Singapore Changi Airport
|Singapore Changi Airport
Lapangan Terbang Changi Singapura
(Xīnjiāpō Zhāngyí Jīchǎng)
(Ciṅkappūr Cāṅki Vimana Nilaiyam)
|IATA: SIN – ICAO: WSSS
– WMO: 48698
|Airport type||Public / Military|
|Owner||Government of Singapore|
|Opened||1 July 1981 (operational)
29 December 1981 (official)
|Time zone||SST (UTC+08:00)|
|Elevation AMSL||7 m / 22 ft|
Singapore Changi Airport (IATA: SIN, ICAO: WSSS), or simply Changi Airport, is the primary civilian airport for Singapore, and one of the largest transportation hubs in Southeast Asia. It is currently the World's Best Airport (Skytrax 2015), and is one of the world's busiest airports by international passenger traffic and cargo traffic. The airport is located in Changi, at the eastern end of Singapore, approximately 17.2 kilometres (10.7 mi) northeast from Marina Bay (downtown Singapore), on a 13-square-kilometre (5.0 sq mi) site. It is operated by Changi Airport Group and it is the home base of Singapore Airlines, Singapore Airlines Cargo, SilkAir, Scoot, Tigerair and Jetstar Asia Airways.
- 1 Background of Changi Airport
- 2 Operations
- 3 Airlines and destinations
- 4 Statistics
- 5 Ground transportation
- 6 See also
- 7 References
- 8 External links
Background of Changi Airport
Changi Airport serves more than 100 airlines flying to some 300 cities in about 80 countries and territories worldwide. Each week, about 6,600 flights land or depart from Changi, or about one every 90 seconds, with close to 54.1 million passengers passing through the airport in 2014.
Changi Airport has three passenger terminals with a total annual handling capacity of 66 million passengers. Terminal 1 opened in 1981, followed by Terminal 2 in 1990 and Terminal 3 in 2008. The Budget Terminal, opened on 26 March 2006 and closed on 25 September 2012, will make way for Terminal 4 which will be ready by 2017. Changi Airport Terminal 5 is set to be ready in mid-2020s which will be able to handle 50 million passenger movements per annum.
For the 2014 full-year figures published by the airport, the airport handled 54,093,070 passengers, a 0.75% increase over the previous year, the most in its 33-year history. This made it the sixth busiest airport by international passenger traffic in the world and the second busiest in Asia by international passenger traffic in 2014. Changi Airport busiest day last year was the Saturday before Christmas (20 December 2014), with 186,500 passengers passing through during the 24 hours. In addition to being an important passenger hub, the airport is one of the busiest cargo airports in the world, handling 1.84 million tonnes of cargo in 2014. The total number of commercial aircraft movements was 341,386 in 2014.
The airport has won over 490 awards since 1981, including 24 "Best Airport" awards in 2014. Changi Airport's efforts to mitigate the effects of ageing infrastructure include continual physical upgrades to its existing terminals and building new facilities to maintain its reputation for setting standards in airport service quality.
As all passenger traffic out of the airport is international in nature, the three major terminals in operation are equipped with immigration-processing facilities for international travel.
After recovering from a drop in passenger traffic as a result of the September 11 attacks in 2001, the severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) epidemic in 2003, the airport saw rapid growth in traffic which hit the 30-million mark for the first time a year later in 2004. In March 2008 and prior to the full effect of the financial crisis of 2007–2010 on the global economy, the airport predicted that it will handle 50 million passengers by 2012, with increases due to the opening of casinos in Singapore, together with the phased liberalisation of the Asean aviation sector. As predicted, the airport surpassed the 50-million mark for the first time in history in 2012.
The Air Cargo Division of the Changi Airport Group manages the Changi Airfreight Centre located in the north of the airport premises. The airport handled 1.81 million tonnes of air cargo in 2012, making it the 7th-busiest airfreight hub in the world and the fifth-busiest in Asia. Due to Singapore's large electronics sector, electrical components constitute a significant part of the total cargo traffic handled at the airport, although it has initiated attempts to diversify into the perishable air cargo market.
