The simple present, present simple or present indefinite is one of the verb forms associated with the present tense in modern English. It is commonly referred to as a tense, although it also encodes certain information about aspect in addition to present time.
It is called "simple" because its basic form consists of a single word (like write or writes), in contrast with other present tense forms such as the present progressive (is writing) and present perfect (has written). For nearly all English verbs the simple present is identical to the base form (dictionary form) of the verb, except when the subject is third-person singular, in which case the ending -(e)s is added. There are a few verbs with irregular forms, the most notable being the copula be, which has the simple present forms am, is and are.
For pronouns I, you, we, they, there is no modification for verbs.
For pronouns he, she, it, a suffix is added following these rules: For verbs that end in -o, -ch, -sh, -s, -x, or -z, the suffix -es is added Examples:
- Go – Goes
- Catch – Catches
- Wash – Washes
- Kiss – Kisses
- Fix – Fixes
- Buzz – Buzzes
For verbs that end in a consonant + y, the letter y is replaced by the suffix -ies. == Examples:
- Marry – Marries
- Study – Studies
- Carry – Carries
- Worry – Worries
In other cases, the suffix -s is added. Examples
- Play – Plays
- Enjoy – Enjoys
- Say – Says
The basic form of the simple present is the same as the base form of the verb, unless the subject is third person singular, in which case a form with the addition of -(e)s is used. For details of how to make this inflected form, see English verbs § Third-person singular present.
The copula verb be has irregular forms: am (first person singular), is (third person singular) and are (second person singular and all persons plural). The modal verbs (can, must, etc.) have only a single form, with no addition of -s for the third person singular.
The above refers to the indicative mood of the simple present; for the formation and use of the subjunctive mood, see English subjunctive. (The defective verb beware has no simple present indicative, although it can be used in the subjunctive.)
The present simple of lexical verbs has an expanded form which uses do (or does, in the third person indicative) as an auxiliary verb. This is used particularly when forming questions and other clauses requiring inversion, negated clauses with not, and clauses requiring emphasis. For details see do-support. For the verbs (auxiliary and copular) which do not make this form, as well as the formation and use of contracted forms such as 's, isn't and don't, see English auxiliaries and contractions.
All forms of the simple present are given below, using the verb write as an example:
Basic simple present indicative:
- I write
- You write
- He/she/it writes
- We write
- You write
- They write
Expanded simple present indicative (with question, negative, and negative question forms):
- I do write (Do I write? I do not/don't write. Don't I/Do I not write?)
- You do write (Do you write? You do not/don't write. Don't you/Do you not write?)
- He/she/it does write (Does he write? He does not/doesn't write. Doesn't he/Does he not write?)
- We/you/they do write (Do we write? We do not/don't write. Don't we/Do we not write?)
Simple present subjunctive
To refer to an action or event that takes place habitually. In the other hand to remark habits, general realities, repeated actions or unchanging situations, emotions and wishes. Such uses are often accompanied by frequency adverbs and adverbial phrases such as always, sometimes, often, usually, from time to time, rarely and never. Examples:
- I always take a shower.
- I never go to the cinema.
- I walk to the pool.
- He writes for a living.
- She understands English.
This contrasts with the present progressive (present continuous), which is used to refer to something taking place at the present moment: I am walking now; He is writing a letter at the moment.
- You are happy.
- I know what to do.
- A child needs its mother.
- I love you.
It can similarly be used when quoting someone or something, even if the words were spoken in the past:
- Mary says she's ready.
To refer to a single completed action, as in recounting the events of a story in the present tense (see historical present), and in such contexts as newspaper headlines, where it replaces the present perfect:
- In Hamlet, Ophelia drowns in a stream.
- 40-year-old wins gold medal.
Sometimes to refer to an arranged future event, usually with a reference to time:
- We leave for Berlin tomorrow at 1 pm.
- Our holiday starts on the 20th May.
In providing a commentary on events as they occur:
- I chop the chives and add them to the mixture.
- Ronaldo dribbles round the defender and shoots.
In describing events in some theoretical or planned situation that is under consideration:
According to the manager's new idea, I welcome the guests and you give the presentation.
- If he finds your sweets, he will eat them.
- We will report as soon as we receive any information.
- Simple present is also used in zero conditional sentences in both parts of the sentence.
- Ice melts if you heat it.
- Plants die if they don't get enough water.
- In certain situations in a temporal adverbial clause, rather than the present progressive:
- We can see the light improving as we speak.
In colloquial English it is common to use can see, can hear for the present tense of see, hear, etc., and have got for the present tense of have (denoting possession). See Uses of English verb forms § Have got and can see.
- Using the Third Person Singular (he, she, it) in the Present Tense nextgenenglish.com
- Verb Tenses: Simple Present edufind.com
- THE 'ZERO' CONDITIONAL edufind.com