|c. 3.3 million|
|Regions with significant populations|
|Malaysia||55 537 (2011)|
|Australia||48 646 (2011)|
|United Kingdom||40,000 (2012)|
|United States||26,754 (2013)|
|Malay, English, Chinese, Tamil|
|Buddhism, Islam, Protestantism, Taoism, Catholicism, Hinduism|
|Related ethnic groups|
Singaporean, or Singaporeans, are citizens of Singapore or refer to people who are native to the island-state. Singapore is a multi-racial country, with Chinese, Malays and Indians making up majority of the population. According to the 2006 AsiaBarometer survey, a majority of Singaporeans identify themselves as "Singaporean", while a small percentage prefer to identify with their racial group. Currently, the population of Singaporeans stands at 3,343,000 and the population of overseas Singaporeans stands at 212,000.
The earliest records of settlement on the island dates back to the 2nd century, where the island was identified as a trading port which was part of a chain of similar trading centres that linked Southeast Asia with India and the Mediterranean. Prior to the arrival of Sir Stamford Raffles, there were hundreds of indigenous Malays living on the island. Most of the indigenous Malays came from the Malay Archipelago. There was an estimated 1,000 people living on the island, where the majority are Orang Laut and a small population of 20–30 Malays who were the followers of Temenggong Abdul Rahman and about 20–30 Chinese.
The majority of Singaporeans today are descendants of immigrants that settled on the island when Singapore was founded as a British trading port by Raffles in 1819. At that time, Raffles decided Singapore would be a free port and as news of the free port spread across the archipelago, Bugis, Peranakan Chinese, and Arab traders flocked to the island, due to the Dutch trading restrictions. After six months Singapore was founded as a free port, the population increased to 5,000, mostly Chinese and by 1825, it had passed the ten thousand mark.
After Singapore was granted self governance from the British, Singaporean citizenship was granted and according to the Singapore Citizenship Ordinance 1957, citizenship was granted to all residents who were born in Singapore or the Federation of Malaya, British citizens who had been resident for two years, and others who had been resident for ten years.
Racial and ethnic groups
Singaporeans of Chinese descent make up 74.3%, Malays make up 13.3%, Indians make up 9.1% and residents of other ethnicity make up 3.3% of the 3,870,739 of the resident population (including persons holding Permanent Residency). To avoid physical racial segregation and formation of ethnic enclaves common in other multi-racial societies, the Singapore government implemented the "Ethnic Integration Policy" (EIP) in 1989 where each block of units are sold to families from ethnicities roughly comparable to the national average. The country also celebrates Racial Harmony Day to commemorate the 1964 race riots in Singapore and to remember the consequences of racial disharmony the country experienced during the 1964 racial riots.
Singapore has four official languages, English, Malay, Mandarin, and Tamil. Malay is the ceremonial national language of the country and is the home language to 13% of the population. Although majority of the population do not speak Malay, but as the national language, Malay is used in the national anthem of Singapore and also in citations for Singapore orders and decorations and military foot drill commands. Singapore English is the main language spoken by Singaporeans. It is officially the main language of instruction in all school subjects except for Mother Tongue lessons and is also the common language of the administration, and is promoted as an important language for international business. English is the de facto lingua franca of the country.
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