Page semi-protected


From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
Map of Sindh
Flag used by Sindhi nationalists showing an axe in opposite to the most popular Muslim Sufi symbols of Ajrak and Sindhi Topi in Sindh.[1]
Districts of Sindh

Sindhudesh (Sindhi: سنڌو ديش‎, literally "Sindhi Country") is a concept floated by some Sindhi nationalist Parties in Pakistan for the creation of a Sindhi state, which would be independent from Pakistan.[2][3] The movement is based in the Sindh region of Pakistan and was conceived by the Sindhi political leader G. M. Syed. A Sindhi literary movement emerged in 1967 under the leadership of Syed and Pir Ali Mohammed Rashdi, in opposition to the One Unit policy, the imposition of Urdu by the central government and to the presence of a large number of Muhajir (Indian Muslim refugees) settled in the province.[4]

No Sindhi nationalist party has been ever voted into power in Sindh at any level of government.[5][6] Some nationalist parties and associations are banned for "terrorist, anti-state and sabotage" activities by the Pakistani government.[7] A Sindhudesh rally was organised in Karachi in March 2012, which had a notably low turnout,[8] followed by a freedom march by the pro-separatist Jeay Sindh Qaumi Mahaz (JSQM) which, according to sources, gathered hundreds of thousands of people to demand independence for Sindhudesh.[2]

A strike called by the pro-separatist Jeay Sindh Muttahida Mahaz (JSMM) on 25 January 2014, resulted in a complete strike in the province, excluding some areas of Hyderabad, Tando Allahyar, Matiari and Ghotki.[9] Sindhis feel that they are separate and full-fledged nation, so they have been struggling for self-determination of Sindh.[10]

Sindh is the member of UNPO and its declared as Occupied & Unrecognized territory by the Unrepresented Nations and Peoples Organization and Sindh is represented in (UNPO) by the World Sindhi Institute.[11][12]

Historical Kingdom

Main article: Sindhu Kingdom

According to the epic Mahabharata, Sindhudesh was the ancient name for modern Sindh,[13] translated as the Sindhu Kingdom.

History of the Movement

In 1972 G. M. Syed proposed the formation of an independent nation for the Sindhis under the name Sindhudesh. He was the first nationalist politician in Pakistan to call for the independence of his land in a Pakistan divided by the liberation of Bangladesh.[4] The movement for Sindhi language and identity led by Syed drew inspiration from the Bengali language movement.[14] In post independence Pakistan, the machinations of the Pakistani state convinced Syed that Sindhis would be marginalised in the set up.[4] The concept of Sindhudesh as propounded by Syed calls for the liberation and freedom of Sindhis from Punjabi-Mohajir imperialism.[4]

With his political base largely weakened after election, Syed later advanced his position towards openly demanding separation from Pakistan and the build-up of an independent Sindhudesh in his books Heenyar Pakistan khey tuttan khappey (Now Pakistan Should Disintegrate) and Sindhu Desh — A Nation in Chains.[15]

The concept of Sindhudesh is also supported by the Sindhi diaspora[16] including Sindhis in India,[17] most of whom had to be relocated out of Sindh after Partition, leaving behind their property as evacuee trusts under reciprocal government supervision. Pre-partition, Sindh was a relative peaceful province, with communal violence only erupting sporadically and during partition.[18] This peace stopped after partition, with post-partition migrants to Sindh angry at the "non-co-operation" in the killing of Hindus; and communal hatred multiplied post partition.[19][20]

Zulfiqar Shah wrote an article in which he provided the reasons of Sindh's freedom .[21]

Re-emergence of Sindhudesh Movement

Banner in support of Sindhudesh movement, Shikarpur, Sindh.

After the death of former Prime Minister of Pakistan, Benazir Bhutto, the Sindhudesh movement has seen an increase in popularity. Sindhi nationalists judge that Sindh has been used to the advantage of people from non-Sindhi ethnic groups, citing the dominance of Muhajir people in key areas of Sindh including Karachi, large scale migration to Sindh from other regions of Pakistan, including Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, alleged Punjabi dominance in the defence sector, and an increase in Taliban migrants moving to Sindh; as well as terrorist related attacks on the region.[22] and believe this to be the cause of recent troubles in Sindh (see Sindhi nationalism). Pro-Sindhudesh organisations such as the JSQM and World Sindhi Congress have gained a wider support base.[23]

JSQM 'Freedom March'

The Daily Times reported that on March 23, 2012 in Karachi, Hundreds of thousands of leaders, activists and supporters of the Jeay Sindh Qaumi Mahaz (JSQM) attended a freedom march denouncing the Pakistan Resolution and chanting pro Sindhu Desh slogans, with many rallies being present. The paper also reported that processions occurred in many other cities and towns in Sindh. JSQM Chairman Bashir Khan Qureshi expressed his desire for the Urdu-speaking community to integrate with Sindh, calling them "brethren and part of Sindhi nation".[24]

Sindhu Desh Liberation Army

The Sindhu Desh Liberation Army or SDLA is an organisation based in the Sindh province comparable to the Balochistan Liberation Army in terms of is objectives strives to establish an independent state of Sindhu Desh. A series of minor blasts[25] took place on railway lines — the attacks carried out between November 2010, and February 2011 were claimed by the SDLA, who left pamphlets on the scene that mentioned “atrocities” being carried out against Sindh and promising to continue their “struggle” till Sindh was granted “freedom”.[26] The attacks were condemned by fellow Sindhi nationalists such as Dr Qadir Magsi of the Jeay Sindh Tarraqi Passand Party, who warned of negative consequences from violence.[25] The SDLA claims moral inspiration from (BLA) armed struggles in Balochistan, which they term as a response to "Punjabi domination" of the Pakistani state.[27]

Jeay Sindh Qaumi Mahaz

Jeay Sindh Qoumi Mahaz is the main guardian of Jeay Sindh theory, a legacy inherited from the G.M Syed. JSQM believes in peaceful independence based on (Ahinsa).

