Singapore dollar

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Singapore dollar
Singapore dollar (English)
Dolar Singapura (Malay)
新加坡元 (Chinese)
சிங்கப்பூர் வெள்ளி (Tamil)
SGD 50 Paper f.jpg
SGD 50
ISO 4217
CodeSGD
Number702
Exponent2
Denominations
Subunit
 1/100cent
SymbolS$ or $
NicknameSing-dollar, Sing
Banknotes
 Freq. used$2, $5, $10, $50, $100, $1,000
 Rarely used$1, $20, $25, $500, $10,000
Coins
 Freq. used5, 10, 20, 50 cents, $1
 Rarely used1 cent, $5, $10
Demographics
User(s) Singapore
 Brunei (alongside the Brunei dollar)
Issuance
Monetary authorityMonetary Authority of Singapore
 Websitewww.mas.gov.sg
MintSingapore Mint
 Websitewww.singaporemint.com
Valuation
Inflation0.6 % at January 2017
Pegged byBrunei dollar at par
Singapore dollar
Chinese name
Chinese新加坡元
Malay name
MalayDolar/Ringgit Singapura
Tamil name
Tamilசிங்கப்பூர் வெள்ளி

The Singapore dollar (sign: S$; code: SGD) is the official currency of Singapore. It is divided into 100 cents. It is normally abbreviated with the dollar sign $, or S$ to distinguish it from other dollar-denominated currencies. The Monetary Authority of Singapore issues the banknotes and coins of the Singapore dollar.

As of 2016, the Singapore dollar is the twelfth-most traded currency in the world by value.[1] Apart from its use in Singapore, the Singapore dollar is also accepted as customary tender in Brunei according to the Currency Interchangeability Agreement between the Monetary Authority of Singapore and the Autoriti Monetari Brunei Darussalam (Monetary Authority of Brunei Darussalam).[2] Likewise, the Brunei dollar is also customarily accepted in Singapore.

History[edit]

Between 1845 and 1939, Singapore used the Straits dollar.[3] This was replaced by the Malayan dollar,[3] and, from 1953, the Malaya and British Borneo dollar, which were issued by the Board of Commissioners of Currency, Malaya and British Borneo.[3]

Singapore continued to use the common currency upon joining Malaysia in 1963,[3] but only two years after Singapore's expulsion and independence from Malaysia in 1965, the monetary union between Malaysia, Singapore and Brunei broke down.[3] Singapore established the Board of Commissioners of Currency, Singapore, on 7 April 1967[4] and issued its first coins and notes.[3] Nevertheless, the Singapore dollar was exchangeable at par with the Malaysian ringgit until 1973,[3] and interchangeability with the Brunei dollar is still maintained.[3]

Initially, the Singapore dollar was pegged to the pound sterling at a rate of two shillings and four pence to the dollar, or S$60 = £7, working out to 8.57 dollars to the pound sterling. This peg lasted until the demise of the Sterling Area due to the Nixon Shock in the early 1970s, after which the Singaporean dollar was linked to the US dollar for a short time. As Singapore's economy grew and its trade links diversified to many other countries and regions, Singapore moved towards pegging its currency against a fixed and undisclosed trade-weighted basket of currencies from 1973 to 1985.

Before 1970, the various monetary functions associated with a central bank were performed by several government departments and agencies. As Singapore progressed, the demands of an increasingly complex banking and monetary environment necessitated streamlining the functions to facilitate the development of a more dynamic and coherent policy on monetary matters. Therefore, the Parliament of Singapore passed the Monetary Authority of Singapore Act in 1970, leading to the formation of MAS on 1 January 1971. The MAS Act gave the MAS the authority to regulate all elements of monetary, banking, and financial aspects of Singapore.

