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Simmering is a food preparation technique in which foods are cooked in hot liquids kept just below the boiling point of water (which is 100 °C or 212 °F at average sea level air pressure), but higher than poaching temperature. To keep a pot simmering, one brings it to a boil and then reduces the heat to a point where the formation of bubbles has almost ceased, typically a water temperature of about 94 °C (200 °F) at sea level.
In food preparation
Simmering ensures gentler treatment than boiling to prevent food from toughening and/or breaking up. Simmering is usually a rapid and efficient method of cooking. Food that has simmered in milk or cream instead of water is sometimes referred to as creamed. The appropriate simmering temperature is a topic of debate among chefs, with some contending that a simmer is as low as 82 °C (180 °F).
Dutch and Flemish cuisine
In traditional Dutch and Flemish cuisine, less tender cuts of beef are simmered for several hours to obtain Carbonade flamande. Traditionally a small flame is used, fed by burning oil. On modern stoves, the source of heat is put very low, or a simmering plate is used to diminish the heat. Usually a cast iron pan is used with a thick bottom. The meat is ready if it can be easily torn apart into threads. 
- Simmer definition from About.com - Culinary arts. Retrieved May 2009.
- The Professional Chef (9th edition). John Wiley & Sons Inc. 2011. pp. 263 et seq. ISBN 978-0-470-42135-2.
- "Simmering meat". Retrieved 1 June 2015.
- Gisslen, Wayne (2011). Professional cooking, 7th ed., John Wiley & Sons, Inc. p. 71
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