In 2014, Changi Airport handled 1,843,799 tonnes of air freight, which is more than the total combined weight of four Burj Khalifa skyscrapers.
Air Cargo World awarded Changi Airport the 2013 Air Cargo Excellence Award for airports handling more than 1,000,000 tonnes of cargo in Asia.
In 2014, Indonesia was the largest market for Singapore Changi Airport with more than 7.5 million passengers, followed by Malaysia, Australia, Thailand and China. In terms of busiest routes, the top 10 destinations remained unchanged with Jakarta, Hong Kong, Kuala Lumpur, Bangkok and Manila taking the top five spots. For the second year in a row, Denpasar-Bali was the fastest growing among the top 10 routes, enjoying a robust 15.7% growth on-year.
Safety and security
The Changi Airport Group manages the overall safety and security of the airport. The Airport Management Division of the CAG manages the customer aspects of the airport's security, while the Aviation Security Unit oversees the airport's compliance with aviation security (AVSEC) policies, manages AVSEC-related projects. Operationally, the airport's emergency and fire-fighting services are handled by the Airport Emergency Service Division of the CAG. The AES handles all instances of rescue and fire-fighting within the airport premises as well as in surrounding waters through its specialists operating from two main fire stations, a Fire Sub-Station and a Sea Rescue Base around the airport.
The airport's security comes under the regulatory purview of the Airport Police Division of the Singapore Police Force. The day to day discharge of security functions at the airport are performed by auxiliary police forces including Aetos Security Management, Certis CISCO and SATS Security Services, of which Aetos and SATS Security Services are affiliated to the ground handling companies of Dnata and Singapore Airport Terminal Services respectively. On 29 April 2008, CAAS then signed its biggest single security contract for all airport related security services by engaging Certis CISCO to provide security services at Changi Airport, as well as Seletar Airport, Changi Airfreight Centre, and the Singapore Air Traffic Control Centre. It involves the deployment of about 2,600 Certis Cisco personnel, including armed Auxiliary Police Officers and unarmed aviation security officers to perform tasks including screening checked baggage, controlling access to restricted areas, and screening passengers before they board their aircraft.
Since the 11 September 2001 attacks and naming of the airport as a terrorism target by the Jemaah Islamiyah, the airport's security has been stepped up. Roving patrol teams consisting of SAF and SPF officers, armed with assault rifles or sub-machine guns, patrol the terminals at random intervals. Officers from the Gurkha Contingent are also deployed to patrol the transit areas of the terminal buildings. These measures come at a cost partly borne by travellers in the form of a "passenger security service charge," imposed since 2002.
In 2005 an upgrade in screening technology and rising security concerns led to luggage-screening processes being conducted behind closed-doors, as opposed to them being done just before check-in previously within public view. Carry-on luggage and persons screening are conducted at the individual departure gates, while check-in luggage are screened in the backrooms and secured before loading. A perimeter intrusion detection system for Changi Airport's perimeter fence has also been put in place to further strengthen security of the airfield. while a biometric access control system for staff movement has been put in place since 2006.
Airlines and destinations
- Air Mauritius flight from Mauritius to Singapore includes a stop-over at Kuala Lumpur. However, Air Mauritius does not have rights to transport passengers solely between Singapore and Kuala Lumpur.
- Garuda Indonesia's Jakarta-Amsterdam-Gatwick flight may include a stop at Singapore on some days, but the return flight on the Amsterdam-Jakarta sector is always nonstop.
- Qantas has the rights to fly between Jakarta and Singapore, and may do so during peak travel seasons or when extra capacity is required in Singapore.
Changi Airport was built with ground-transportation considerations in mind from the onset, with the East Coast Parkway built and opened in tandem with the airport, providing a direct link to the city-centre. At a distance of about 20 km (12 mi), the expressway was built almost entirely on reclaimed land; thus, minimising disruptions to the existing road network in Singapore's East Coast.