From 1985 onwards, Singapore adopted a more market-oriented exchange regime, classified as a Monitoring Band, in which the Singapore dollar is allowed to float (within an undisclosed bandwidth of a central parity) but closely monitored by the Monetary Authority of Singapore (MAS) against a concealed basket of currencies of Singapore's major trading partners and competitors. This, in theory, allows the Singaporean government to have more control over imported inflation and to ensure that Singapore's exports remain competitive.

On 1 October 2002, the Board of Commissioners of Currency Singapore (BCCS) merged with the Monetary Authority of Singapore (MAS), which took over the responsibility of banknote issuance.[5]

Currency in circulation[edit]

As of 2012, the total currency in circulation was S$29.1 billion.[6] All issued Singapore currency in circulation (notes and coins) are fully backed by external assets in its Currency Fund to maintain public confidence.[7][8] Such external assets consists of all or any of the following:[9] (a) gold and silver in any form; (b) foreign exchange in the form of demand or time deposits; bank balances and money at call; Treasury Bills; notes or coins; (c) securities of or guaranteed by foreign governments or international financial institutions; (d) equities; (e) corporate bonds; (f) currency and financial futures; (g) any other asset which the Authority, with the approval of the President of Singapore, considers suitable for inclusion.

In 2017, the government, in the second reading of the Monetary Authority of Singapore (Amendment) Bill 2017, announced that the Currency Fund will be merged with other funds of the MAS, because the currency in circulation is effectively backed by the full financial strength and assets of MAS, which is much larger than the Currency Fund. As at 31 March 2017, MAS's assets (S$395 billion) were more than seven times larger than the assets of the Currency Fund (S$55 billion). The proposed amendment will merge the Currency Fund with the other funds of MAS and streamline MAS's operations. The Government has said that its support for the currency in circulation, as set out in the Currency Act, remains unchanged.[10]

Singapore's foreign reserves officially stood at over US$260.7 billion, as of April 2017 according to the MAS.[11]

Coins[edit]

In 1967, the first series of coins was introduced in denominations of 1, 5, 10, 20 and 50 cents and 1 dollar. These coins depicted wildlife and other images relating to the island nation and were designed by Stuart Devlin, the same artist credited for the 1966 designs on Australia's decimal coin series. The sizes were the same as those used for the Malaysian ringgit and based directly off the old coinage of the former Malaya and British Borneo dollar. The 1-cent coin was bronze while the other denominations were copper-nickel. Later, in 1976, the 1-cent coin was changed to copper-clad steel. The production of the first series was phased out by 1985.

First Series (Marine Series) (1967–1985) [1]
Value Technical parameters Description Date of issue
Diameter Thickness Mass Composition Edge Obverse Reverse
1 cent 17.78 mm 1.118 mm 1.940 g Bronze Plain A high-rise public housing block with a fountain in front and clouds in the background Value and Year 12 June 1967
1.744 g Copper-clad steel 1976
5 cents 16.26 mm 1.02 mm 1.410 g Cupro-nickel Milled A snake-bird sitting in its nest and preening its feathers. Value and Year 12 June 1967
1.260 g Cupro-nickel clad steel
5 cents (FAO) 21.23 mm 1.27 mm 1.240 g Aluminium A fish and the phrases "INCREASE PRODUCTION" and "MORE FOOD FROM THE SEA." 1971
10 cents 19.41 mm 1.40 mm 2.83 g Cupro-nickel A seahorse with a stylised piece of seaweed. 12 June 1967
20 cents 23.60 mm 1.78 mm 5.66 g A swordfish against a background symbolising water.
50 cents 27.76 mm 2.03 mm 9.33 g A lionfish from tropical waters.
$1 33.32 mm 2.39 mm 16.85 g A stylised Singapore lion symbol flanked by two stalks of paddy.
For table standards, see the coin specification table.

