Listen to this article

Mass Rapid Transit (Singapore)

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
  (Redirected from Singapore MRT)
Jump to navigation Jump to search

Mass Rapid Transit (MRT)
Singapore MRT logo.svg
CT251 Mandai Depot.png
Native nameSistem Pengangkutan Gerak Cepat  (Malay)
新加坡地铁系统 (Chinese)
சிங்கப்பூர் துரிதக் கடவு ரயில் (Tamil)
OwnerLand Transport Authority
Transit typeRapid transit
Number of lines9 (6 in operation, 2 under development, 1 under planning), excluding LRT
Number of stations185 (122 in operation, 61 more under construction or planning, 2 reserved), excluding LRT
Daily ridership3.3 million (2018), excluding LRT[1]
Annual ridership1.2 billion (2018), excluding LRT
Began operation7 November 1987; 32 years ago (1987-11-07)
Operator(s)SMRT Trains (SMRT Corporation)
SBS Transit (ComfortDelGro Corporation)
Number of vehicles397 trainsets (174 on order, 66 to be decommissioned)
System length205.1 km (127.4 mi)
Track gauge1,435 mm (4 ft 8 12 in) standard gauge
MRT network map

Singapore MRT Network.svg

The Mass Rapid Transit, abbreviated and referred to in local parlance as the MRT, is a heavy rail rapid transit system that constitutes the bulk of the railway network in Singapore, spanning—with the exception of the forested core and the island's rural northwest—the length and width of the city-state's main island.[note 1] The first section of the MRT opened on 7 November 1987, and the network has since grown rapidly in accordance with Singapore's aim of developing a comprehensive rail network as the backbone of the country's public transportation system, with an average daily ridership of 3.302 million in 2018,[note 2] approximately 82% of the bus network's 4.037 million in the same period.[1]

Singapore's MRT infrastructure is built, operated, and managed in accordance with a hybridised quasi-nationalised regulatory framework called the New Rail Financing Framework (NRFF), in which the lines are constructed and the assets owned by the Land Transport Authority, a statutory board of the Government of Singapore.[2] The Land Transport Authority allocates operating concessions to two for-profit private corporations, namely SMRT and SBS Transit, both of which are responsible for asset maintenance on their respective lines. These operators also run bus and taxi services, thus facilitating the full integration of public transport services.

As of January 2020, the MRT network encompasses 205.1 kilometres (127.4 mi)[3] of route on standard gauge, with 122 stations in operation, spread across six lines set in a circle-radial topology. The network is expected to double to a total length of almost 400 kilometres (250 mi) by 2040 as a result of ongoing expansion works to its six existing lines and the construction of three new lines.[4] The network is complemented by a small number of local Light Rail Transit (LRT) networks in the suburban towns of Bukit Panjang, Sengkang, and Punggol that link MRT stations with HDB public housing estates,[5] bringing the combined length of the domestic heavy and light rail network to 233.7 kilometres (145.2 mi), with a total of 159 stations in operation.[note 3]

The MRT is the oldest, busiest, and most comprehensive rapid transit system (both by length and number of stations) in Southeast Asia.[note 4] More than S$85 billion (US$63 billion) has been spent on the construction of all currently operational lines in the network, the procurement of rolling stock and other rail assets, and the periodical renewal of assets, making the MRT one of the costliest rapid transit networks and public transportation projects in the world on both a per-kilometre and absolute basis.[6][7][8][note 5] The system has the added distinctions of having the longest fully automated and driverless network in the world, as well as some of the longest and deepest subway tunnel sections in the world.[9][10] The MRT is also unique in that the vast majority of underground stations in the network double as purpose-built Singapore Civil Defence Force air raid shelters, being built with hardened boundary walls, reinforced concrete floor and roof slabs, and concrete or steel doors for the purpose of withstanding conventional aerial bomb and chemical attacks by adversarial entities.[11]


The origins of the Mass Rapid Transit (MRT) are derived from a forecast by city planners in 1967 which stated the need for a rail-based urban transport system by 1992.[12][13][14] Following a debate on whether a bus-only system would be more cost-effective, then Minister for Communications Ong Teng Cheong, came to the conclusion that an all-bus system would be inadequate, as it would have to compete for road space in a land-scarce country.[15][16]

Construction begins[edit]

Opening of the various stages (1987–1990)

The network was planned to be constructed and opened in stages, even as plans had already indicated the decision for two main arterial lines. The North South line was given priority because it passed through the Central Area that has a high demand for public transport. The Mass Rapid Transit Corporation (MRTC)—later renamed SMRT Corporation—was established on 14 October 1983 and took over the roles and responsibilities of the former provisional Mass Rapid Transit Authority.[15][17] On 7 November 1987, the first section of the North South line started operations, consisting of five stations over six kilometres. Within a year, 20 more stations had been added to the network and a direct service existed between Yishun and Lakeside stations, linking up Central Singapore to Jurong in the west by the end of 1988. The direct service was eventually split into the North South and East West lines after the latter's completion of the eastern sector to Pasir Ris. By the end of 1990, the Branch line has further linked Choa Chu Kang to the network while the inauguration of Boon Lay station on 6 July 1990 marked the completion of the initial system two years ahead of schedule.[18][19]

Subsequent expansions[edit]

The MRT has since been expanded. The first opened on 10 February 1996, a S$1.2 billion expansion of the North South line into Woodlands, merging the Branch line into the North South line and joining Yishun and Choa Chu Kang stations.[20] The concept of having rail lines that bring people almost directly to their homes led to the introduction of the Light Rail Transit (LRT) lines connecting with the MRT network.[20][21] On 6 November 1999, the first LRT trains on the Bukit Panjang LRT went into operation.[22] The Expo and Changi Airport stations were opened on 10 January 2001[23] and 8 February 2002 respectively.[24] The very first infill station of the MRT network to be built on an existing line, Dover station opened on 18 October 2001.[25] The North East line, the first line operated by SBS Transit, opened on 20 June 2003, one of the first fully automated heavy rail lines in the world. On 15 January 2006, after intense two-and-a-half years lobbying by the public,[26] Buangkok station was opened.[27][28] On 20 June 2011, Woodleigh station was opened.[29] The Boon Lay Extension of the East West line, consisting of Pioneer and Joo Koon stations, opened on 28 February 2009.[30][31] The Circle line opened in four stages with Stage 3 on 28 May 2009,[32] Stages 1 and 2 on 17 April 2010,[33] Stages 4 and 5 on 8 October 2011[34] and the Marina Bay Extension on 14 January 2012.[35] Stage 1 of Downtown line opened on 22 December 2013[36] with its official opening made on 21 December 2013 by Prime Minister Lee Hsien Loong.[37] Stage 2 opened on 27 December 2015, after being officially opened on 26 December by Prime Minister Lee.[38] The Tuas West Extension of the East West line, consisting of Gul Circle, Tuas Crescent, Tuas West Road, and Tuas Link stations, opened on 18 June 2017.[39] Stage 3, the final stage of the Downtown line, opened on 21 October 2017 with its official opening made on 20 October 2017 by Coordinating Minister for Infrastructure and Minister for Transport Khaw Boon Wan.[40] The second infill station, Canberra station opened on 2 November 2019.[41]



The following table lists the Mass Rapid Transit lines that are currently operational:

Name and color Commencement Last extension Next extension Terminus Stations Length Depot Operator Control Center
North South line 7 November 1987 2 November 2019[note 6] 2030s[note 7] Jurong East
Marina South Pier
27[42] 45 km (28 mi)[42] Bishan Depot
Ulu Pandan Depot
Changi Depot
Tuas Depot
SMRT Trains Kim Chuan Depot
East West line 12 December 1987 18 June 2017[note 8] N/A Pasir Ris
Changi Airport
Tuas Link
35[43] 57.2 km (35.5 mi)[43]
Circle line 28 May 2009 14 January 2012[note 9] 2025[note 10] Dhoby Ghaut
Marina Bay
30[44][note 11] 35.5 km (22.1 mi)[44] Kim Chuan Depot
Subtotal (lines under SMRT Trains): 92 137.7 km (85.6 mi)[44]
North East line 20 June 2003 20 June 2011[note 12] 2023[note 13] HarbourFront
16[45] 20 km (12 mi)[45] Sengkang Depot SBS Transit Sengkang Depot
Downtown line 22 December 2013 21 October 2017[note 14] 2024[note 15] Bukit Panjang
34[36] 41.9 km (26.0 mi)[36] Tai Seng Facility Building
Gali Batu Depot
Gali Batu Depot
Subtotal (lines under SBS Transit): 50 61.9 km (38.5 mi)
Total: 120[note 16] 199.6 km (124.0 mi)

Schematic map of the Mass Rapid Transit (MRT) and Light Rail Transit (LRT) network in Singapore (an official version can be found at the Land Transport Authority's website).

Facilities and services[edit]

An SMRT Active Route Map Information System panel showing the current location of a train and upcoming stops
Active Route Map Information System of Downtown line equipped on C951/C951A train

Except for the partly at-grade Bishan MRT station (North South line), the entirety of the MRT is elevated or underground. Most below-ground stations are deep and hardened enough to withstand conventional aerial bomb attacks and to serve as bomb shelters.[46][47][48] Mobile phone, 3G and 4G service are available in every part of the network.[49] Underground stations and trains are air-conditioned, while above-ground stations have ceiling fans installed.

