Singapore Changi Airport
|Singapore Changi Airport
Lapangan Terbang Changi Singapura
(Xīnjiāpō Zhāngyí Jīchǎng)
(Ciṅkappūr Cāṅki Vimana Nilaiyam)
|IATA: SIN – ICAO: WSSS
– WMO: 48698
|Owner||Government of Singapore|
|Operator||Changi Airport Group (S) Pte Ltd|
|Location||Changi, East Region|
|Opened||1 July 1981 (operational)
29 December 1981 (official)
|Elevation AMSL||7 m / 22 ft|
Singapore Changi Airport (IATA: SIN, ICAO: WSSS), or simply Changi Airport, is the primary civilian airport in the Republic of Singapore, and one of the largest transportation hubs in Southeast Asia and the greater India region. It is located approximately 17.2 kilometres (10.7 mi) northeast from the commercial centre in Changi, on a 13-square-kilometre (5.0 sq mi) site. The airport, operated by Changi Airport Group and it is the home base of Singapore Airlines, Singapore Airlines Cargo, SilkAir, Scoot, Tigerair and Jetstar Asia Airways.
- 1 Background
- 2 Airline Operations
- 3 Ground transportation
- 4 Safety and security
- 5 Changi Airport Group
- 6 See also
- 7 References
- 8 External links
Changi Airport serves more than 100 airlines flying to some 300 cities in about 80 countries and territories worldwide. Each week, about 6,500 flights land or depart from Changi, with more than 54.1 million passengers passing through the airport in 2014.
Changi Airport has three passenger terminals with a total annual handling capacity of 66 million passengers. Terminal 1 opened in 1981, followed by Terminal 2 in 1990 and Terminal 3 in 2008. The Budget Terminal, opened on 26 March 2006 and closed on 25 September 2012, will make way for Terminal 4 which will be ready by 2017. Changi Airport Terminal 5 is set to be ready in mid-2020s which will be able to handle 50 million passenger movements per annum .
In 2014, the airport handled 54.1 million passengers, a 0.75% increase over the previous year. This made it the fifth busiest airport by international passenger traffic in the world and the second busiest in Asia by international passenger traffic in 2013. Changi's daily record was broken on 21 December 2013, the Saturday before Christmas Day, with 191,800 passengers passing through the 24 hours. In addition to being an important passenger hub, the airport is one of the busiest cargo airports in the world, handling 1.85 million tonnes of cargo in 2013. The total number of commercial aircraft movements was 343,800 in 2012.
The airport has won over 470 awards since 1981, including 30 "Best Airport" awards in 2013. Changi Airport's efforts to mitigate the effects of ageing infrastructure include continual physical upgrades to its existing terminals and building new facilities to maintain its reputation for setting standards in airport service quality.
As all passenger traffic out of the airport is international in nature, the four major terminals in operation are equipped with immigration-processing facilities for international travel.
After recovering from a drop in passenger traffic as a result of the September 11 attacks in 2001, the severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) epidemic in 2003, the airport saw rapid growth in traffic which hit the 30-million mark for the first time a year later in 2004. In March 2008 and prior to the full effect of the financial crisis of 2007–2010 on the global economy, the airport predicted that it will handle 50 million passengers by 2012, with increases due to the opening of casinos in Singapore, together with the phased liberalisation of the Asean aviation sector. The airport surpassed the 46-million mark for the first time in 2011.
For the last set of full-year figures published by the airport, it handled 53,726,087 passengers in 2013, a 5% increase as compared to the previous year. The airport recorded its busiest month in December 2013 (5.12 million) and its busiest day on 21 December 2013 with 191,800 passengers handled.
The LCC market in the airport expanded rapidly since the opening of the Budget Terminal. The terminal handled about 657,000 passengers by 26 October 2006, six months after its opening in March. LCC flights in Changi constituted 11.3% of total flights in October 2006 compared to 9.6% in April the same year. The terminal handled its one-millionth passenger at the end of 2006. A monthly record of 4.53 million passengermovements was registered in December 2011, which marks an increase of 11.4% compared to December 2010. On 17 December 2011, Changi has also set a new record of 165,000 passengermovements in the day. In 2011, LCCs accounted for about 25% of passengers carried (compared to 22.4% in 2009) and 28.6% of flight movements (26.3% in 2009).
In 2010 Indonesia was the largest market for Singapore Changi Airport with 5 million passengers.
- Air Mauritius flight from Mauritius to Singapore includes a stop-over at Kuala Lumpur. However, Air Mauritius does not have rights to transport passengers solely between Singapore and Kuala Lumpur.
- MIAT Mongolian Airlines flight from Singapore to Ulanbaatar includes a stop-over at Beijing. However, MIAT Mongolian Airlines does not have rights to transport passengers solely between Singapore and Beijing.