In 1985, the second series of coins were introduced in denominations of 1, 5, 10, 20 and 50 cents and 1 dollar. The reverse of these coins were designed by Christopher Ironside. The new series offered smaller coins depicting a floral theme. One-dollar banknotes were discontinued and gradually replaced with an aluminium-bronze coin. The 5-cent coin was also changed to aluminum-bronze while the 10, 20, and 50 cents remained copper-nickel. Limited numbers of commemorative bimetallic 5-dollar coins with scalloped edges were also periodically issued later during this series. The Monetary Authority of Singapore will start withdrawing this series from 2017. The 1 cent coin was taken out of circulation in 2003.

Second Series (Floral Series) (1985–2017) [2]
Value Technical parameters Description Date of issue
Diameter Thickness Mass Composition Edge Obverse Reverse
1 cent 15.90 mm 1.10 mm 1.24 g Copper-plated zinc Plain Coat of Arms, "Singapore" in 4 official languages Value and Vanda 'Miss Joaquim' 28 September 1987
5 cents 16.75 mm 1.22 mm 1.56 g Aluminium bronze Reeded Coat of Arms, "Singapore" in 4 official languages Value and Monstera deliciosa 2 December 1985
10 cents 18.50 mm 1.38 mm 2.60 g Cupronickel Reeded Coat of Arms, "Singapore" in 4 official languages Value and Jasminum multiflorum 2 December 1985
20 cents 21.36 mm 1.72 mm 4.50 g Value and Calliandra surinamensis
50 cents 24.66 mm 2.06 mm 7.29 g Value and Allamanda cathartica 2 December 1985
Inscribed "Republic of Singapore" and the lion symbol 28 May 1990
$1 22.40 mm 2.40 mm 6.30 g Aluminium bronze Inscribed "Republic of Singapore" and the lion symbol Coat of Arms, "Singapore" in 4 official languages Value and Lochnera rosea 28 September 1987
For table standards, see the coin specification table.

On 21 February 2013, the Monetary Authority of Singapore announced a new series of coins in denominations of 5, 10, 20, 50 cents and 1 dollar, which went into circulation on 26 June 2013, featuring Singapore's national icons and landmarks. The coins are struck on a multi-ply plated-steel planchet used by the Royal Canadian Mint and comes with enhanced features to differentiate from fakes. The coins also feature new designs, the one-dollar, now a bi-metallic coin featuring the Merlion, the fifty cents coin featuring the Port of Singapore, the twenty-cent coin depicts Changi International Airport, the ten-cent coin featuring public housing and the five-cent coin featuring the Esplanade.[12][13]

Third Series (Iconic series) (2013–present) [3]
Value Technical parameters Description Date of issue
Diameter Thickness Mass Composition Edge Obverse Reverse
5 cents 16.75 mm 1.22 mm 1.70 g Brass-plated steel Plain Coat of arms of Singapore, "Singapore" in 4 official languages Value and The Esplanade 26 June 2013
10 cents 18.50 mm 1.38 mm 2.36 g Nickel-plated steel Interrupted and reeded Coat of arms of Singapore, "Singapore" in 4 official languages Value and Public Housing 26 June 2013
20 cents 21 mm 1.72 mm 3.85 g Reeded Value and Changi International Airport
50 cents 23 mm 2.45 mm 6.56 g Micro scalloped Value and Port of Singapore
1 dollar 24.65 mm 2.50 mm 7.62 g Bi-metallic plating consisting of a brass-plated ring with a nickel-plated centre plug Reeded Value, The Merlion and a laser mark micro engraving of the Vanda Miss Joaquim

Banknotes[edit]

Orchid series[edit]

The Orchid Series of currency notes is the earliest to be in for circulation in Singapore. Issued in the years 1967 to 1976, it has nine denominations: $1, $5, $10, $25, $50, $100, $500, $1,000, and $10,000.

Each note has an orchid design in the centre of the note's front, the orchid being the national flower of Singapore. A scene of Singapore is depicted on the back, which varies across denominations. Standard on each note, is the Coat of Arms, a lion head watermark, and the signature of the Minister for Finance and chairman of the board of Commissioners of Currency, Singapore, on the front of the note. As an added security feature, all notes have at least one vertically embedded security thread, while the $10,000 note has two.