Every station is equipped with General Ticketing Machines (GTMs), a Passenger Service Centre and LED or plasma displays that show train service information and announcements. All stations are equipped with restrooms and payphones; some restrooms are located at street level.[50] Some stations, especially the major ones, have additional amenities and services, such as retail shops and kiosks, supermarkets, convenience stores, automatic teller machines, and self-service automated kiosks for a variety of services.[51] Most heavy-duty escalators at stations carry passengers up or down at a rate of 0.75 m/s, which is 50% faster than conventional escalators. The Land Transport Authority (LTA) announced a plan to introduce dual speeds to escalators along the North South and East West lines, to make it safer for senior citizens using them. As a result, all escalators on the two lines, through a refurbishment programme, will be able to operate at a different speed of 0.5 m/s during off-peak hours, with completion being targeted for 2021.[52]

All stations constructed before 2001 initially lacked barrier-free facilities and wider AFC faregates such as lifts, ramps & tactile guidance systems for the elderly and disabled.[53] A retrofitting programme was completed in 2006, with every station provided with at least one barrier-free access route.[54] Works are still ongoing to provide stations with additional barrier-free facilities.[55][56][57]

Hours of operation[edit]

MRT lines operate from 5:30am to 1:00am daily, with the exception of selected periods such as New Year's Eve, Chinese New Year, Deepavali, Hari Raya, Christmas, eves of public holidays, and special occasions such as the state funeral of Lee Kuan Yew (2015), when most of the lines stay open throughout the night or extended till later.[58]

Architecture and art[edit]

Stadium station, located near the Singapore Sports Hub, is imprinted with sports motifs at the station entrance
Bras Basah station has a water feature to allow sunlight from above the station to filter in

Early stages of the MRT's construction paid scant attention to station design, with an emphasis on functionality over aesthetics. This is particularly evident in the first few stages of the North South and East West lines that opened between 1987 and 1988 from Yio Chu Kang to Clementi. An exception to this was Orchard, chosen by its designers to be a "showpiece" of the system and built initially with a domed roof.[59] Architectural themes became more important only in subsequent stages, and resulted in such designs as the cylindrical station shapes on all stations between Kallang and Pasir Ris except Eunos, and west of Boon Lay, and the perched roofs at Boon Lay, Lakeside, Chinese Garden, Bukit Batok, Bukit Gombak, Choa Chu Kang, Khatib, Yishun, and Eunos stations.[60]

Art pieces, where present, are seldom highlighted; they primarily consist of a few paintings or sculptures representing the recent past of Singapore, mounted in major stations. The opening of the Woodlands Extension introduced bolder pieces of artwork, such as a 4,000 kg sculpture in Woodlands.[61] With the opening of the North East line, more series of artworks created under a programme called "The Art in Transit" were commissioned by the Land Transport Authority. Created by 19 local artists and integrated into the stations' interior architecture, these works aim to promote the appreciation of public art in high-traffic environments. The artwork for each station is designed to suit the station's identity. All stations on the North East, Circle and Downtown lines come under this programme.[62] An art contest was held to implement a similar scheme for the Circle line.[63]

Expo MRT station is sited adjacent to the Singapore Expo exhibition facility, and sports a futuristic design by Foster and Partners

Expo station, located on the Changi Airport branch of the East West line, is adjacent to the 100,000-square-metre Singapore Expo exhibition facility. Designed by Foster and Partners and completed in January 2001, the station features a large, pillarless, titanium-clad roof in an elliptical shape that sheathes the length of the station platform. This complements a smaller 40-metre reflective stainless-steel disc overlapping the titanium ellipse and visually floats over a glass elevator shaft and the main entrance. The other station with similar architecture is Dover.[64][65]

Changi Airport, the easternmost station on the MRT network, has the widest platform in any underground MRT station in Singapore. In 2011, it was rated 10 out of 15 most beautiful subway stops in the world by BootsnAll.[66]

Two Circle line stations—Bras Basah and Stadium—were commissioned through the Marina line Architectural Design Competition, which was jointly organised by the Land Transport Authority and the Singapore Institute of Architects. The competition did not require any architectural experience from competitors and is acknowledged by the industry as one of the most impartial competitions held in Singapore to date. The winner of both stations was WOHA. In 2009, "Best Transport Building" was awarded to the designers at WOHA Architects at the World Architecture Festival.[67]

Rolling Stock[edit]

The following table lists the rolling stock of the network:

Name Supplier Line Cars
(per train)
Total no. of cars Service commencement Withdrawal Power supply Speed Limit Price
C151 Kawasaki Heavy Industries NSL
6 396[68] 7 November 1987 Starting from April 2020 750 V DC
third rail
80 km/h (50 mph) S$581.5 million[69][70]
C651 Siemens 114[71][72] 2 May 1995 N/A S$259 million[73]
C751B Kawasaki Heavy Industries
& Nippon Sharyo
126[68][74][a] 8 May 2000 S$231 million
C151A Kawasaki Heavy Industries
& CRRC Qingdao Sifang
210[75][76] 27 May 2011 S$368 million[77]
C151B 270 16 April 2017 S$281.5 million[78]
C151C 72 30 September 2018[79] $136.8 million[80][81]
CR151 Bombardier 396 2021[82] S$827 million[83]
C751A Alstom NEL 150 20 June 2003 1500 V DC
overhead catenary
90 km/h (56 mph) $260 million
C751C 108 1 October 2015 S$234.9 million[84]
C830 CCL 3 120 28 May 2009 750 V DC
third rail[85]
78 km/h (48 mph) S$282 million[86]
C830C 72 26 June 2015 S$134 million[87]
C851E 69[88][89] 2020s S$249.9 million[90]
NEL 6 36 2020s 1500 V DC
overhead catenary
90 km/h (56 mph)
C951/C951A Bombardier DTL 3 276 22 December 2013 750 V DC
third rail[91][92]
80 km/h (50 mph) S$689.9 million[91][93][b]
CT251 Kawasaki Heavy Industries
& CRRC Qingdao Sifang
TEL 4 364 31 January 2020 90 km/h (56 mph) S$749 million[94]
  1. ^ Kawasaki Heavy Industries manufactured 66 cars and Nippon Sharyo manufactured 60 cars.
  2. ^ Two separate orders of the C951 were made. The figure listed is the total amount.

At present, all lines run with fixed-length trains between three and six cars,[69][95][96] with the future Thomson–East Coast line using four cars. Since the system's conception in 1987, all train lines have been powered by the 750 volt DC third rail, with the exception of the North East line which is powered by 1500 volt DC overhead lines. The North South and East West lines use an automatic train operation system similar to London Underground's Victoria line.[96]

The oldest C151 trains will be the first to be decommissioned starting in April 2020.[69] Older trains have been renewed over the years under refurbishment schemes to enhance their lifespan as well as to adhere to updated safety and usability codes.[97][98] Refurbished and new trains have improved passenger information systems such as the SMRT Active Route Map Information System, more grab poles, wider seats, more space near the doors, spaces for wheelchairs, and CCTV cameras.[99][100] As a trial run, luggage racks were installed on the C751B trains to serve travellers on the Changi Airport branch line.[101] The scheme was withdrawn in June 2002 and the luggage racks removed.[102][103]

All trains are contracted by open tender, with their contract numbers forming the most recognised name of the stock. Official sources occasionally refer to the trains of the North South and East West lines as numbered generation trains, with the C151 train being the first and the newest C151C train being the sixth.[104]

In addition to aforementioned passenger electric multiple units, MRT operators also have their own engineering rolling stock used for maintenance purposes. These include Plasser and Theurer tamping machines, Tamper multi-function vehicles for rail inspection, Speno railgrinders, cranes, tunnel cleaning wagons, viaduct inspection wagons, CKG diesel locomotives for shunting purposes and Deli diesel locomotives and Schöma electric locomotives for hauling such rolling stock.[105]


Line Supplier Solution Type [note 17] Commission Date Level of Automation[note 18] Remarks
North South line Thales SelTrac Moving Block CBTC 2017 UTO BrownField
East West line 2018
North East line Alstom Urbalis 300 2003 N/A
Circle line 2009
Downtown line Siemens,
formerly Invensys Westinghouse
Sirius CBTC 2013
Thomson–East Coast line Alstom, formerly GE Urbalis 400 2020
North South line Westinghouse FS2000 Fixed Block-Speed Coded 1987 STO Decommissioned
2 January 2019
East West line Decommissioned
23 November 2018

Some components of the SelTrac CBTC on the MRT include transponder units (in bright yellow) on the rail tracks and wayside radio antenna (in the background)

A key component of the signalling system on the MRT is the automatic train control (ATC) system, which in turn is made up of two sub-systems: the automatic train operation (ATO) and automatic train protection (ATP). The ATC has trackside and trainborne components working together to provide safe train separation by using train detection, localisation, and end of authority protection. It also provides safe train operation and movement by using train speed determination, monitoring, over-speed protection and emergency braking. The safety of alighting and departing passengers will also be provided by using a station interlocking system. The ATO drives the train in automatic mode, providing the traction and braking control demands to the train rolling stock system, adjusts its speed upon approaching the station, and provides the control of opening and closing of train and platform screen doors once the train has stopped at the station. The ATP ensures safe train separation by using the ATP track circuit status and by location determination, monitors the speed of the train to main maintain safe braking distance, and initiate emergency braking in the event of overspeed. The MRT also uses an automatic train supervision system to supervise the overall operation of the train service according to a prescribed timetable or train interval.[106]

The oldest lines, the North South line and East West line, were the only lines running with fixed block signalling. The North South line was upgraded to moving block CBTC in 2017, and the East West line upgraded in 2018. As of 27 May 2018, all MRT lines use the CBTC Moving Block system in normal daily operations and from 2 January 2019, the old signalling system ceased operations.[107] In comparison to the original fixed block system, the CBTC can reduce train intervals from 120 seconds to 100 seconds, allowing for a 20% increase in capacity and is able to support bidirectional train operations on a single track, enabling trains to be diverted onto another track in the event of a fault on one track. The CBTC system also permits for improved braking performance in wet weather as compared to the original fixed-block ATC.[108]

All new MRT lines built since the North East line in 2003 were equipped with CBTC from the outset, and have the capability to be completely driverless and automated, requiring no on-board staffing. Operations are monitored remotely from the operations control centre of the respective lines. Trains are equipped with intercoms to allow passengers to communicate with staff during emergencies.