Flag of JSQM.jpg -Flag of JSQM

Jeay Sindh Muttahida Mahaz

JSMM is an other faction of Jeay Sindh movement who believes in gorilla war for independence. Shafi Muhammad Burfat is the leader of JSSM operating from Kabul.

Jeay Sindh Students' Federation

Jeay Sindh Students’ Federation is the student wing of various separatist organizations struggling for the freedom of Sindhudesh following the ideology of G. M. Syed, founded in 1969.

Sindh National Movement Party

A new left wing party for a politically, culturally, economically and geographically independent Sindh was formed in December 2011. It wants to see Sindh as it was in 1843 before the British conquered it and opposes the development of Zulfikarabad, referring to it as a new Israel.[28]

See also


  1. ^ "On Pakistan Day, JSQM wants none of the celebrations". Pakistan Today. Pakistan Today. 24 March 2015. Retrieved 14 November 2016. 
  2. ^ a b "pakistan-day-jsqm-leader-demands-freedom-for-sindh-and-balochistan". Express Tribune. 24 March 2012. Retrieved 3 June 2014. 
  3. ^ a b "JST demands Sindh's independence from Punjab's 'occupation'". Retrieved 2012-06-05. 
  4. ^ a b c d Farhan Hanif Hanif Siddiqi (4 May 2012). The Politics of Ethnicity in Pakistan: The Baloch, Sindhi and Mohajir Ethnic Movements. Routledge. pp. 88–. ISBN 978-1-136-33696-6. Retrieved 16 July 2012. 
  5. ^ Wright, Jr., Theodore P. (1991). "Center-Periphery Relations and Ethnic Conflict in Pakistan: Sindhis, Muhajirs, and Punjabis". Comparative Politics. City University of New York. 23 (3): 299–312. doi:10.2307/422088. ISSN 0010-4159. JSTOR 422088 – via JSTOR. (registration required (help)). 
  6. ^ Rahman, Tariq (1997). "Language and Ethnicity in Pakistan". Asian Survey. University of California Press. 37 (9): 833–9. doi:10.2307/2645700. ISSN 1533-838X. JSTOR 2645700 – via JSTOR. (registration required (help)). 
  7. ^ Sindh govt orders police to crack down on nationalists | Bolan Times
  8. ^ "Million march: Jeay Sindh Tehreek gathers 3,000 people, demands a Sindhu Desh". Express Tribune. 19 March 2012. Retrieved 15 November 2012. 
  9. ^ Mixed response to JSMM’s strike call in Sindh - DAWN.COM
  10. ^
  11. ^
  12. ^
  13. ^ Sharma, Mahesh; Chaturvedi, B.K. (2006). Tales From the Mahabharat. Diamond Pocket Books (P) Ltd. p. 121. ISBN 978-81-288-1228-6. 
  14. ^ Goulbourne, Harry (2001). Race and Ethnicity: Solidarities and communities. Taylor & Francis. p. 251. ISBN 978-0-415-22501-4. 
  15. ^ Jalal, Ayesha (1995). "Conjuring Pakistan: History as Official Imagining". International Journal of Middle East Studies. Cambridge University Press. 27 (1): 73–89. ISSN 1471-6380. JSTOR 176188 – via JSTOR. (registration required (help)). 
  16. ^ Agha, Gul. "Should Pakistan be Broken up?" (PDF). Retrieved June 3, 2014.  External link in |website= (help)
  17. ^ Suranjan Das (2001). Kashmir and Sindh: Nation-building, Ethnicity and Regional Politics in South Asia. Anthem Press. p. 144. ISBN 978-1-898855-87-3. 
  18. ^ Communal Violence During Partition
  19. ^ M.G. Chitkara Mohajir's Pakistan ISBN 81-7024-746-2
  20. ^ F. Ahmed. Pakistan's Problems p.130
  21. ^
  22. ^ Guerin, Orla (2010-06-22). "BBC News — Karachi faces growing Taliban menace". Retrieved 2012-06-05. 
  23. ^ "PAKISTAN: Bhutto&#39s Murder Rekindles Ethnic Suspicions — IPS". 2008-01-05. Retrieved 2012-06-05. 
  24. ^ "Leading News Resource of Pakistan". Daily Times. Retrieved 2012-06-05. 
  25. ^ a b Tunio, Hafeez. "A case of exploding railway tracks – The Express Tribune". Retrieved 2012-06-05. 
  26. ^ Railway tracks destroyed by SDLA
  27. ^ Sindhi separatists announce comeback (2012-02-26). "Sindhi separatists announce comeback | Pakistan Today | Latest news | Breaking news | Pakistan News | World news | Business | Sport and Multimedia". Pakistan Today. Retrieved 2012-06-05. 
  28. ^ New left party launched; seeks a stronger Sindh. "New left party launched; seeks a stronger Sindh | Pakistan Today | Latest news | Breaking news | Pakistan News | World news | Business | Sport and Multimedia". Pakistan Today. Retrieved 2012-06-05. 

External links