While configured in a compact configuration such that the three main passenger terminal buildings are sited adjacent to each other, allowing for travellers to venture between terminals on foot, the Changi Airport Skytrain people-mover system was added to facilitate quicker and more convenient transfers. The system was upgraded in 2007 to Mitsubishi technology, connecting to Terminal 3 and separating checked-in passengers from the general public on distinct tracks.
The Changi Airport Skytrain operates between Terminals 1, 2 and 3, with a total of seven stations. The trains have separate cars for air-side (transit) and land-side (public) passengers.
Mass Rapid Transit
The airport is connected to the Mass Rapid Transit (MRT) network, with Changi Airport MRT station located underground between Terminal 2 and Terminal 3 and directly accessible from both terminals. A direct, one-train service to the downtown and western parts of Singapore was initially in operation when the station opened on 8 February 2002 (then accessible only via Terminal 2). This was replaced by the current shuttle service between Changi Airport and Tanah Merah MRT stations on 22 July 2003, when it was found that few passengers actually use this route, compared to the number of commuters who need to travel from the city to Tampines and Pasir Ris. Cross-platform transfers are therefore necessary at Tanah Merah to connect to the rest of the network.
Buses were one of the main methods of transport for passengers and staff until the opening of Changi Airport station. Services operated by SBS Transit and SMRT Buses uses the bus terminals in the basement level of the three main terminals, making a loop starting from Terminal 3 to Terminals 1, and 2, and back to their destination of origin.
Coaches to and from Johor Bahru are also available. The service will start at coach stands at Terminals 1, 2, 3 and end at Larkin Terminal.
There is also a free shuttle bus service plying between Changi Airport (T3) and Changi Business Park. This service is a 9-stop route, running from Mondays to Fridays, except public holidays.
Taxis are available at the taxi stands at the arrival halls of each terminal. There is also an additional airport surcharge for all trips originating from the airport.
- Airport Logistics Park
- History of Singapore Changi Airport
- Infrastructure of Singapore Changi Airport
- Runway 02L is 4,000 m (13,000 ft) and 20R is 3,260 m (10,700 ft) with a displaced threshold of 740 m (2,430 ft). Thus aircraft landing on 20R will have to avoid touching down on the displaced threshold but may use it for departures.
- Runway 02R/20L is currently restricted to the Republic of Singapore Air Force (see Changi Air Base). It will be extended for commercial use in the future.
- The Official Site of. Changi Airport Group. Retrieved on 15 August 2012.
- "Changi Airport crosses 54-million passenger mark in 2014" (PDF). Changi Airport Group. 17 August 2015. Retrieved 17 August 2015.
- Aerodrome Geographical and Administrative Data, Services and Facilities and Meteorological Information and Runway Physical Characteristics
- "Changi Airport crosses 54-million passenger mark in 2014" (PDF). Changi Airport. 10 August 2015. Retrieved 10 August 2015.
- "Changi's Budget Terminal to make way for new and improved terminal".
- "Changi Airport's Terminal 5 ready in mid-2020s". Yahoo News Singapore. 30 August 2013. Retrieved 10 May 2015.
- "accolades - Changi Airport Group". Retrieved 10 May 2015.
- A record 51 million passengers for Changi Airport in 2012.
- "Changi poised to handle 50 million passengers a year by 2012". Channelnewsasia.com. 28 March 2008. Retrieved 8 November 2011.
- "changi airfreight centre". Changi Airport Group. Retrieved 8 November 2011.
- "Our Divisions". Civil Aviation Authority of Singapore (CAAS). Retrieved 3 November 2006.[dead link]
- Year to date International Freight Traffic. aci.aero
- "2013 Awards". Air Cargo World. 2013. Retrieved 9 August 2013.
- "Indonesia continued to be largest market for Singapore Changi Airport" (PDF). Changi Airport Group. 21 August 2015. Retrieved 21 August 2015.