Several MRT trains and an engineering locomotive stabled at Ulu Pandan Depot

SMRT Corporation has four train depots: Bishan Depot is the central maintenance depot for the North South line with train overhaul facilities,[109] while Changi Depot and Ulu Pandan Depot inspect and house trains overnight.[110] The newer Tuas Depot, opened in 2017, provides the East West line with its own maintenance facility.[111] The underground Kim Chuan Depot houses trains for the Circle and Downtown lines, now jointly managed by the two operators.[112]

SBS Transit has three depots: Sengkang Depot houses trains for the North East line, the Sengkang LRT line, and the Punggol LRT line. Kim Chuan Depot is currently jointly operated with SMRT for the Downtown line. Major operations were shifted to the main Gali Batu Depot in 2015, although the Kim Chuan Depot will continue to operate on a minor capacity.

In August 2014, plans for the East Coast Integrated Depot, the world's first four-in-one train and bus depot were announced. It will be built at Tanah Merah beside the original Changi Depot site to serve the East West, Downtown, and Thomson–East Coast lines.[113] The new 36ha depot can house about 220 trains and 550 buses and integrating the depot for both buses and trains will help save close to 66.12 acres (26.76 ha), or 60 football fields of land.[114]

The Tengah Depot for the Jurong Region line will be situated at the western perimeter of Tengah, and an additional depot facility will be added near Peng Kang Hill station to support the operations of the JRL.[115] Rolling stock for the Jurong Region line will be stabled at both facilities. Tengah Depot will house the JRL Operations Control Centre and have a bus depot integrated with it to optimise land use.[116]

The Changi East Depot will serve the future Cross Island line, and the depot is to be placed at the eastern end of the line.[117]

An Integrated Rail Testing Centre comprising of several test tracks for different situations and workshops for maintenance and refurbishment is also to be built at Tuas by 2022, with the main function being to test trains and integrated systems robustly before they are deployed on operational lines.[118]



The following table lists the upcoming lines and stations that have been officially announced:

Line Stage Between Opening No. of
Depot Operator
New lines
Thomson–East Coast line 1 Woodlands North Woodlands South 31 January 2020 3 43 Mandai
East Coast
SMRT Trains
2 Springleaf Caldecott 2020 6
3 Mount Pleasant Gardens by the Bay 2021 13
4 Tanjong Rhu Bayshore 2023 7
5 Bedok South Sungei Bedok 2024 2
Circle line 6 Keppel Prince Edward Road 2025 3 4 Kim Chuan SMRT Trains
Jurong Region line 1 Choa Chu Kang Tawas
Boon Lay
2026 10 24 Tengah N/A
2 Tengah Plantation Pandan Reservoir 2027 6
3 Enterprise
Jurong Pier
Nanyang Gateway
Peng Kang Hill
2028 6
Cross Island line 1 Aviation Park Bright Hill 2029 12 50 Changi East N/A
Extensions / Single stations
North East line Extension Punggol Coast 2023 1 1.6 Sengkang SBS Transit
Downtown line Extension Xilin Sungei Bedok 2024 2 2.2 Gali Batu
East Coast
SBS Transit
Infill Hume 2025 1 0
Thomson–East Coast line Infill Founders' Memorial 2027 1 0 Mandai
East Coast
SMRT Trains
North South line Infill Brickland 2030s 1 0 Bishan
Ulu Pandan
SMRT Trains
Infill Sungei Kadut 2030s 1 0

The MRT system relied on its two main lines, the North South and East West lines, for more than a decade until the opening of the North East line in 2003. While plans for these lines as well as those currently under construction were formulated long before, the Land Transport Authority's publication of a White Paper titled "A World Class Land Transport System" in 1996 galvanised the government's intentions to greatly expand the system.[119][120] It called for the expansion of the 67 kilometres of track in 1995 to 360 in 2030.[119] It was expected that daily ridership in 2030 would grow to 6.0 million from the 1.4 million passengers at that time.[121]

New lines and extensions are mostly announced as part of the Land Transport Master Plan, which is announced every five years and outlines the government's intentions for the future of the transport network in Singapore. The latest plan, the Land Transport Master Plan 2040, was announced on 25 May 2019, which provides for line extensions to the Downtown and Thomson-East Coast lines, a new MRT line under study, and 2 new stations on the North South line.[122][123]

Downtown line[edit]

Map of the Downtown line

The 42-kilometre, 34 station fully underground Downtown line connects the western and eastern regions of Singapore with a loop travelling through the city center. It commenced operations in three stages, with the initial Bugis to Chinatown segment in 2013, Bukit Panjang to Rochor in 2015 and Fort Canning to Expo in 2017.[36][124][125] An extension from Expo will begin operations in 2024, adding an additional 2.2 kilometres and 2 stations to the line, terminating at Sungei Bedok and interchanging with the Thomson-East Coast line. [126] Hume is an infill station between Hillview and Beauty World and expected to open by 2025.[127] By the time Hume is opened, the entire line will be 44 kilometres long and have 37 stations in total.

A proposal has further been mooted to extend the line from Bukit Panjang towards Sungei Kadut to form an interchange station with the North South line. The extension is expected to be completed by the mid-2030s.[122]

Thomson–East Coast line[edit]

Map of the Thomson-East Coast line

The 43-kilometre, 32 station fully underground Thomson–East Coast line will connect the northern region of Singapore to the south,[128] running parallel to the existing North South line passing through Woodlands, Sin Ming, Upper Thomson, and Marina Bay[129] before turning east and running through Tanjong Rhu, Siglap, Marine Parade, and Bedok.[114] It will commence operation in five stages, with Stage 1 from Woodlands North to Woodlands South on 31 January 2020,[130] Stage 2 from Springleaf to Caldecott in 2020, Stage 3 from Mount Pleasant to Gardens by the Bay in 2021,[131] Stage 4 from Tanjong Rhu to Bayshore in 2023 and Stage 5 from Bedok South to Sungei Bedok in 2024.[114] The northern terminus of Woodlands North is expected to interchange with the Johor Bahru–Singapore Rapid Transit System to provide access to Johor Bahru and the future Iskandar Malaysia Bus Rapid Transit. Founders' Memorial station is an infill station along Stage 4, but is scheduled to instead open in tandem with the Founders' Memorial in 2027.[132] In addition, the line will be the first in Singapore to provide for only cashless transactions.[133]

Line extension to Changi Airport[edit]

In addition to the previously announced alignment of the Thomson–East Coast line, an extension has been proposed to connect it to Changi Airport, with the line passing through Terminal 5, and eventually absorbing the existing Changi Airport branch on the East West line. With such an extension, there will be a direct connection between Changi Airport and the city. This extension will start operating by 2040.[134][122]

Jurong Region line[edit]

Map of the proposed Jurong Region line

First proposed as an LRT line when originally announced in 2001, the 20-kilometre Jurong Region line has since been upgraded to be a medium capacity line after the project was revived in 2013. The new configuration will serve West Coast, Tengah and Choa Chu Kang and Jurong.

West Coast extension[edit]

Besides the original announced alignment of the line, a West Coast extension to the Circle line from the Jurong Region line is currently under study.[135] It will link the West Coast region directly to Pasir Panjang, allowing commuters on the Jurong Region line access to the central area of the city easily. If feasible, the extension will be ready by 2030.[136]

Cross Island line[edit]

Map of the proposed Cross Island line

The 50-kilometre Cross Island line will span the island of Singapore, passing through Tuas, Jurong, Sin Ming, Ang Mo Kio, Hougang, Punggol, Pasir Ris, and Changi. The addition of the new line brings commuters with another alternative for East-West travel to the current East West line and Downtown line, and will play an important role in Singapore's rail network. It will connect to all the other major lines to serve as a key transfer line, complementing the role currently fulfilled by the orbital Circle line. Stage 1 of the line has been announced and consists of 29 kilometres and 12 stations.[117] In addition, the extension to Punggol is planned to be completed by 2031.[122] Completion of the line will have an even longer timeframe due to the environmental study aspects, targeted to be completed by 2030.[137]

This will be the eighth MRT line and the longest fully underground line. When fully completed, it will serve existing and future developments in the eastern, western, and north-eastern corridors, linking major hubs such as Jurong Lake District, Punggol Digital District and Changi region. The daily ridership is projected to be more than 600,000 in the initial years, increasing to over 1 million in the longer term.

Circle line Stage 6[edit]

Map of the Circle line with Stage 6

The 4-kilometre extension Stage 6 will run from Marina Bay through Keppel, ending at HarbourFront, effectively completing the circle and linking the current ends of the line, allowing for thorough service through the future Southern Waterfront City without the need to change to other lines.[137] Stage 6 comprises Keppel, Cantonment, and Prince Edward Road stations. It will commence operations in 2025.

North East line extension[edit]

Originally scheduled to be completed by 2030, the 1.6-kilometre extension will run from Punggol through Punggol North including the new Punggol Downtown to the new tentatively named Punggol Coast station. It's projected to open in 2023, a few years ahead of the expected opening date.[138][139] Construction of the extension commenced in the first half of 2018.[140]

Brickland and Sungei Kadut MRT stations[edit]

Two new stations has been projected to be built along the existing North South line. Brickland station will be built between Bukit Gombak and Choa Chu Kang stations, while Sungei Kadut station will be built between Yew Tee and Kranji stations. Both are expected to be completed by the mid-2030s.[122]

Proposed new line along north-east corridor[edit]

As part of the Land Transport Master Plan 2040, a possible new rail line will be studied for feasibility. The proposed line will run from the Woodlands planning area to the Greater Southern Waterfront, passing through areas such as Sembawang, Sengkang, Serangoon North, Whampoa and Kallang. The line will potentially benefit 400,000 households and save up to 40 minutes of travel time to the city centre. If built, the line will be about 30 km long, and will be completed as early as 2040.[134][122]

Fares and ticketing[edit]

General Ticketing Machines (GTM) at Expo MRT station, where passengers can purchase a Standard Ticket, or add value to their EZ-Link card
Thales ticket barriers at Dhoby Ghaut station, one type of the many access control gates in the MRT system.