1st Series – Orchid Series (1967–1976) [4]
Image Value Dimensions Main Colour Description Date of issue Printer
Obverse Reverse Obverse Reverse Watermark
[5] [6] $1 121 mm × 64 mm Dark blue Vanda Janet Kaneali Blocks of flats in a housing estate Lion's head 12 June 1967 BWC
[7] [8] $5 127 mm × 71 mm Green Vanda T.M.A. A busy scene on the Singapore River
[9] [10] $10 133 mm × 79 mm Red Dendrobium Marjorie Ho "Tony Pek" 4 clasped hands on a background of a map of Singapore TDLR
[11] [12] $25 140 mm × 79 mm Brown Renanthopsis Aurora Supreme Court Building 7 August 1972
[13] [14] $50 146 mm × 87 mm Blue Vanda Rothscildiana "Teo Choo Hong" Clifford Pier 12 June 1967
[15] [16] $100 159 mm × 95 mm Mid-blue and mauve Cattleya A peaceful scene along the Singapore Waterfront BWC
[17] [18] $500 160 mm × 96 mm Green Dendrobium Shangri-La Government Office at Saint Andrew's Road 7 August 1972 TDLR
[19] [20] $1,000 159 mm × 95 mm Mauve and dark grey Dendrobium Kimiyo Kondo "Chay" Victoria Theatre & Empress Place 12 June 1967
[21] [22] $10,000 203 mm × 133 mm Green Aranda Majulah The Istana 29 January 1973
For table standards, see the banknote specification table.

Bird series[edit]

The Bird Series of currency notes is the second set of notes to be issued for circulation in Singapore. Issued in the years 1976 to 1984, it has nine denominations, the same number as in the Orchid Series, albeit the $25 note was replaced by the $20 note.

Each note features a bird on the left side of the note's front, a theme selected to represent a young Singapore "ever ready to take flight to greater heights". Standard on each note, is the Coat of Arms, a lion head watermark, and the signature of the Minister for Finance and chairman of the board of Commissioners of Currency, Singapore, on the front of the note. As an added security feature, all notes have a vertically embedded security thread, while the $1,000 and $10,000 notes have two.

2nd Series – Bird Series (1976–1984) [23]
Image Value Dimensions Main Colour Description Date of issue
Obverse Reverse Obverse Reverse Watermark
[24] [25] $1 125 mm × 63 mm Blue Black-naped Tern National Day Parade Lion's head 6 August 1976
[26] [27] $5 133 mm × 66 mm Green Red-whiskered Bulbul Cable cars and aerial view of the harbour
[28] [29] $10 141 mm × 69 mm Red White-collared Kingfisher Garden city with high rise public housing in background
[30] [31] $20 149 mm × 72 mm Brown Yellow-breasted Sunbird Singapore Changi International Airport with the Concorde in the foreground 6 August 1979
[32] [33] $50 157 mm × 75 mm Blue White-rumped Shama School band on parade 6 August 1976
[34] [35] $100 165 mm × 78 mm Blue Blue-throated Bee-eater Dancers of various ethnic groups 1 February 1977
[36] [37] $500 181 mm × 84 mm Green Black-naped Oriole Oil Refinery
[38] [39] $1,000 197 mm × 90 mm Purple Brahminy Kite Container terminal 7 August 1978
[40] [41] $10,000 203 mm × 133 mm Green White-bellied sea-eagle 2 scenes of the Singapore River 1 February 1980
For table standards, see the banknote specification table.

Ship series[edit]

An example of a Singapore $1 note printed with The Ship Series
Singapore $1 note showing a picture of a satellite station on the reverse side

The Ship Series of currency notes is the third set of notes to be issued for circulation in Singapore. Issued in the years 1984 to 1999, it retains the number of denominations as was in the previous two series of notes, but switches the $20 note for the $2 one.