- "Changi Airport busiest routes in 2014" (PDF). Changi Airport Group. 21 August 2015. Retrieved 21 August 2015.
- Changi Airport Group Annual Report 2009/10. (PDF) . Retrieved on 15 August 2012.
- "civil fire stations". Changi Airport Group. Retrieved 12 June 2011.
- "Changi Airport's third ground handling licence awarded to ASIG". Channel NewsAsia. 9 June 2011. Retrieved 8 November 2011.
- "Certis CISCO awarded $360 million Master Security Services Contract by CAAS". Certissecurity.com. 28 April 2008. Retrieved 8 November 2011.
- 50 Years of Securing Your World. Annual Review 2008/2009. certissecurity.com (PDF) . Retrieved on 15 August 2012.
- "Counter Terrorism Efforts at Singapore's Changi Airport". South Asia Analysis Group. Retrieved 12 June 2011.
- "Changi Airport to Impose Security Levy". Straits Times. Singapore. 10 January 2002. Archived from the original on 2 September 2006. Retrieved 3 November 2006.
- "CEB introduces three new int'l routes from Manila, Cebu, Davao starting Dec 17" (Press release). Cebu Pacific. 2015-09-10. Retrieved 2015-09-10.
- "Garuda Indonesia W15 Europe Service Changes". Airlineroute.net. 6 August 2015. Retrieved 25 August 2015.
- "TASS: World - AirAsia airline suspends flights on route where Malaysian jet crashed". TASS. Retrieved 10 May 2015.
- Mark Elliott. "Jetstar adds three destinations in Southeast Asia". traveldailymedia.com. Travel Daily Asia. Retrieved 4 August 2015.
- "Scoot to Take Over Hangzhou Services from Silkair". Silkair. 31 July 2015. Retrieved 2 August 2015.
- "Scoot To Start Melbourne Service from Nov 2015". Airline Route. 9 December 2014. Retrieved 9 December 2014.
- "Singapore Airlines / Silk Air Maldives Service Changes from late-Oct 2015". Airlineroute.net. 27 August 2015. Retrieved 27 August 2015.
- "Tigerair Expands Network with New Services to Quanzhou and Lucknow" (PDF).
- "AirBridgeCargo Airlines debuts at Singapore Changi Airport with direct freighter flights from Moscow" (PDF).
- "Air HongKong". Retrieved 10 May 2015.
- "Cardig Air Scheduled Timetable". Cardigair.com. Retrieved 1 January 2014.
- "2013 summer schedule". Aero Logic. Retrieved 13 August 2013.
- "Polar Air Cargo Worldwide launches new freighter service to Singapore" (PDF).
- "Emirates SkyCargo Freighter Operations get ready for DWC move". Emirates SkyCargo. 2 April 2014.
- "Etihad Cargo Flight Schedule" (PDF).
- "Etihad Cargo operates Boeing 777F to Singapore" (PDF).
- EVA Air Cargo Schedule
- "Hong Kong Airlines Cargo". Retrieved 10 May 2015.
- MP Cargo winter 2012 timetable[dead link]
- "Singapore Airlines Cargo to commence Singapore-Hanoi freighter service in Nov-2014". CAPA. 14 November 2014. Retrieved 14 November 2014.
- "Singapore MRT (Metro)". UrbanRail.Net. Retrieved 18 April 2007.
- Winchester, Clarence, ed. (1938), "Singapore's great airport", Wonders of World Aviation, pp. 128–130, illustrated description of the newly opened Singapore Airport
|Library resources about
Singapore Changi Airport
Media related to Singapore Changi Airport at Wikimedia Commons
- Singapore Changi Airport Official Site
- Singapore Changi Airport JetQuay CIP Terminal Official Website
- Virtual Reality View of Changi Airport Terminal 3
- Accident history for SIN at Aviation Safety Network
- Current weather for WSSS at NOAA/NWS