Stations are divided into two areas, paid and unpaid, which allow the rail operators to collect fares by restricting entry only through the fare gates, also known as access control gates.[141] These gates, connected to a computer network, can read and update electronic tickets capable of storing data, and can store information such as the initial and destination stations and the duration for each trip.[142] General Ticketing Machines sell standard tickets that can be used up to 6 times within 30 days from the day of purchase.[143] The machines also allow the customer to buy additional value for stored-value smartcards. Such smartcards require a minimum amount of stored credit.

As the fare system has been integrated by TransitLink, commuters need to pay only one fare and pass through two fare gates (once on entry, once on exit) for an entire journey for most interchange stations, even when transferring between lines operated by different companies.[142] Commuters can choose to extend a trip mid-journey, and pay the difference when they exit their destination station.


Because the rail operators are government-assisted, profit-based corporations, fares on the MRT system are pitched to at least break-even level.[46][144] The operators collect these fares by selling electronic data-storing tickets, the prices of which are calculated based on the distance between the start and destination stations.[142] These prices increase in fixed stages for standard non-discounted travel. Fares are calculated in increments based on approximate distances between stations, in contrast to the use of fare zones in other subway systems, such as the London Underground.

Although operated by private companies, the system's fare structure is regulated by the Public Transport Council (PTC), to which the operators submit requests for changes in fares.[144][145] Fares are kept affordable by pegging them approximately to distance-related bus fares, thus encouraging commuters to use the network and reduce heavy reliance on the bus system. Fare increases have caused public concern.[146][147] Historically, fares on the fully underground North East, Circle, and Downtown lines had been higher than those of the North South and East West lines (NSEWL), a disparity that was justified by citing higher costs of operation and maintenance on a completely underground line. However, the Public Transport Council (PTC) announced in 2016 that fares for the three underground lines would be reduced to match those on the NSEWL, which took effect along with the yearly-applied fare changes, on 30 December 2016.[148][149]

After the opening of Downtown line Stage 3, Transport Minister Khaw Boon Wan announced that public transport fare rules will be reviewed to allow for transfers across MRT lines at different stations due to the increasing density of the rail network. At the time, commuters were charged a second time when they made such transfers. He added that the PTC would review distance-based fare transfer rules to ensure they continue to facilitate "fast, seamless" public transport journeys. The review of distance-based fare rules on MRT lines was completed, and a waiver on the second boarding fee incurred when making such transfers was announced on 22 March 2018. The scheme was implemented on 29 December of the same year.[150][151][152]


The MRT network only allows entry with contactless cards.

The ticketing system uses the EZ-Link and NETS FlashPay contactless smart cards based upon the Symphony for e-Payment (SeP) system for public transit built on the Singapore Standard for Contactless ePurse Application (CEPAS) system. This system allows for up to 4 card issuers in the market.[153] The EZ-Link card was introduced on 13 April 2002 as a replacement for the original TransitLink farecard, while its competitor the NETS FlashPay card entered the smartcard market on 9 October 2009.

A card may be purchased at any TransitLink ticket office or passenger service centre for immediate use.[153][154] The card may be topped up via cashless means at ticketing machines and ATMs or via cash at several stations or convenience stores. Additional credit of a predetermined value may also be automatically credited into the card when the card value runs low via an automatic recharge service provided by Interbank GIRO or credit card. An Adult Monthly Travel Card for unlimited travel on MRT, LRT, and buses may also be purchased and is non-transferable. As of 16 November 2019, Mastercard, Visa, and NETS users are able to use their bank cards or mobile phones to pay for public transport rides, by linking their card to the new SimplyGo account-based system.[155][156][157] Support for EZ-Link cards is expected to be added in the near future.[157]

A Standard Ticket contactless smart card for single or return journeys may also be purchased at the GTM for the payment of MRT and LRT fares. A S$0.10 deposit is levied on top of the fare to be paid. The deposit will be automatically refunded through an offset of the fare to be paid for the third journey on the same ticket while an additional discount of S$0.10 will be given for the sixth journey on the same ticket. No refund of the deposit is provided if the card is used for fewer than 3 journeys. The ticket can be used for the purchase of single or return journeys to and from pre-selected stations up to a maximum of six journeys over 30 days. Fares for the Standard Ticket are always higher than those charged for the stored-valued CEPAS (EZ-Link and NETS FlashPay) cards for the same distance traveled. The ticket is retained by the user after each journey and does not need to be returned. Identical to the usage of CEPAS cards, the ticket is tapped onto the faregate reader upon entry and exit.

For tourists, a Singapore Tourist Pass contactless smartcard may be purchased.[158] The card may be bought at selected TransitLink ticket offices and Singapore Visitors Centres. The tourists may retrieve their deposit by returning the card to the ticket offices or visitors centres within 5 days from the date of issue.


Operators and authorities state that numerous measures had been taken to ensure the safety of passengers, and SBS Transit publicised the safety precautions on the driverless North East line before and after its opening.[99][159] Safety campaign posters are highly visible in trains and stations, and the operators frequently broadcast safety announcements to passengers and to commuters waiting for trains. Fire safety standards are consistent with the strict guidelines of the US National Fire Protection Association.[48][160]

There were calls for platform screen doors to be installed at elevated stations after several incidents in which passengers were killed by oncoming trains when they fell onto the railway tracks at elevated stations. Underground stations already featured platform screen doors since 1987. The authorities initially rejected the proposal by casting doubts over functionality and concerns about the high installation costs,[161] but made an about-turn when the government announced plans to install half-height platform screen doors on the above-ground stations in January 2008,[162] citing lower costs due to it becoming a more common feature worldwide.[163] They were first installed at Jurong East, Pasir Ris, and Yishun stations in 2009 under trials to test their feasibility.[164]

By 14 March 2012, all elevated stations have been retrofitted with the doors and are operational.[165] These doors prevent suicides and unauthorised access to restricted areas. Under the Rapid Transit Systems Act, acts such as smoking, eating or drinking in stations and trains, the misuse of emergency equipment and trespassing on the railway tracks are illegal, with penalties ranging from fines to imprisonment.[166][167]

There were a few major accidents in the history of the MRT that raised safety concerns among the public. On 5 August 1993, two trains collided at Clementi station because of an oil spillage on the track, which resulted in 132 injuries.[168] During the construction of the Circle line on 20 April 2004, a tunnel being constructed under Nicoll Highway collapsed and led to the deaths of four people.[169] On 15 November 2017, at 8:20 a.m., two trains collided at Joo Koon station, injuring 36 passengers and 2 SMRT staff.[170][171]


Disruptions to the system from 2011 to 2018, the cause of which often being cited by a lack of maintenance coupled with increased ridership due to population growth,[172][173] have also raised concerns among the public.

Beginning with the major train disruptions on the North South line in 2011, this incident led to a Committee of Inquiry, which uncovered serious shortcomings in SMRT Corporation's maintenance regime.[174] For the December 2011 disruptions, the Land Transport Authority imposed a maximum punishment of S$2 million on SMRT (approximately US$1.526 million) for the two train disruptions along the North South line on 15 and 17 December 2011.[175] A Committee of Inquiry discovered shortcomings in the maintenance regime and checks, prompting then-CEO Saw Phaik Hwa to resign.[176] Since then, every MRT line had since been plagued with disruptions of various degrees of severity.

A much larger power-related incident than the December 2011 event occurred on 7 July 2015, when train services on both the North South and East West lines were shut down in both directions following a major power trip.[177] The disruption lasted for more than 3 hours, affecting 250,000 commuters. This was considered the worst disruption to the MRT network since it first began operations in 1987 – surpassing the December 2011 event. Independent experts from Sweden and Japan were hired to conduct investigation into the cause of the disruption. The cause was identified as damage to a third rail insulator due to a water leak at Tanjong Pagar station. Consequently, a program was implemented to replace insulators liable to similar failure.[178] For the July 2015 disruption, LTA imposed a higher penalty of S$5.4 million on SMRT.[179]

On 22 March 2016, a fatal accident occurred off Pasir Ris station. Two of SMRT's track-maintenance trainee staff were lethally run over by an approaching C151 at a signalling box of the station.[180] They were part of a technical team of 15 staff led by a supervisor and were asked to go down to the tracks to investigate an alarm triggered by a possible signalling equipment fault. The operator said the team had permission to access the tracks, but did not coordinate with a signal unit in the station control to ensure train captains in the area where the team was exercised caution while pulling into Pasir Ris station.[181] This incident resulted in a 2.5-hour service delay between Tanah Merah and Pasir Ris Stations, affecting at least 10,000 commuters.[182]

Impact and criticism[edit]

While Singaporeans began to notice some issues with the MRT system in terms of overcrowding, the December 2011 disruptions brought the state of public transportation as a whole to national and international prominence.[183] LTA also noted a marked increase in dissatisfaction with public transport with the release of the 2012 Public Transport Customer Satisfaction Survey, and promised government action to deal with issues relating to MRT and LRT disruptions.[184]

The government reviewed the penalties for train disruptions,[183] and made travel free available for all bus services passing MRT stations affected during any train disruptions. Exits were also made free.[185]

To increase satisfaction with the public transport, free morning off-peak travel, later changed to a discount, was introduced while improvements are ongoing.[183]

Despite efforts to step up maintenance efforts, on 7 October 2017, a poorly maintained float and pump system at Bishan station caused a tunnel flood from a torrential rainstorm. It was the worst train disruption since 2011 and the first ever flooding incident in MRT history that lasted almost a day, disrupting services underground.[186] This also resulted in further loss of public confidence and a huge debate among netizens and Singaporeans about the "high rankings" that manage the system, with calls being made for the resignation of Transport Minister Khaw Boon Wan.[187] Urban transport expert Dr Park Byung Joon has said that the negligence displayed by SMRT in this regard is tantamount to a criminal offence, after an internal investigation found that the maintenance crew of the Bishan Station's pump system had submitted maintenance records for nearly a year without actually carrying out the works.[188]

Despite these setbacks, efforts in both maintenance and renewal are starting to pay off with the MRT system clocking an average of 690,000 km between delays in 2018 – 3.8 times better than in 2017. The North South line, which was hit by the tunnel flood in 2017, in particular saw its train-km between delays increase by ten-fold from 89,000 km between delays in 2017 to 894,000 km in 2018.[189] By July 2019, the Mean Kilometres Between Failure (MKBF) for the North South and East West lines had jumped to 700,000 km and 1,400,000km respectively, with the latter now on par with the Hong Kong MTR and Taipei Metro.[190] In fact, the new challenges encountered by the Government was now on keeping the funding of the renewals required sustainable.[191]


Closed-circuit television cameras monitor activities at City Hall MRT station. A real-time video feed is broadcast and shown at the station concourse.
Airport scanners and security seen at Tampines MRT station.