A maritime theme to reflect Singapore's maritime heritage was adopted, and progressively shows across the various denominations, the different kinds of ships which have plied Singapore's waters as the country developed. These vignettes are located on the front of the note. On the back, various scenes depicting Singapore's achievements are shown, as well as an orchid, to symbolise the country's national flower.

Standard on each note, is the Coat of Arms, a lion head watermark, and the signature of the Minister for Finance and chairman of the board of Commissioners of Currency, Singapore, on the front of the note. As an added security feature, all notes have a vertically embedded security thread.

3rd Series – Ship Series (1984–1999) [42]
Image Value Dimensions Main Colour Description Date of issue
Obverse Reverse Obverse Reverse Watermark
[43] [44] $1 125 mm × 63 mm Blue "Sha Chuan" Sentosa Satellite Earth Station Lion's head 12 January 1987
[45] [46] $2 133 mm × 63 mm Red "Tongkang" Chinese people participating in Chinese New Year 28 January 1991
[47] [48] $2 Purple 16 December 1991
[49] [50] $5 133 mm x 66 mm Green "Twakow" View of the Port of Singapore Authority Container terminal 21 August 1989
[51] [52] $10 141 mm × 69 mm Red Barter trading vessel "Palari" View of Public Housing 1 March 1988
[53] [54] $50 156 mm × 74 mm Blue Coaster vessel "Perak" Bird's-eye view of Benjamin Sheares Bridge 9 March 1987
[55] [56] $100 165 mm × 78 mm Brown Passenger liner "Chusan" Bird's-eye view of Singapore Changi International Airport and a Singapore Airlines (B747-300) 1 August 1985
[57] [58] $500 175 mm × 83 mm Green General cargo vessel "Neptune Sardonyx" Group of men & women from the 3 services of the armed forces & the Civil Defence Force with the outline map of Singapore in the background 1 March 1988
[59] [60] $1,000 185 mm × 88 mm Purple Container ship "Neptune Garnet" and two container quay cranes Bird's-eye view of a shipyard 22 October 1984
[61] [62] $10,000 195 mm × 93 mm Red General bulk carrier "Neptune Canopus" 1987 National Day Parade 21 August 1989
For table standards, see the banknote specification table.

Portrait series[edit]

The current Portrait series was introduced in 1999, with the one- and 500-dollar denominations omitted. These notes feature the face of Yusof bin Ishak, the first president of the Republic of Singapore, on the obverse, and the reverse depicts a feature of civic virtue. There are both paper and polymer notes in circulation. The designs of the polymer notes are very similar to the corresponding paper note except for the slightly slippery feel and a small transparent window design in the corner of the banknote. Polymer notes are progressively replacing the paper banknotes in circulation. The notes also have Braille patterns at the top right-hand corner of the front design.

4th Series – Portrait Series (1999–present) [63]
Image Value Dimensions Main Colour Description Date of issue Status Material
Obverse Reverse Obverse Reverse
$2 $2 $2 126 × 63 mm Violet President Yusof bin Ishak, Money Cowrie Education 9 September 1999 Circulation Paper
$2 $2 12 January 2006 Polymer
$5 $5 $5 133 × 66 mm Green President Yusof bin Ishak, Gold-Ringed Cowrie Garden City 9 September 1999 Paper
$5 $5 18 May 2007 Polymer
$10 $10 $10 141 × 69 mm Red President Yusof bin Ishak, Wandering Cowrie Sports 9 September 1999 Paper
$10 $10 4 May 2004 Polymer
$50 $50 $50 156 × 74 mm Blue President Yusof bin Ishak, Cylindrical Cowrie Arts 9 September 1999 Paper
$100 $100 $100 162 × 77 mm Orange President Yusof bin Ishak, Swallow Cowrie Youth Paper
$1000 $1000 $1,000 170 × 83 mm Purple President Yusof bin Ishak, Beautiful Cowrie Government Paper
$10000 $10000 $10,000 180 × 90 mm Brown President Yusof bin Ishak, Onyx Cowrie Economics Paper

