Simón de Anda y Salazar

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Simón de Anda y Salazar
Governor-General of the Philippines
In office
July 1770 – October 30, 1776
MonarchCharles III of Spain
Preceded byJosé Antonio Raón y Gutiérrez
Succeeded byPedro de Sarrio
Leader of the Spanish Resistance in the Philippines
In office
October 6, 1762 – January 30, 1764[1]
Personal details
Born(1709-10-28)October 28, 1709
Subijana, Basque Country, Spain
DiedOctober 30, 1776(1776-10-30) (aged 67)
Cavite, Captaincy General of the Philippines
Military service
Battles/warsSeven Years' War

Simón de Anda y Salazar (October 28, 1709 – October 30, 1776) was a Spanish Basque governor of the Philippines from July, 1770 to October 30, 1776.

Oidor at the Royal Audience of Manila and Lieutenant Governor[edit]

De Anda y Salazar was an Oidor of the Royal Audience of Manila, who was appointed as Lieutenant Governor of the city by the Governor-General of the Philippines and the Audiencia itself during the British occupation of Manila. He departed Manila on the night of 5 Oct. 1762, during the Battle of Manila (1762), and established Spanish a provisional colonial government and army in Bulacan. The acting governor of Manila, Archbishop Manuel Rojo, was captured by the British and surrendered the Philippines, but this act was rejected as illegal by Anda.[2]


Anda escaped from Manila with much of the treasury and documents, assumed full authority on behalf of the Real Audiencia of Manila, established the provisional government and raised an army in Bulacan (later Pampanga), and launched the resistance against the British. All early negotiations between him and the British forces in Manila proved unsuccessful, as he returned unopened all letters sent to him that did not address him as the legitimate Governor-General of the Philippines,[2]:90 something that the British refused to do until the death of Archbishop Rojo, on January 30, 1764.

In March 1764, orders were brought from both the King of Britain and the King of Spain by the Spanish governor designate Brigadier Don Francisco de la Torre, requiring the handover of the city to Spain in accordance with the Treaty of Paris (1763). British Governor Drake was charged with culpability as governor but forestalled an adverse finding by resigning and leaving the Philippines on March 29, 1764. The Manila Council elected Alexander Dalrymple as governor on the same day, but the Manila garrison would not obey him. On April 1, 1764, the Manila garrison ceremonially marched out, embarking for home, and giving the Spanish control of Manila with de la Torre as Governor and Captain-General of the Spanish Philippines.[2]:102–106

Governor-General of the Philippines[edit]

Anda traveled to Spain, and was well received by the Cortes Generales (parliament), and made Councilor of Castile by the King, in spite of having written a letter to him complaining of certain disorders in the Philippines, enumerating among them a number against the friars.

On April 12, 1768, he returned to the Philippines and by Royal Decree became Governor-General in July 1770. He proceeded against his predecessor, and other politicians, and roused the opposition and reformed the Spanish and Philippine army, and engaged in other public works. He opposed the king's order of November 9, 1774, to secularize the curacies held by regulars. After his death, the order was repealed on 11 December 1776.

De Anda y Salazar died on 30 October 1776, in the Hospital de San Felipe, in Cavite at the age of 67 years.


Simón de Anda y Salazar monument and marker (Bacolor, Pampanga Town hall)
The other side of the monument

A monument to his legacy was erected on Bonifacio Drive in Manila, and the municipalities of San Simon in Pampanga, Anda in Bohol and Anda in Pangasinan were named after him. A street has also been named after him in the Basque capital of Vitoria, close to his natal town of Subijana.

See also[edit]


  1. ^ Anda was the lieutenant governor since the fall of Manila to the British on October 4, 1762. The British military handed over civil power to Drake as governor in November 1762. They continued to recognize former governor Rojo as president of the Real Audiencia until his death on January 30, 1764. After the death of Rojo, the British commenced negotiations with Anda but Drake remained as governor of the Philippines until 29 March 1764.
  2. ^ a b c Tracy, Nicholas (1995). Manila Ransomed. University of Exeter Press. p. 49.

External links[edit]

Political offices
Preceded by
Newly established
Dictator of the Spanish Provisional Government of the Philippines
in Bacolor, Pampanga

Succeeded by
Preceded by
José Antonio Raón y Gutiérrez
Governor-General of the Philippines
Succeeded by
Pedro de Sarrio