Security concerns related to crime and terrorism were not high on the agenda of the system's planners at its inception.[192] After the Madrid train bombings in 2004 and the foiled plot to bomb the Yishun MRT station in 2001,[193] the operators deployed private, unarmed guards to patrol station platforms and conduct checks on the belongings of commuters, especially those carrying bulky items.[194]

Recorded announcements are frequently made to remind passengers to report suspicious activity and not to leave their belongings unattended. Digital closed-circuit cameras (CCTVs) have been upgraded with recording-capability at all stations and trains operated by SMRT Corporation.[195][196] Trash bins and mail boxes have been removed from station platforms and concourse levels to station entrances, to eliminate the risk of bombs planted in them.[197] Photography without permission was also banned in all MRT stations since the Madrid bombings, but it was not in the official statement in any public transport security reviews.[198]

In 2005, the Singapore Police Force announced plans to step up rail security by establishing a specialised security unit for public transport, the unit today is known as the Public Transport Security Command or more commonly known as TRANSCOM.[199] These armed officers began overt patrols on the MRT and LRT systems on 15 August 2005, conducting random patrols in pairs in and around rail stations and within trains.[200] They are trained and authorised to use their firearms at their discretion, including deadly force if deemed necessary.[201]

Civil exercises are regularly conducted to maintain preparedness for contingencies. In January 2006, Exercise Northstar V involved over 2,000 personnel from 22 government agencies responding to simulated bombings and chemical attacks at Dhoby Ghaut, Toa Payoh, Raffles Place and Marina Bay stations.[202] In August 2013, Exercise Greyhound tested the response of SBS Transit's Operations Control Centre and the implementation of its contingency plans for bus bridging, free bus service and deployment of Goodwill Ambassadors (GAs) during a simulated prolonged train service disruption. About 300 personnel including representatives from LTA, SBST, SMRT, the Singapore Police Force's Transport Command (TransCom), Traffic Police and Singapore Civil Defence Force (SCDF) participated in the exercise.[203]

Security concerns were brought up by the public when two incidents of vandalism at train depots occurred within two years.[204] In both incidents, graffiti on the affected trains was discovered after they entered revenue service.[205] The first incident, on 17 May 2010, involved a breach in the perimeter fence of Changi Depot and resulted in the imprisonment and caning of a Swiss citizen, and an Interpol arrest warrant for his accomplice. [206][207] SMRT Corporation received a S$50,000 fine by the Land Transport Authority for the first security breach.[207] Measures were put in place by the Public Transport Security Committee to enhance depot security in light of the first incident, but works were yet to be completed by SMRT Corporation when the second incident, on 17 August 2011, occurred at Bishan Depot.[204][205]

See also[edit]



  1. ^ Singapore's heavy rail network is composed of four distinct systems. Two of the four are rapid transit networks, chiefly the MRT system, which falls entirely within the city-state and forms the core of the network, and the planned two-station cross-border Johor Bahru–Singapore rapid transit system, which is expected to open in the mid-2020s, and will link to the mainline MRT.

    The other two systems include one currently operational cross-border intercity service from Singapore's Woodlands Train Checkpoint to Malaysia, as well as the planned Kuala Lumpur–Singapore high-speed rail system.
  2. ^ Excluding ridership figures for the Light Rail Transit (LRT).
  3. ^ Excluding privatised light rail and people mover systems that operate outside of the purview of the state and are thus not part of the mainline public transportation network, like the Sentosa Express and the Changi Airport Skytrain.
  4. ^ Although the MRT opened 3 years after the Manila Light Rail Transit System in the Philippines, the latter opened as a light rail system and operated as one for several years before gradually transitioning to a rapid transit system. In this respect, Singapore's MRT is the first operational rapid transit system in Southeast Asia.
  5. ^ NSEWL: S$11.67 billion
    NEL: S$5.39 billion
    CCL: S$15.67 billion
    DTL: S$20.7 billion
    TEL: S$25.0 billion
    Rolling stock: S$5.29 billion
    NSEWL asset renewal (excluding CR151 asset cost, including CR151 service support cost): >S$1.68 billion
    NEL asset renewal: S$117 million
    CCL asset renewal: Figures unavailable
  6. ^ Canberra infill station
  7. ^ Sungei Kadut and Brickland infill stations
  8. ^ Tuas West extension
  9. ^ Circle line extension
  10. ^ Circle line Stage 6
  11. ^ Excluding Bukit Brown MRT Station, which is not in operation
  12. ^ Woodleigh station
  13. ^ North East line extension
  14. ^ Downtown line Stage 3
  15. ^ Downtown line Stage 3e
  16. ^ Excluding duplicating interchange stations.
  17. ^ Fixed Block = Conventional Fixed Block using line of Sight. Fixed Block-Speed Coded = Fixed Block using Coded Track Circuits. DTG-TC = Fixed Block-Distance to Go using Track Circuits. DTG-R = Fixed-Block-Distance-to-Go using Radio. Moving Block TBTC = Moving Block using Induction Loops. Moving Block CBTC = Moving Block using Radio.
  18. ^ UTO = Unattended Train Operation. DTO = Driverless Train Operation. STO = Semi-automated Operation Mode