The Air Cargo Division of the Changi Airport Group manages the Changi Airfreight Centre located in the north of the airport premises. The airport handled 1.81 million tonnes of air cargo in 2012, making it the 7th-busiest airfreight hub in the world and the fifth-busiest in Asia. Due to Singapore's large electronics sector, electrical components constitute a significant part of the total cargo traffic handled at the airport, although it has initiated attempts to diversify into the perishable air cargo market.
In 2014, Changi Airport handled 1,843,799 tonnes of freight which is about the weight of about five and a half Empire State Buildings.
Air Cargo World awarded Changi Airport the 2013 Air Cargo Excellence Award for airports handling more than 1,000,000 tonnes of cargo in Asia.
Changi Airport was built with ground-transportation considerations in mind from the onset, with the East Coast Parkway built and opened in tandem with the airport, providing a direct link to the city-centre. At a distance of about 20 km (12 mi), the expressway was built almost entirely on reclaimed land; thus, minimising disruptions to the existing road network in Singapore's East Coast.
While configured in a compact configuration such that the three main passenger terminal buildings are sited adjacent to each other, allowing for travellers to venture between terminals on foot, the Changi Airport Skytrain people-mover system was added to facilitate quicker and more convenient transfers. The system was upgraded in 2007 to Mitsubishi technology, connecting to Terminal 3 and separating checked-in passengers from the general public on distinct tracks.
The Changi Airport Skytrain operates between Terminals 1, 2 and 3, with a total of seven stations. The trains have separate cars for air-side (transit) and land-side (public) passengers.
Mass Rapid Transit
The airport is connected to the Mass Rapid Transit (MRT) network, with Changi Airport MRT station located underground between Terminal 2 and Terminal 3 and directly accessible from both terminals. A direct, one-train service to the downtown and western parts of Singapore was initially in operation when the station opened on 8 February 2002 (then accessible only via Terminal 2). This was replaced by the current shuttle service between Changi Airport and Tanah Merah MRT stations on 22 July 2003, when it was found that few passengers actually use this route, compared to the number of commuters who need to travel from the city to Tampines and Pasir Ris. Cross-platform transfers are therefore necessary at Tanah Merah to connect to the rest of the network.
Buses were one of the main methods of transport for passengers and staff until the opening of Changi Airport station. Services operated by SBS Transit and SMRT Buses uses the bus terminals in the basement level of the three main terminals, making a loop starting from Terminal 3 to Terminals 1, and 2, and back to their destination of origin.
Coaches to and from Johor Bahru are also available. The service will start at coach stands at Terminals 1, 2, 3 and end at Larkin Terminal.
There is also a free shuttle bus service plying between Changi Airport (T3) and Changi Business Park. This service is a 9-stop route, running from Mondays to Fridays, except public holidays.
Taxi stands are within the arrival halls of the three main terminals.
Safety and security
The Changi Airport Group manages the overall safety and security of the airport. The Airport Management Division of the CAG manages the customer aspects of the airport's security, while the Aviation Security Unit oversees the airport's compliance with aviation security (AVSEC) policies, manages AVSEC-related projects. Operationally, the airport's emergency and fire-fighting services are handled by the Airport Emergency Service Division of the CAG. The AES handles all instances of rescue and fire-fighting within the airport premises as well as in surrounding waters through its specialists operating from two main fire stations, a Fire Sub-Station and a Sea Rescue Base around the airport.
The airport's security comes under the regulatory purview of the Airport Police Division of the Singapore Police Force. The day to day discharge of security functions at the airport are performed by auxiliary police forces including Aetos Security Management, Certis CISCO and SATS Security Services, of which Aetos and SATS Security Services are affiliated to the ground handling companies of Dnata and Singapore Airport Terminal Services respectively. On 29 April 2008, CAAS then signed its biggest single security contract for all airport related security services by engaging Certis CISCO to provide security services at Changi Airport, as well as Seletar Airport, Changi Airfreight Centre, and the Singapore Air Traffic Control Centre. It involves the deployment of about 2,600 Certis Cisco personnel, including armed Auxiliary Police Officers and unarmed aviation security officers to perform tasks including screening checked baggage, controlling access to restricted areas, and screening passengers before they board their aircraft.
Since the 11 September 2001 attacks and naming of the airport as a terrorism target by the Jemaah Islamiyah, the airport's security has been stepped up. Roving patrol teams consisting of SAF and SPF officers, armed with assault rifles or sub-machine guns, patrol the terminals at random intervals. Officers from the Gurkha Contingent are also deployed to patrol the transit areas of the terminal buildings. These measures come at a cost partly borne by travellers in the form of a "passenger security service charge," imposed since 2002.
In 2005 an upgrade in screening technology and rising security concerns led to luggage-screening processes being conducted behind closed-doors, as opposed to them being done just before check-in previously within public view. Carry-on luggage and persons screening are conducted at the individual departure gates, while check-in luggage are screened in the backrooms and secured before loading. A perimeter intrusion detection system for Changi Airport's perimeter fence has also been put in place to further strengthen security of the airfield. while a biometric access control system for staff movement has been put in place since 2006.