The S$10,000 and B$10,000 note are the world's most valuable banknotes (that are officially in circulation).[14] As of August 2011, it is worth over seven times as much as the next most valuable, the 1,000-franc note. On 2 July 2014, the Monetary Authority of Singapore announced that it would stop printing $10,000 notes starting from 1 October 2014, to reduce the risk of money laundering.[15] Singapore has now officially stopped producing the S$10,000 banknote and has thus begun the process of withdrawing it from active circulation. This is a trend in many countries like Canada's withdrawal of the C$1000 banknote the previous decade and the European Central Bank's announcement on 4 May 2016 that they would stop the production and issuance of the 500-euro banknote.[16] The MAS said that the notes will likely remain legal tender until all the notes slowly get returned as they get damaged.[17]

Commemorative banknotes[edit]

Commemorative banknotes are also released, usually in limited quantities. The first commemorative banknote was released on 24 July 1990 to celebrate the 25th anniversary of Singapore's independence. Of the 5.1 million $50 polymer banknotes issued, 300,000 came with an overprint of the anniversary date "9 August 1990". This $50 note was the first commemorative note issued by the Board of Commissioners of Currency, Singapore (BCCS) and was also the first polymer banknote in the history of Singapore's currency. In addition, the $50 note was the first note designed in Singapore by a Singapore artist.

On 8 December 1999, to celebrate the coming 2000 millennium, three million $2 millennium notes were circulated. The note is similar to the $2 portrait series, except that the prefix of the serial number is replaced with a Millennium 2000 logo. These millennium notes are printed on paper as polymer notes were not introduced yet then.

On 27 June 2007, to commemorate 40 years of currency agreement with Brunei, a commemorative S$20 note was launched; the back is identical to the Bruneian $20 note launched simultaneously.[18] A circulation version of the $20 note can be exchanged at banks in Singapore beginning 16 July 2007, limited to two pieces per transaction.

On 18 August 2015, to commemorate Singapore's 50 years of nation-building, the Monetary Authority of Singapore launched a set of six commemorative notes. These commemorative notes comprise five S$10 polymer notes and a S$50 note. The note design's draw inspiration from significant milestones and achievements in Singapore's history, the multiracialism that defines the nation and the values and aspirations that underpin Singapore's progress. The front of both the $50 and $10 notes feature a portrait of Yusof Ishak, Singapore's first president, as in the current Portrait series notes. [19] The $50 note highlights Singapore's history, transformation and future. It shows the late Prime Minister of Singapore, Lee Kuan Yew, shouting "Merdeka!"—the rallying cry of Singapore's independence struggle. The note makes distinctive use of the colour gold, reflecting Singapore's Golden Jubilee. The five $10 notes have a common front design and varying back designs depicting the theme 'Vibrant Nation, Endearing Home'. Each note reflects a value or aspiration that defines the theme: 'Caring Community, Active Citizenry', 'Opportunities for All', 'Safe and Secure', 'Strong Families' and '...regardless of race, language or religion...'.[19]

In 2017, to commemorate the 50th anniversary of its Currency Interchangeability Agreement between Brunei and Singapore, both the Monetary Authority of Brunei Darussalam and the Monetary Authority of Singapore issued $50 polymer banknotes to commemorate that event.[20]

On 5 June 2019, a $20 note commemorating the Singapore Bicentennial was issued.[21]