  1. ^ a b "Bus, train trips hit record high last year". The Straits Times. 4 February 2019. Archived from the original on 6 April 2019. Retrieved 6 April 2019.
  2. ^ [1]
  3. ^ [2]
  4. ^ Toh, Ting Wei. "New Sungei Kadut MRT station linking North-South and Downtown lines could shorten trips by 30 mins". The Straits Times.
  5. ^ Land Transport Authority, Singapore 1996, p. 8.
  6. ^
  7. ^ [3]
  8. ^ [4]
  9. ^ "Réseau express métropolitain". CDPQ Infra. 11 July 2017. Archived from the original on 9 February 2018. Retrieved 9 February 2018.
  10. ^ Briginshaw, David. "Automated metros set to reach 2200km by 2025". Archived from the original on 15 April 2018. Retrieved 10 February 2018.
  11. ^ [5]
  12. ^ Seah C. M. (1981). Southeast Asian Affairs. Singapore: Institute of Southeast Asian Studies. p. 293.
  13. ^ Sharp 2005, p. 66
  14. ^ Fwa Tien Fang (4 September 2004). Sustainable Urban Transportation Planning and Development — Issues and Challenges for Singapore (Report). Department of Civil Engineering, National University of Singapore. CiteSeerX
  15. ^ a b "1982 – The Year Work Began". Land Transport Authority. Archived from the original on 29 September 2013. Retrieved 16 November 2013.
  16. ^ Lee Siew Hoon & Chandra Mohan. "In Memoriam — Ong Teng Cheong: A Profile". Channel NewsAsia. Singapore. Archived from the original on 23 February 2002. Retrieved 26 November 2007.
  17. ^ Annual report 1984. Singapore: Mass Rapid Transit Corporation. 1084. p. 5.
  18. ^ Mass Rapid Transit Corporation, Singapore 1988, p. 10.
  19. ^ Sharp 2005, p. 109.
  20. ^ a b Lim Seng Tiong (11 February 1996). "Bukit Panjang to get S'pore's first light rail train". The Straits Times. Singapore. p. 1.
  21. ^ Sharp 2005, p. 122.
  22. ^ Karamjit Kaur (26 July 1999). "Bukit Panjang LRT to begin operating on Nov 6". The Straits Times. Singapore. p. 3.
  23. ^ "Opening of the Expo MRT Station". MOT. 10 January 2001. Retrieved 1 August 2019.
  24. ^ Karamjit Kaur (9 February 2002). "Next stop: Changi Airport; New MRT station at airport opens. With wider fare gates and a futuristic design, it promises to be a hit with commuters". The Straits Times (retrieved from NLB). Retrieved 30 August 2019.
  25. ^ "Dover Station Is Open!". LTA. 23 October 2001. Archived from the original on 4 June 2003. Retrieved 6 September 2019.
  26. ^ "All aboard at 'white elephant' station". The Straits Times. 16 January 2006. p. 3. Archived from the original on 22 August 2017. Retrieved 24 August 2017.
  27. ^ Hasnita A Majid (28 August 2005). "Residents bring up 'white elephant' Buangkok MRT during minister's visit". Channel NewsAsia / SafeTrolley. Archived from the original on 2 May 2013. Retrieved 22 April 2007.
  28. ^ Yvonne Cheong (12 November 2005). "Grassroots leaders plan celebration for Buangkok MRT station opening". Channel NewsAsia. Archived from the original on 2 February 2008.
  29. ^ "SBS Transit Opens Woodleigh and Damai Stations". SBS Transit. 8 March 2011. Archived from the original on 7 July 2017. Retrieved 12 December 2017. Woodleigh, the last unopened station along the North East line, will begin revenue service on Monday, 20 June 2011...
  30. ^ Yeo Ghim Lay; Goh Yi Han (28 February 2009). "Boon for Boon Lay". The Straits Times. Singapore. p. 32.
  31. ^ Cheryl Lim (21 February 2009). "Boon Lay MRT extension offers shorter journey times". Channel NewsAsia. Archived from the original on 24 July 2012.
  32. ^ "Early opening for Circle line from Bartley to Marymount". LTA. 16 April 2009. Retrieved 30 August 2019.
  33. ^ "Circle line from Bartley to Dhoby Ghaut to Open 17 April". LTA. 26 January 2010. Retrieved 6 September 2019.
  34. ^ "12 Circle line Stations, from Marymount to HarbourFront, to Open on 8 October". LTA. 1 August 2011. Retrieved 6 September 2019.
  35. ^ "Factsheet on Circle line Extension". LTA. 28 November 2011. Retrieved 6 September 2019.
  36. ^ a b c d "Downtown line". Land Transport Authority. 17 December 2013. Archived from the original on 1 November 2019. Retrieved 27 December 2019.
  37. ^ "Downtown line Stage 1 officially opened by PM Lee". The Straits Times. Singapore. 21 December 2013. Archived from the original on 19 October 2015. Retrieved 22 December 2013.
  38. ^ "DTL2 is a key step towards a car-lite Singapore, says PM Lee as he opens the new line". The Straits Times. Singapore. 26 December 2015. Archived from the original on 27 December 2015. Retrieved 26 December 2015.
  39. ^ "Tuas West Extension Opens On 18 June 2017". Land Transport Authority. 27 April 2017. Archived from the original on 27 December 2019. Retrieved 27 December 2019.
  40. ^ "Downtown line 3 officially opens; Khaw Boon Wan announces review of fares incurred when switching between stations". The Straits Times. 20 October 2017. Archived from the original on 21 October 2017. Retrieved 20 October 2017.
  41. ^ "Canberra MRT station to open on Nov 2". CNA. 20 May 2019. Archived from the original on 20 May 2019. Retrieved 20 May 2019.
  42. ^ a b "North-South line". Land Transport Authority. Archived from the original on 1 November 2019. Retrieved 27 December 2019.
  43. ^ a b "East-West line". Land Transport Authority. 29 January 2014. Archived from the original on 1 November 2019. Retrieved 27 December 2019.
  44. ^ a b c "Our Business". SMRT Corporation. Archived from the original on 23 April 2015. Retrieved 24 April 2015.
  45. ^ a b "Overview – North East line". SBS Transit. Archived from the original on 8 June 2014. Retrieved 23 June 2014.
  46. ^ a b Mass Rapid Transit Corporation, Singapore 1988, p. 14
  47. ^ "Civil Defence Shelter Programme". Singapore Civil Defence Force. Archived from the original on 30 December 2006. Retrieved 1 January 2007.
  48. ^ a b Kwan Cheng Fai (April 1987). Architecture of Singapore MRT Underground Stations Concept Layout and Planning. MRTC & IES 1987. pp. 29–33.
  49. ^ Eoin Licken (1 July 1999). "New Frontier for Mobile-Phone Operators Lies Underground". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 26 May 2016. Retrieved 17 February 2017.
  50. ^ Pang Kia Seng; Michael T W Grant; Tom Curley; Scott Danielson (April 1987). Architectural Aspects of Singapore's Mass Rapid Transit Elevated Stations. MRTC & IES 1987. pp. 13–27.
  51. ^ Geraldine Yeo (8 February 1996). "MRT shops: What works and why". The Straits Times. Singapore. p. 43.
  52. ^ "Dual speeds planned for escalators at MRT stations". The Straits Times. 7 August 2016. Archived from the original on 6 April 2019. Retrieved 6 April 2019.
  53. ^ Toh Su Fen (Land Transport Authority) (2 July 1998). "Public transport can't cater to all disabled (Letter to the editor)". The Straits Times. Singapore. p. 49. Archived from the original on 25 September 2006.
  54. ^ "Accessibility". Ministry of Transport. Archived from the original on 6 April 2019. Retrieved 6 April 2019.
  55. ^ Sharp 2005, pp. 176–179.
  56. ^ Land Transport Authority et al., Journeys Issue 42 (Jan/Feb 2003), "Get a Lift-up!", p. 10.
  57. ^ "LTA Completes Barrier Free Accessibility Enhancement". 23 October 2011. Retrieved 6 April 2019.
  58. ^ "Train, bus runs". The Straits Times. Singapore. 24 December 2007. p. 18.
  59. ^ Audrey Teo-Loh & Patrick de Labrusse (April 1987). Orchard Station Architectural Works. MRTC & IES 1987. pp. 53–63.
  60. ^ Khaw Boon Wan (6 June 2003). "Speech at Launch of Art in Transit" (Press release). Ministry of Information, Communications and the Arts. Archived from the original on 29 November 2007.
  61. ^ Naidu Ratnala Thulaja. "Woodlands MRT Station". National Library Board Infopedia. Archived from the original on 25 February 2012. Retrieved 26 November 2007.
  62. ^ "Art in Transit brochure" (PDF). Land Transport Authority. Archived from the original (PDF) on 30 August 2005. Retrieved 7 December 2005.
  63. ^ Adeline Chia (21 August 2008). "Draw the line; Stop and look before you go as the new $6.7-billion MRT line will be a charmed circle of art and design". The Straits Times. p. 50.
  64. ^ Karamjit Kaur (11 February 1998). "Changi Airport MRT station designed for travellers". The Straits Times. p. 1.
  65. ^ "EXPO Station, Singapore, 1997–2000". Foster and Partners. Archived from the original on 18 September 2007. Retrieved 20 September 2007.
  66. ^ "15 of the Most Beautiful Subway Stops in the World – BootsnAll Travel Articles". Archived from the original on 17 May 2019. Retrieved 31 July 2019.
  67. ^ "Bras Basah Mass Rapid Transit Station". World Buildings Directory. 2009. Archived from the original on 20 February 2012.
  68. ^ a b "Hyogo Works History". Kawasaki Heavy Industries. Archived from the original on 18 November 2005. Retrieved 19 March 2006.
  69. ^ a b c Mass Rapid Transit Corporation, Singapore 1988, p. 15.
  70. ^ Chris Sherwell (12 April 1984). "Kawasaki wins major Singapore metro contract". Financial Times. London. p. 1.
  71. ^ "References — Metro System, MRTC, Six-Car Units, Singapore". Siemens AG. Archived from the original on 31 January 2008. Retrieved 7 December 2005.
  72. ^ "Improved MRT train for a better ride arrives". The Straits Times. Singapore. 21 September 1994. p. 3.
  73. ^ Singapore, National Library Board. "Woodlands MRT line | Infopedia". Archived from the original on 1 January 2018. Retrieved 6 January 2018.
  74. ^ "Soon, a shorter wait for MRT trains". The Straits Times. Singapore. 9 May 2000. p. 31.
  75. ^ "Both orders for Singapore Subway Train 132 LTA" (Press release). 29 August 2012. Archived from the original on 23 October 2012. Retrieved 5 September 2012.
  76. ^ "LTA awards $368m train supply job". The Business Times. Singapore. 7 May 2009.
  77. ^ "AWARD OF CONTRACT 151A; 22 NEW TRAINS FOR NORTH-SOUTH / EAST-WEST LINES". 6 May 2009. Archived from the original on 15 July 2014. Retrieved 6 May 2009.
  78. ^ "Trains for North–South/East–West lines and Tuas West Extension". Land Transport Authority. 28 August 2012. Archived from the original on 16 November 2013.
  79. ^ hermesauto (30 September 2018). "New MRT trains with tip-up seats now in service". The Straits Times. Archived from the original on 30 March 2019. Retrieved 30 March 2019.
  80. ^ "12 More Trains to Boost Capacity of North-South and East-West lines". Land Transport Authority. 22 September 2015. Archived from the original on 27 December 2019. Retrieved 27 December 2019.
  81. ^ Tan, Christopher (22 September 2015). "Kawasaki clinches contract for final batch of new MRT trains". Straits Times. Archived from the original on 25 September 2015. Retrieved 22 September 2015.
