||This article includes a list of references, related reading or external links, but its sources remain unclear because it lacks inline citations. (December 2011) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)|
Silverpoint (one of several types of metalpoint) is a traditional drawing technique first used by medieval scribes on manuscripts.
A silverpoint drawing is made by dragging a silver rod or wire across a surface, often prepared with gesso or primer. Silverpoint is one of several types of metalpoint used by scribes, craftsmen and artists since ancient times. Metalpoint styli were used for writing on soft surfaces (wax or bark), ruling and underdrawing on parchment, and drawing on prepared paper and panel supports. For drawing purposes, the essential metals used were lead, tin and silver. The softness of these metals made them effective drawing instruments. (Watrous, 1957) Goldsmiths also used metalpoint drawings to prepare their detailed, meticulous designs. Albrecht Dürer's father was one such craftsman who later taught his young son to draw in metalpoint, to such good effect that his 1484 self-portrait at age 13 is still considered a masterpiece.
In the late Gothic/early Renaissance era, silverpoint emerged as a fine line drawing technique. Not blunting as easily as lead or tin, and rendering precise detail, silverpoint was especially favored in Florentine and Flemish workshops. Silverpoint drawings of this era include model books and preparatory sheets for paintings. Artists who worked in silverpoint include Jan van Eyck, Leonardo da Vinci, Albrecht Dürer and Raphael. Cennino Cennini's "Il Libro dell'Arte" provides a window on the practice of silver and leadpoint drawing, as well as preparing metalpoint grounds, in the late 14th century (Thompson, 1933; Duval, et al., 2004). Susan Dorothea White's recent book Draw Like Da Vinci (2006) describes the silverpoint technique of Leonardo da Vinci.
As noted by Francis Ames-Lewis, drawing styles changed at the end of the 16th century, resulting in a decline for metalpoint. The discovery of graphite deposits at Seathwaite in Borrowdale, Cumbria, England, in the early 1500s and its increasing availability to artists in a pure, soft (and erasable) form hastened silverpoint's eclipse. Artists sought more gestural qualities, for which graphite, red and black chalk were better suited. Ink and wash drawings are also prevalent in the period. In addition, these other drawing techniques required less effort and were more forgiving than silver, which resists erasure and leaves a fainter line. Furthermore, the preparation of silverpoint supports, usually with hide glue with finely ground bone ash, was labor-intensive. Modern practitioners use zinc, titanium white tempera or marble dust as a ground. Natural chalks and charcoal have the advantage of producing immediate results on uncoated papers (Ames-Lewis, 2000).
Dutch artists Hendrik Goltzius and Rembrandt maintained the silverpoint tradition into the 17th century, as it declined in other parts of Europe. Rembrandt made several silverpoints on prepared vellum, the best-known being the portrait of his wife Saskia, 1633 (KdZ1152, Berlin). However, artists who continued the tradition of fine line drawing, such as J. A. D. Ingres, turned to graphite, which gradually improved in quality and availability throughout Europe since the 17th century. Silverpoint was for practical purposes rendered obsolete by the 18th century (Reiche, 2005). There has however been a contemporary art revival among European artists and academies because the medium imposes considerable discipline in draughtsmanship since drawings cannot be erased or altered.
Joseph Meder (Das Buchlein vom Silberstift, 1909), Alphonse Legros, the Pre-Raphaelites and Joseph Stella helped revitalize the technique. Art historian Meder created interest in the traditional technique in Austria and Germany, while artist and teacher Legros did likewise in England. In the early 20th century, Stella was one of the few American artists working in this method on the East Coast of the United States. Stella explored the technique on zinc white gouache prepared grounds, often with crayon and other media. Stella's silverpoint oevre includes the 1921 portrait of Marcel Duchamp (MoMA, Katherine S. Dreier Bequest) (Haskell, 1994). On the West Coast Xavier Martinez, the Mexican-American artist who had studied in Paris at the École nationale supérieure des Beaux-Arts in the late 1890s during the resurgence of interest in silverpoint, taught this technique at the California College of the Arts from 1909 to the late 1930s. The last known exhibition of Martinez’s silverpoints was in 1921 at the The Print Room of San Francisco where critics praised his “unusual” and “strongly futuristic” action figures on an unconventional dark mottled ground as “archaic in execution . . . terse, alert . . . with a bit too much flesh.”  
A traditional silverpoint stylus is made with a small fine rod of silver, such as jeweler's wire, which is inserted into a wooden rod. Another design is a silver-tipped metal stylus with points on both ends. An example of this type is shown in Rogier van der Weyden's St. Luke Drawing the Virgin, ca. 1435–40 (Boston Museum of Fine Arts). For a contemporary stylus, jeweler's wire may be inserted into a pin vise or mechanical pencil (Watrous, 1957).
The initial marks of silverpoint appear grey as other metalpoints, but silverpoint lines, when exposed to air, tarnish to a warm brown tone. The oxidation becomes perceptible over a period of several months. The speed of oxidation varies according to the level of pollution in the air. Historically, silverpoint styli ranged widely in composition from pure silver to heavily alloyed with copper (over 20% weight) (Duval, 2004; Reiche, 2004/2005; Watrous, 1957).
In the Middle Ages, metalpoint was used directly on parchment for the underdrawing of illuminated manuscripts or model books. On uncoated parchment (and paper), silverpoint is particularly light in value. However, since the 14th century, silverpoint was used more successfully on prepared supports. A traditional ground may be prepared with a rabbit skin glue solution pigmented with bone ash, chalk and/or lead white. Contemporary grounds include acrylic gesso, gouache and commercially prepared claycoat papers. The slight tooth of the ground preparation takes a little of the silver as it is drawn across the surface.