Singapore commemorative banknotes[22]
Image Value Dimensions Main Colour Occasion Description Date of issue Material Ref.
Obverse Reverse Obverse Reverse
$50 $50 $50 156 × 74 mm Red 25th Anniversary of the Independence of Singapore Optically variable device shows President Yusof bin Ishak, Singapore Harbour in 1861, four blossoms of the "Vanda Miss Joaquim" orchid, Tanjong Pagar container port and some prominent office buildings 1st Parliament of Singapore held on 8th December 1965 and group of multi-racial Singaporeans in jubilant celebration 24 July 1990 Polymer [23]
$25 $25 141 × 79 mm Brown 25th Anniversary of the Monetary Authority of Singapore Monetary Authority of Singapore Building set against a view of Singapore's financial district and scene of the SIMEX trading floor Singapore's financial sector skyline 10 May 1996 Paper [24]
$20 $20 $20 149 × 72 mm Orange 40 Years of the Currency Interchangeability Agreement President Yusof bin Ishak and the "Dendrobium Puan Noor Aishah" orchid The Esplanade, skyline of Singapore's financial district and the Omar Ali Saifuddien Mosque with the Royal Barge and the water village shown 27 June 2007 Polymer [25]
$50 $50 $50 156 × 74 mm Gold SG50: Celebrating Singapore’s 50 years of nation-building President Yusof bin Ishak, Prime Minister Lee Kuan Yew and a group of children of different races and gender First National Day Parade 1966 and the Punggol New Town 11 August 2015 Polymer [26]
$10 $10 $10 141 × 69 mm Red President Yusof bin Ishak and the "Vanda Miss Joaquim" orchid "…regardless of race, language or religion…" 11 August 2015 Polymer [26]
$10 $10 $10 141 × 69 mm Red "Opportunities for All" 11 August 2015 Polymer [26]
$10 $10 $10 141 × 69 mm Red "Safe and Secure" 11 August 2015 Polymer [26]
$10 $10 $10 141 × 69 mm Red "Strong Families" 11 August 2015 Polymer [26]
$10 $10 $10 141 × 69 mm Red "Caring Community, Active Citizenry" 11 August 2015 Polymer [26]
$50 $50 $50 158 × 75 mm Gold 50 Years of the Currency Interchangeability Agreement President Yusof bin Ishak, the "Vanda Miss Joaquim" orchid, the "Simpur" flower and the window security feature showing Brunei Darussalam's Istana Nurul Iman and Singapore's Istana Military personnel from the Royal Brunei Armed Forces and the Singapore Armed Forces, students from both countries, Brunei Darussalam's Ulu Temburong National Park and Singapore Botanic Gardens 5 July 2017 Polymer [27]
$20 $20 $20 162 × 77 mm Beige-Peach Singapore Bicentennial President Yusof bin Ishak, National Gallery Singapore (former Supreme Court and City Hall) Eight pioneering individuals, namely Munshi Abdullah, Henry Nicholas Ridley, Tan Kah Kee, P. Govindasamy Pillai, Teresa Hsu Chih, Alice Pennefather, Adnan Saidi and Ruth Wong Hie King, portrayed against a backdrop of the Singapore River 5 June 2019 Polymer [28]
These images are to scale at 0.7 pixel per millimeter. For table standards, see the banknote specification table.

Exchange rates[edit]

