic studies on crystals obtained from such solutions.[2][3] It is also amazingly soluble in water, up to 500 g per 100 mL of water.

Related reagents[edit]

Similar to silver nitrate, silver perchlorate is an effective reagent for replacing halides ligands with perchlorate, which is a weakly or non-coordinating anion. The use of silver perchlorate in chemical synthesis has declined due to concerns about explosiveness of perchlorate salts. Other silver reagents are silver tetrafluoroborate, and the related silver trifluoromethanesulfonate and silver hexafluorophosphate.

References[edit]

  1. ^ F. Březina, J. Mollin, R. Pastorek, Z. Šindelář (1986). Chemické tabulky anorganických sloučenin [Chemical tables of inorganic compounds] (in Czech). Prague: SNTL. 
  2. ^ E. A. Hall Griffith, E. L. Amma (1974). "Metal Ion-Aromatic Complexes. XVIII. Preparation and Molecular Structure of Naphthalene-Tetrakis(silver perchlorate) Tetrahydrate". Journal of the American Chemical Society 96 (3): 743–749. doi:10.1021/ja00810a018. 
  3. ^ R. K. McMullan, T. F. Koetzle, C. J. Fritchie Jr. (1997). "Low-Temperature Neutron Diffraction Study of the Silver Perchlorate–Benzene π Complex". Acta Crystallographica B 53 (4): 645–653. doi:10.1107/S0108768197000712.