Silverpoint has encompassed a wide range of styles from Dürer's curvi-linear precision to Rembrandt's gestural sketches. Silverpoint has also proven adaptable to modern styles. Thomas Wilmer Dewing's late 19th Century silverpoint portraits are essentially tonal, as are Paula Gerard's mid-20th-century abstract compositions. Gerard's "Vortex" (Fairweather Hardin Gallery) is an innovative combination of silverpoint, goldpoint and watercolor on casein-coated parchment (Weber, 1985).
Old Master silverpoints are typically intimate in scale, recalling the technique's roots in manuscript illumination. However, modern artists have also utilized this fine line technique for works on an increasingly large scale. John Wilde's "The Great Autobiographical Silverpoint Drawing" (The Art Institute of Chicago 1986.8) which is 38 × 91", one of the largest modern silverpoints.
Silverpoint was also used in conjunction with other metal points by 20th-century artists. Pedro Joseph de Lemos, the Director of the San Francisco Art Institute from 1911 to 1917, popularized his “techniques” in California art schools with his published instructions on the easy fabrication of various types of metal points that would react with inexpensive coated paper. In his The Last of the Old Woodstock Inn, 1968 (The Art Institute of Chicago), Ivan Le Lorraine Albright used silver with platinum, gold, copper and brasspoint on commercially prepared video media paper. Contemporary artists continue to push the boundaries of this ancient drawing technique. Carol Prusa, for example, combines graphite and binder on acrylic hemispheres with metal leaf, video projection and fiber optics ("Threshold" (2007). Susan Schwalb has combined smoke and fire in silver and copperpoints in the 1980s and currently creates drawings and paintings using numermous metals as well as acrylic paint. "Weber" (1985), experimental metalpoint techniques including goldpoint on silicon carbide paper are demonstrated in Draw Like Da Vinci by Susan Dorothea White, as in Gilding the Lily (2005).
- Ames-Lewis, Francis. Drawing in Early Renaissance Italy. Yale University Press, 2000.
- Antoine, Beth. "Metalpoint Drawing: the History and Care of a Forgotten Art". Final paper published at http://bethantoine.com/research/Metalpoint_Final.pdf, November 2007.
- Berenson, Margaret Mathews “The Luminious Line: Contemporary Drawings in Metalpoint ” Ruth Chandler Williams Art Gallery, Scripps College, Claremont, CA essay for brochure. 2010
- Berenson, Margaret Mathews, “Reinventing Silverpoint: An Ancient Technique for the 21st Century” essay, Kentler International Drawing Space, Brooklyn, NY 2009
- Camhy, Sherry. FineArtConnoisseur July–August 2007 magazine. "SILVERPOINT: Old Medium, New art"
- Broecke, Lara. Cennino Cennini's Il Libro dell'Arte: a new English Translation and Commentary with Italian Transcription. London: Archetype, 2015.
- Duval, Alain et al. "Particle induced X-ray emission: a valuable tool for the analysis of metalpoint," Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research B 226 (2004), 60–74.
- Getsinger Nichols, Banjie. "Silver Linings: Introduction to Silverpoint Drawing", 2012
- Haskell, Barbara. Joseph Stella. New York: Whitney Museum of American Art, distributed by Harry N. Abrams, Inc., 1994.
- McCullough, Holly Koons. "The Luster of Silver". Exhibition catalogue. Telfair Museum of Art, Savannah, GA. 2006
- Meder, Joseph. Das Buchleim von Silbersteft: Ein Trachtatlein fur Moler. Vienna: Gerlach and Wielding, 1909.
- Reiche, Ina et al. "Spatially resolved synchrotron radiation induced X-ray fluorescence analyses of rare Rembrandt silverpoint drawings," Applied Physics A 83 (2006), 163–173.
- Reiche, Ina et al. "Spatially resolved sychroton-induced X-ray fluorescence analyses of metal point drawings and their mysterious inscription," Spectrochimica Acta Part B 59 (2004), 1657–1662.
- Streetman, John & O'Hern, John. "The Luster of Silver". Exhibition catalogue. Evansville Museum of Arts, Science and History, Evansville, IN. 2009
- Watrous, James. The craft of Old Master drawings. Madison: The University of Wisconsin Press, 1957.
- Weber, Bruce et al. The Fine Line. Drawing with Silver in America. Exhibition catalogue. West Palm Beach, FL: Norton Gallery and School of Art, 1985.
- White, Susan Dorothea. Draw Like Da Vinci. London: Cassell Illustrated, 2006.
- Edwards, Robert W. (2012). Jennie V. Cannon: The Untold History of the Carmel and Berkeley Art Colonies, Vol. 1. Oakland, Calif.: East Bay Heritage Project. pp. 298, 493–499, pl.14a. ISBN 9781467545679. An online facsimile of the entire text of Vol. 1 is posted on the Traditional Fine Arts Organization website (http://www.tfaoi.com/aa/10aa/10aa557.htm).
- San Francisco Chronicle, 13 February 1921, p. 8-S.
- Berkeley Daily Gazette, 19 February 1921, p. 5.
- The Oakland Tribune: 20 February 1921, p. W-5; 27 February 1921, p.S-7.
- Edwards, Robert W. (2015). Pedro de Lemos, Lasting Impressions: Works on Paper. Worcester, Mass.: Davis Publications Inc. pp. 62–63. ISBN 9781615284054..
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Silverpoint drawings.|