  82. ^ "Land Transport Authority – We Keep Your World Moving". Retrieved 13 August 2018.
  83. ^ "New fleet to replace 66 oldest MRT trains from 2021". Channel NewsAsia. Archived from the original on 25 July 2018. Retrieved 25 July 2018.
  84. ^ "Alstom to supply 34 Metropolis trains and signaling upgrade to Singapore metro" (Press release). Paris: Alstom. 1 February 2012. Archived from the original on 10 May 2012. Retrieved 8 April 2012.
  85. ^ Xavier Champaud (24 October 2005). CCL — The Longest Automatic Metro line in the World (PDF). IRSE Technical Convention, Singapore: Institution of Railway Signal Engineers, Singapore. p. 6. Archived from the original (PDF) on 25 February 2009. Retrieved 18 December 2008.
  86. ^ "Award of Electrical and Mechanical Systems Contract 830 for the Marina line" (Press release). Land Transport Authority. 28 December 2000. Archived from the original on 11 August 2003. Retrieved 12 July 2014.
  87. ^ "LTA and SMRT Award Contracts for New Trains and Re-Signalling Project". Land Transport Authority. 1 February 2012. Archived from the original on 29 September 2013. Retrieved 16 November 2013.
  88. ^ "Alstom to Supply 17 New Trains for North East line Extension and Circle line 6". Land Transport Authority. 30 April 2018. Retrieved 23 November 2019.
  89. ^ "Joint News Release by the Land Transport Authority (LTA) & SMRT – Upgrading the Circle line in Preparation for Circle line 6". Land Transport Authority. 25 July 2019. Retrieved 23 November 2019.
  90. ^ "Tender information". Archived from the original on 26 July 2018. Retrieved 26 July 2018.
  91. ^ a b "Shorter Waiting Time With 15 More Trains For Downtown line". Land Transport Authority. 28 March 2013. Archived from the original on 11 April 2013. Retrieved 28 March 2013.
  92. ^ "First Downtown line train lands in Singapore". Land Transport Authority. Archived from the original on 29 September 2013. Retrieved 16 November 2013.
  93. ^ "LTA Awards 6 Downtown line Contracts Totalling $1.13 Billion". Land Transport Authority. 7 November 2008. Archived from the original on 11 April 2013. Retrieved 7 November 2008.
  94. ^ "Contract T251". Land Transport Authority. 28 May 2014. Archived from the original on 29 May 2014.
  95. ^ "Train and System Information (Trains)". SMRT Corporation. Archived from the original (Archive) on 1 April 2001. Retrieved 2 January 2007.
  96. ^ a b I J Mortimer & M Ishizuka (April 1987). Mechanical Features of Singapore MRT Rolling Stock. MRTC & IES 1987. pp. 411–419.
  97. ^ Ching Li Tor (4 May 2005). "Fair grounds for fare hikes?". Today. Singapore.
  98. ^ T. Rajan (5 November 2006). "MRT trains get $145m overhaul". The Straits Times. Singapore. p. 1.
  99. ^ a b Karamjit Kaur (20 November 2002). "Driverless MRT trains on new line will be safe; The North East MRT line will have safety features like CCTVs and smoke detectors to protect commuters, says LTA". The Straits Times. p. 10.
  100. ^ Land Transport Authority et al., Journeys Issue 42 (Jan/Feb 2003), "Safe, Sound and Fully Automated", pp. 8–9.
  101. ^ "Commencement of revenue service at Changi Airport Station" (PDF) (Press release). SMRT Corporation. 6 February 2002. Archived from the original (PDF) on 3 October 2008.
  102. ^ "Board MRT to airport from Tanah Merah". The Straits Times. 18 July 2003. p. 2.
  103. ^ Karamjit Kaur; Shahida Ariff (24 April 2002). "MRT slow-down as trains are taken off for checks; SMRT pulls out 21 trains after detecting gear fault; longer wait for commuters, direct service to Changi Airport affected". The Straits Times. p. 6.
  104. ^ "Joint Team on Track to Meet COI Recommendations to Improve Rail Reliability". Land Transport Authority. 14 May 2013. Archived from the original on 27 December 2019. Retrieved 27 December 2019.
  105. ^ "Engineering Trains in SMRT". SMRT. 30 August 2015. Archived from the original on 5 April 2016. Retrieved 6 October 2019.
  106. ^ "Signalling Systems". SGTrains.
  107. ^ "Live testing of East-West line signalling system likely to take place every day in June". Archived from the original on 14 May 2018. Retrieved 14 May 2018.
  108. ^ "Communications-based train control (CBTC)". Land Transport Guru.
  109. ^ Mass Rapid Transit Corporation, Singapore 1988, p. 46.
  110. ^ B B Broms & J N Shirlaw (April 1987). Depot Sites. MRTC & IES 1987. pp. 71–77.
  111. ^ "Tuas Depot would take pressure off existing depot, boost power capacity: Khaw". 13 November 2017. Archived from the original on 26 May 2019. Retrieved 26 May 2019.
  112. ^ "Room to develop at new Circle MRT line depot". The Straits Times. 28 October 2003. p. 116.
  113. ^ Royston Sim & Maria Almenoar (14 August 2012). "New MRT line in east by 2020; will have 10 stops". The Straits Times. Singapore.
  114. ^ a b c "Joint News Release by the Land Transport Authority & Singapore Land Authority – Thomson–East Coast Links". Land Transport Authority. 15 August 2014. Archived from the original on 19 August 2014.
  115. ^ "Joint News Release by the Land Transport Authority (LTA) & SLA – Jurong Region line: Enhancing Connectivity in the West". Land Transport Authority. Archived from the original on 27 December 2019. Retrieved 27 December 2019.
  116. ^ "早上尖峰时段公交乘客比率提高". 联合早报 (in Chinese). 17 June 2017. Archived from the original on 28 April 2018. Retrieved 13 May 2018.
  117. ^ a b "Cross Island line". Archived from the original on 27 December 2019. Retrieved 27 December 2019.
  118. ^ "Integrated Train Testing Centre". Land Transport Guru. Retrieved 24 April 2019.
  119. ^ a b Land Transport Authority, Singapore 1996, pp. 44–47
  120. ^ "Other Rail Projects". Land Transport Authority. Archived from the original on 13 December 2005. Retrieved 7 December 2005.
  121. ^ "Land Transport Masterplan" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on 28 March 2014. Retrieved 10 May 2014.
  122. ^ a b c d e f "New Sungei Kadut MRT station linking North-South and Downtown lines could shorten trips by 30 mins". The Straits Times. Archived from the original on 25 May 2019. Retrieved 25 May 2019.
  123. ^ "Land Transport Master Plan 2040". Retrieved 11 December 2019.
  124. ^ "Downtown line 2 draws crowds and curious commuters on opening day". The Straits Times. 27 December 2015. Archived from the original on 4 April 2019. Retrieved 6 April 2019.
  125. ^ "Downtown line 3 opens to public". The Straits Times. 21 October 2017. Archived from the original on 6 April 2019. Retrieved 6 April 2019.
  126. ^ "Downtown line 3 Extension". Archived from the original on 27 December 2019. Retrieved 27 December 2019.
  127. ^ "Hume MRT station to open by 2025, says Janil Puthucheary". The Straits Times. 7 March 2019. Retrieved 12 March 2019.
  128. ^ "Thomson-East Coast line". Land Transport Authority of Singapore. Archived from the original on 25 December 2019. Retrieved 27 December 2019.
  129. ^ "Speech by Mrs Josephine Teo, Minister of State, Ministry of Finance and Ministry of Transport, at DTL3 Tunnelling Works Ceremony". Ministry of Transport. Archived from the original on 16 August 2017. Retrieved 11 July 2012.
  130. ^ Liu, Vanessa (11 December 2019). "First three stations of Thomson-East Coast line to begin service on Jan 31; free travel for commuters for three days". The Straits Times. Retrieved 11 December 2019.
  131. ^ "Speech by Mr Lui Tuck Yew, Minister for Transport, at the Inspection of Downtown line 1 Station and Announcement of Thomson line alignment, 29 August 2012, 10.00am at Telok Ayer Station". Ministry of Transport. 29 August 2012. Archived from the original on 8 September 2012. Retrieved 29 August 2012.
  132. ^ "Thomson-East Coast line to have station at Founders' Memorial in Marina Bay". The Straits Times. 7 January 2019. Retrieved 28 April 2019.
  133. ^ "Singapore aims for fully cashless transport system by 2020: LTA". Channel NewsAsia. Archived from the original on 14 August 2017. Retrieved 14 August 2017.
  134. ^ a b "New MRT stations, line extensions and a possible new rail line: LTA's 2040 blueprint". TODAYonline. 25 May 2019. Archived from the original on 25 May 2019.
  135. ^ "Studies for West Coast extension ongoing". The Straits Times. 24 July 2019. Retrieved 11 December 2019.
  136. ^ "Jurong line may be extended to link with Circle line". 25 August 2015. Archived from the original on 5 October 2017. Retrieved 4 November 2017.
  137. ^ a b "Two New Rail lines and Three New Extensions to Expand Rail Network by 2030". Land Transport Authority. 17 January 2013. Archived from the original on 27 December 2019.
  138. ^ "New train station in Punggol North by 2023". Channel NewsAsia. 7 June 2017. Archived from the original on 7 June 2017. Retrieved 7 June 2017.
  139. ^ "North-East line extension to open in 2023 instead of 2030; to cater to developments in the Punggol area". The Straits Times. 7 June 2017. Archived from the original on 11 June 2017. Retrieved 7 June 2017.
  140. ^ "North-East line extension serving Punggol North to open in 2023 instead of 2030, to cater to developments in the Punggol North area". The Straits Times. 7 June 2017. Archived from the original on 11 June 2017. Retrieved 7 June 2017.
  141. ^ R C Longden & E W Finch (April 1987). Automatic Fare Collection — Serving the Commuter. MRTC & IES 1987. pp. 319–324.
  142. ^ a b c Sharp 2005, pp. 113–115.
  143. ^ migration (27 February 2013). "New MRT standard ticket scheme operational islandwide". The Straits Times. Retrieved 11 March 2019.
  144. ^ a b Land Transport Authority, Singapore 1996, pp. 58–59.
  145. ^ "Tricky balance in fare changes". The Straits Times. 17 September 2007. p. 21.
  146. ^ Yvonne Cheong (14 April 2005). "Public transport fare hike not justified as SMRT still profitable: CASE". Channel NewsAsia. Singapore. Archived from the original on 2 February 2008.
  147. ^ Christopher Tan (13 September 2008). "Bus and MRT fares to go up from Oct 1". The Straits Times. p. 1.
  148. ^ "Public transport fares may be standardised". The Straits Times. 10 October 2016. Archived from the original on 6 April 2019. Retrieved 6 April 2019.
  149. ^ "Public transport fares to fall by 4.2% from Dec 30 due to lower energy prices". CNA. Archived from the original on 6 April 2019. Retrieved 6 April 2019.
  150. ^ "PTC to review fares incurred when switching between MRT stations, says Khaw". Channel NewsAsia. 22 October 2017. Archived from the original on 23 October 2017.