Changi Airport Group
Changi Airport Group (Singapore) (CAG), formed on 1 July 2009, is the operator of Singapore Changi Airport as well as Singapore Seletar Airport. Its role was previously undertaken by the Civil Aviation Authority of Singapore (CAAS). The group's head office is located at Terminal 2 of Changi Airport. CAG is headed by its Chief Executive Officer, Lee Seow Hiang, the former principal private secretary to Singapore's Minister Mentor, Lee Kuan Yew. The chairman of the board of directors of CAG is headed by Liew Mun Leong, the former President and CEO of CapitaLand. It was officially launched on 1 July 2009 at a formal launch ceremony by Minister Mentor Lee Kuan Yew.
CAG was set up so that it could focus on the management, marketing and revenue collecting aspects of the airport, while the governmental organisation, CAAS, would be freed up to oversee the regulatory aspects of the airports and of aviation in Singapore. Since the corporatisation of the Airport Operator, CAG has been wholly owned by the Ministry of Finance.
CAG is divided into the following divisions:
- Airport Management – In charge of operational management, infrastructural maintenance, information technology, specialised airport systems, airport emergency service and aviation security. It is also responsible for safety management mechanisms, promoting safety awareness and marketing airport facilities to passengers.
- Air Hub & Development – focuses on growing Changi as an air hub by supporting the growth of passenger and cargo airlines, and promoting passenger and cargo traffic.
- Commercial – In charge of the functions of retail planning and development, management of shop, restaurant and service concessions, franchise fees, service performance, airport advertising, shopping promotions, land leases, airport charges and management of rentable properties.
- Corporate – In charge of corporate communications, corporate development and international relations, corporate strategy and business development, economic affairs, human resources and legal affairs.
- Engineering & Development – Oversees airport infrastructure and development projects, and maintains mechanical and electrical systems as well as civil engineering facilities at Changi and Seletar airports.
- Finance – Manages revenue collection at Changi Airport.
- Airport Logistics Park
- History of Singapore Changi Airport
- Infrastructure of Singapore Changi Airport
- Runway 02L is 4,000 m (13,000 ft) and 20R is 3,260 m (10,700 ft) with a displaced threshold of 740 m (2,430 ft). Thus aircraft landing on 20R will have to avoid touching down on the displaced threshold but may use it for departures.
- Runway 02R/20L is currently restricted to the Republic of Singapore Air Force (see Changi Air Base). It will be extended for commercial use in the future.
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- Aerodrome Geographical and Administrative Data, Services and Facilities and Meteorological Information and Runway Physical Characteristics
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- "NokScoot to Start Singapore Service from late-May 2015". Airlineroute.net. 30 April 2015. Retrieved 30 April 2015.
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- "Tigerair to begin flight to Ipoh" (Press release). Channel NewsAsia. 31 March 2015. Retrieved 31 March 2015.
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- EVA Air Cargo Schedule
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- MP Cargo winter 2012 timetable[dead link]
- "Singapore Airlines Cargo to commence Singapore-Hanoi freighter service in Nov-2014". CAPA. 14 November 2014. Retrieved 14 November 2014.
- "Singapore MRT (Metro)". UrbanRail.Net. Retrieved 18 April 2007.
- Changi Airport Group Annual Report 2009/10. (PDF) . Retrieved on 15 August 2012.
- "civil fire stations". Changi Airport Group. Retrieved 12 June 2011.
- "Changi Airport's third ground handling licence awarded to ASIG". Channel NewsAsia. 9 June 2011. Retrieved 8 November 2011.
- "Certis CISCO awarded $360 million Master Security Services Contract by CAAS". Certissecurity.com. 28 April 2008. Retrieved 8 November 2011.
- 50 Years of Securing Your World. Annual Review 2008/2009. certissecurity.com (PDF) . Retrieved on 15 August 2012.
- "Counter Terrorism Efforts at Singapore's Changi Airport". South Asia Analysis Group. Retrieved 12 June 2011.
- "Changi Airport to Impose Security Levy". Straits Times. Singapore. 10 January 2002. Archived from the original on 2 September 2006. Retrieved 3 November 2006.
- "contact us." Changi Airport Group. Retrieved on 12 September 2011. "Changi Airport Group (Singapore) Pte. Ltd. Singapore Changi Airport PO Box 168 Singapore 918146"
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- "404 - Changi Airport". Retrieved 10 May 2015.
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|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Singapore Changi Airport.|
|Library resources about
Singapore Changi Airport
- Singapore Changi Airport Official Site
- Singapore Changi Airport JetQuay CIP Terminal Official Website
- Virtual Reality View of Changi Airport Terminal 3
- Accident history for SIN at Aviation Safety Network
- Current weather for WSSS at NOAA/NWS
- Winchester, Clarence, ed. (1938), "Singapore's great airport", Wonders of World Aviation, pp. 128–130, illustrated description of the newly opened Singapore Airport