Most traded currencies by value
Currency distribution of global foreign exchange market turnover[29]
Rank Currency ISO 4217 code
(symbol)
% of daily trades
(bought or sold)
(April 2019)
1
United States dollar
USD (US$)
88.3%
2
Euro
EUR (€)
32.3%
3
Japanese yen
JPY (¥)
16.8%
4
Pound sterling
GBP (£)
12.8%
5
Australian dollar
AUD (A$)
6.8%
6
Canadian dollar
CAD (C$)
5.0%
7
Swiss franc
CHF (CHF)
5.0%
8
Renminbi
CNY (元)
4.3%
9
Hong Kong dollar
HKD (HK$)
3.5%
10
New Zealand dollar
NZD (NZ$)
2.1%
11
Swedish krona
SEK (kr)
2.0%
12
South Korean won
KRW (₩)
2.0%
13
Singapore dollar
SGD (S$)
1.8%
14
Norwegian krone
NOK (kr)
1.8%
15
Mexican peso
MXN ($)
1.7%
16
Indian rupee
INR (₹)
1.7%
17
Russian ruble
RUB (₽)
1.1%
18
South African rand
ZAR (R)
1.1%
19
Turkish lira
TRY (₺)
1.1%
20
Brazilian real
BRL (R$)
1.1%
21
New Taiwan dollar
TWD (NT$)
0.9%
22
Danish krone
DKK (kr)
0.6%
23
Polish zloty
PLN (zł)
0.6%
24
Thai baht
THB (฿)
0.5%
25
Indonesian rupiah
IDR (Rp)
0.4%
26
Hungarian forint
HUF (Ft)
0.4%
27
Czech koruna
CZK (Kč)
0.4%
28
Israeli new shekel
ILS (₪)
0.3%
29
Chilean peso
CLP (CLP$)
0.3%
30
Philippine peso
PHP (₱)
0.3%
31
UAE dirham
AED (د.إ)
0.2%
32
Colombian peso
COP (COL$)
0.2%
33
Saudi riyal
SAR (﷼)
0.2%
34
Malaysian ringgit
MYR (RM)
0.1%
35
Romanian leu
RON (L)
0.1%
Other 2.2%
Total[30] 200.0%

Exchange rates charts[edit]

SGD/USD exchange rate since 1990
JPY/SGD exchange rate since 1989
SGD/EUR exchange rate since 1999

Current exchange rates[edit]

Current SGD exchange rates
From Google Finance: AUD CAD CHF EUR GBP HKD JPY USD MYR INR CNY
From Yahoo! Finance: AUD CAD CHF EUR GBP HKD JPY USD MYR INR CNY
From XE: AUD CAD CHF EUR GBP HKD JPY USD MYR INR CNY
From OANDA: AUD CAD CHF EUR GBP HKD JPY USD MYR INR CNY

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Triennial Central Bank Survey Foreign exchange turnover in April 2016" (PDF). Triennial Central Bank Survey. Basel, Switzerland: Bank for International Settlements. 11 December 2016. p. 7. Archived (PDF) from the original on 12 July 2017. Retrieved 22 March 2017.
  2. ^ Monetary Authority of Singapore. "The Currency Interchangeability Agreement". Archived from the original on 25 October 2012. Retrieved 23 October 2012.
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h "The Currency History of Singapore". Monetary Authority of Singapore. 9 April 2007. Archived from the original on 2 February 2010. Retrieved 28 December 2007. Official Currencies of The Straits Settlements (1826–1939); Currencies of the Board of Commissioners of Currency, Malaya (1939–1951); Currencies of the Board of Commissioners of Currency, Malaya and British Borneo (1952–1957); Currencies of the Independent Malaya (1957 -1963); On 12 June 1967, the currency union which had been operating for 29 years came to an end, and the three participating countries, Malaysia, Singapore and Brunei each issued its own currency. The currencies of the 3 countries were interchangeable at par value under the Interchangeability Agreement until 8 May 1973 when the Malaysian government decided to terminate it. Brunei and Singapore however continue with the Agreement until the present day.
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  30. ^ The total sum is 200% because each currency trade always involves a currency pair; one currency is sold (e.g. US$) and another bought (€). Therefore each trade is counted twice, once under the sold currency ($) and once under the bought currency (€). The percentages above are the percent of trades involving that currency regardless of whether it is bought or sold, e.g. the U.S. Dollar is bought or sold in 88% of all trades, whereas the Euro is bought or sold 32% of the time.

External links[edit]

Preceded by:
Malaya and British Borneo dollar
Reason: Independence
Ratio: at par
Currency of Singapore, Brunei
1967 –
Concurrent with: Brunei dollar
Succeeded by:
Current