  151. ^ Koh, Valerie (20 October 2017). "Review underway to address additional fares when switching between MRT lines: Khaw". TODAY Online. Archived from the original on 23 October 2017.
  152. ^ hermesauto (22 March 2018). "Commuters can exit and re-enter rail system without penalty". The Straits Times. Archived from the original on 26 March 2018. Retrieved 11 March 2019.
  153. ^ a b Maria Almenoar (9 January 2009). "Free replacement exercise on till Sept 30". The Straits Times. Archived from the original on 5 January 2013. Retrieved 20 July 2009.
  154. ^ Imelda Saad (26 August 2008). "New e-payment system and next generation card for public transport". Channel NewsAsia. Archived from the original on 30 August 2008. Retrieved 30 August 2008.
  155. ^ "LTA launches digital payment scheme for public transport". The Straits Times. 4 April 2019. Archived from the original on 5 April 2019. Retrieved 5 April 2019.
  156. ^ "Visa contactless cards can be used to pay train, bus fares from June 6". The Straits Times. 16 May 2019. Archived from the original on 25 May 2019. Retrieved 25 May 2019.
  157. ^ a b "Commuters to be able to pay for public transport rides with Nets cards from next Saturday". The Straits Times. 7 November 2019. Retrieved 11 December 2019.
  158. ^ Maria Almenoar (13 December 2007). "New unlimited travel pass for visitors". The Straits Times. p. 35.
  159. ^ Tammy Tan (SBS Transit) (24 December 2005). "Measures in place to ensure safe ride on NEL (Letter to the editor)". The Straits Times. p. 12.
  160. ^ Y C Siew & J P Copsey (April 1987). Singapore Mass Rapid Transit System Design for Fire and Emergency. MRTC & IES 1987. pp. 131–139.
  161. ^ "Safety at MRT and LRT Stations — Respect The Yellow line" (Press release). Land Transport Authority. 20 November 2005. Archived from the original on 27 September 2007.
  162. ^ "Speech by Mr Raymond Lim, Minister for Transport, at the Visit to Kim Chuan Depot, 25 January 2008, 9.00am" (Press release). Ministry of Transport. 25 January 2008. Archived from the original on 12 January 2015. Retrieved 11 January 2015.
  163. ^ "Platform screen doors for all above-ground MRT stations by 2012". The Straits Times. 25 January 2008. Archived from the original on 28 January 2008.
  164. ^ Yeo Ghim Lay (3 September 2008). "Platform doors for elevated MRT stations". The Straits Times. p. 26.
  165. ^ "LTA Completes Installation of Half Height Platform Screen Doors". Land Transport Authority. 14 March 2012. Archived from the original on 2 February 2014. Retrieved 16 November 2013.
  166. ^ "Rapid Transit Systems Act (Chapter 263A, Section 42)". Singapore Statutes Online. Archived from the original on 23 August 2004. Retrieved 7 December 2005.
  167. ^ Teh Jen Lee (27 July 2009). "Fine for eating sweets too strict?". The New Paper. Archived from the original on 28 March 2014. Retrieved 28 March 2014.
  168. ^ Matthew Pereira; Branden Pereira (6 August 1993). "MRT Trains collide at Clementi: 132 hurt". The Straits Times. pp. 1 & 25.
  169. ^ A. M. Puzrin; E. E. Alonso; N. M. Pinyol (2010). Braced Excavation Collapse: Nicoll Highway, Singapore. Geomechanics of Failures. Springer. pp. 151–181. doi:10.1007/978-90-481-3531-8_6. ISBN 978-90-481-3530-1.
  170. ^ "MRT train collides with stationary train at Joo Koon station; 29 people hurt". Channel NewsAsia. Retrieved 17 November 2017.
  171. ^ "Joo Koon train collision: Total number of injured rises to 38". Channel NewsAsia. Archived from the original on 6 January 2018. Retrieved 6 January 2018.
  172. ^ "Faulty train, supervision system behind major NSL, DTL disruptions". TODAYonline. 17 August 2017. Archived from the original on 20 May 2019. Retrieved 31 July 2019.
  173. ^ "Ex-SMRT engineer speaks out about the frequent breakdowns". 13 July 2015. Archived from the original on 28 January 2018. Retrieved 13 March 2018.
  174. ^ Hetty Musfirah & Abdul Khamid (10 July 2012). "Govt shares some blame for Dec's MRT breakdowns: Lui". Channel NewsAsia. Archived from the original on 28 March 2014. Retrieved 28 March 2014.
  175. ^ "SMRT to be Fined $2 million for December 2011 Train Service Disruptions along the North South line". Land Transport Authority. 16 July 2012. Archived from the original on 28 July 2012.
  176. ^ "SMRT chief executive resigns". Asiaone. SPH. Archived from the original on 30 October 2017. Retrieved 2 November 2017.
  177. ^ "Singapore's subway suffers massive breakdown in rush hour". Reuters. 7 July 2015. Archived from the original on 19 September 2017. Retrieved 1 July 2017.
  178. ^ "Massive SMRT disruption due to leak on rail insulator". The Star (Malaysia). 30 July 2015. Archived from the original on 27 September 2015. Retrieved 26 September 2015.
  179. ^ "SMRT to be fined a record S$5.4m for July 7 MRT breakdown". Channel NewsAsia. 23 September 2015. Archived from the original on 28 September 2015. Retrieved 28 September 2015.
  180. ^ Seow Bei Yi; Lim, Adrian; Driscoll, Shea (23 March 2016). "SMRT accident: 2 men were part of group of 15 led by supervisor and walking facing oncoming train". The Straits Times. Singapore. Archived from the original on 9 March 2017. Retrieved 16 December 2016.
  181. ^ "SMRT acknowledges safety procedure not followed before fatal accident". Channel NewsAsia. Singapore. 23 March 2016. Archived from the original on 18 October 2016. Retrieved 16 December 2016.
  182. ^ "2 SMRT staff dead in accident near Pasir Ris station". Channel NewsAsia. Singapore. 22 March 2016. Archived from the original on 26 March 2016. Retrieved 24 March 2016.
  183. ^ a b c Sim, Royston (3 May 2014). "On track to solve public transport woes?" (PDF). Straits Times. Archived from the original (PDF) on 29 September 2015. Retrieved 28 September 2015.
  184. ^ "Public Transport Overall Satisfaction Dips in 2012; Measures to Address Areas of Dissatisfaction will be Taken". Land Transport Authority. Archived from the original on 27 December 2019. Retrieved 27 December 2019.
  185. ^ "Free bus services during extended MRT disruption". Ministry of Transport Singapore. Archived from the original on 29 September 2015. Retrieved 28 September 2015.
  186. ^ "Flooded tunnel causes disruption". TodayOnline. 8 October 2017. Archived from the original on 21 October 2017. Retrieved 21 October 2017.
  187. ^ "Citizens take issues with Transport Minister's statement on maintenance lapses of SMRT". The Online Citizen. Neyla Zannia. Archived from the original on 7 November 2017. Retrieved 2 November 2017.
  188. ^ "Negligence by SMRT crew tantamount to criminal offence, analyst says". TodayOnline. MediaCorp. Archived from the original on 3 November 2017. Retrieved 1 November 2017.
  189. ^ "MRT network hit new high in measure of reliability". The New Paper. Singapore Press Holdings. 12 February 2019.
  190. ^ "North-South line's train reliability now on par with Hong Kong, Taipei systems: Khaw Boon Wan". Channel News Asia. Mediacorp. 5 July 2019.
  191. ^ "Singapore's MRT railway revival bodes well for ruling PAP, but can it last?". South China Morning Post. 14 October 2019.
  192. ^ López, M.J.J. (1996), Den Haag: RCM-advies, "Crime Prevention Guidelines for the Construction & Management of Metro Systems" Archived 3 February 2006 at the Wayback Machine, pp. 35–39.
  193. ^ "The Link of the Yishun Videotape" (Press release). Minister for Home Affairs (Singapore). 24 January 2002. Archived from the original on 5 December 2012.
  194. ^ Goh Chin Lian (1 June 2004). "Security guards start MRT patrols". The Straits Times. p. 4.
  195. ^ Johnson Choo (7 August 2004). "CCTVs at 35 elevated MRT stations to have recording capability by Oct 2004". Channel NewsAsia. Archived from the original on 13 November 2004.
  196. ^ Goh Chin Lian (6 June 2006). "Buses, trains get security cameras". The Straits Times. p. 5.
  197. ^ Goh Chin Lian (13 May 2005). "Postboxes moved out of MRT, LRT stations". The Straits Times. Singapore. p. 5.
  198. ^ Karen Chow (SMRT Corporation) (4 September 2007). "Why no photos at MRT stations... (Letter to the editor)". The Straits Times. p. 29.
  199. ^ Dominique Loh (2 May 2005). "MRT stations to have armed police officers on patrol". Channel NewsAsia. Archived from the original on 2 February 2008.
  200. ^ Khushwant Singh; Asad Latif (16 August 2005). "Armed police patrol trains". The Straits Times. p. 1.
  201. ^ Johnson Choo (15 August 2005). "Special armed police unit begins MRT patrols". Channel NewsAsia. Archived from the original on 2 February 2008.
  202. ^ "Singapore holds largest-ever terror attack response drill". Channel NewsAsia. 8 January 2006. Archived from the original on 17 January 2006.
  203. ^ "Joint News Release by the Land Transport Authority & SBST – Ground Deployment Exercise to Improve Incident Management". Land Transport Authority. 22 August 2013. Archived from the original on 27 December 2019. Retrieved 27 December 2019.
  204. ^ a b Joy Fang (19 August 2011). "MRT graffiti read: 'Jet Setter's'". my paper. Singapore. Archived from the original on 1 June 2012. Retrieved 19 September 2011.
  205. ^ a b "MRT train vandalised at Bishan depot". AsiaOne. Singapore. 17 August 2011. Archived from the original on 25 August 2011. Retrieved 19 September 2011.
  206. ^ Imelda Saad (8 June 2010). "SMRT says staff mistook graffiti on train for advert". Channel NewsAsia. Archived from the original on 29 December 2011. Retrieved 19 September 2011.
  207. ^ a b Evelyn Choo (14 February 2011). "SMRT given maximum fine". Channel NewsAsia. Archived from the original on 31 August 2011. Retrieved 19 September 2011.

Academic publications[edit]

  • Sock, Y.P. & Walder, Jay H. (1999). Singapore's Public Transport.

Corporate and governmental sources[edit]

  • Sharp, Ilsa (2005). The Journey — Singapore's Land Transport Story. SNP:Editions. ISBN 978-981-248-101-6.
  • Land Transport Authority, Singapore (2 January 1996). A World Class Land Transport System — White Paper presented to Parliament. ISBN 978-9971-88-488-8.
  • Mass Rapid Transit Corporation, Singapore (1993). Stored Value — A Decade of the MRTC. ISBN 978-981-00-5034-4.
  • Mass Rapid Transit Corporation, Singapore (1988). The MRT Story. ISBN 978-981-00-0251-0.
  • Singapore MRT Limited (1987). MRT Guide Book. ISBN 978-981-00-0150-6.
  • Mass Rapid Transit Corporation (MRTC) and Institution of Engineers Singapore (IES) (1987). Mass Rapid Transit System : Proceedings of the Singapore Mass Rapid Transit Conference, Singapore 6–9 April 1987. ISBN 978-9971-84-636-7.

External links[edit]