In geology, sima (//) is the name for the lower layer of the Earth's crust. This layer is made of rocks rich in magnesium silicate minerals. Typically when the sima comes to the surface it is basalt, so sometimes this layer is called the 'basalt layer' of the crust. The sima layer is also called the 'basal crust' or 'basal layer' because it is the lowest layer of the crust. Because the ocean floors are mainly sima, it is also sometimes called the 'oceanic crust'.
The sima has a higher density (2800 to 3300 kg/m3) than the sial, which is due to increased amounts of iron and magnesium, and decreased amounts of aluminium. When the denser sima comes to the surface it forms mafic rocks, or rocks with mafic minerals. The most dense sima has less silica and forms ultramafic rocks.
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- Bates, R.L., and Jackson, J.A., (1987) Glossary of geology American Geological Institute, Alexandria, Virginia.
- Dilek, Y. and Newcomb, S. (eds.) (2003) Ophiolite Concept and the Evolution of Geological Thought Geological Society of America Special Paper 373, Boulder, Colorado.