Singaporean Mahjong scoring rules

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The Singaporean Mahjong scoring rules are similar to that of the Chinese Old Style / Hong Kong system, but accounts for the different set of tiles used.

Contents

Tile system[edit]

The Singaporean Mahjong tile system consists of 148 tiles due to the additional Animal tile set, thus slightly different from that of other regional Mahjong tile-sets. Therefore, the rules of the game somewhat vary from other scoring systems in the region. The stacking of tiles will be 19 stacks for the dealer(East) and the player opposite(West), 18 stacks for the rest. The Dead Wall(王牌wáng-pái) is 15 tiles. The tile set is described as follows:

Suited Tiles[edit]

These tiles run from One to Nine. There are 4 of each tile in every set.

The dots suit (筒子, pinyin tǒng zi)

MJt1.pngMJt2.pngMJt3.pngMJt4.pngMJt5.pngMJt6.pngMJt7.pngMJt8.pngMJt9.png

The bamboo suit (索子, pinyin suò zi)

MJs1.pngMJs2.pngMJs3.pngMJs4.pngMJs5.pngMJs6.pngMJs7.pngMJs8.pngMJs9.png

The character suit (万子, pinyin wàn zi)

MJw1.pngMJw2.pngMJw3.pngMJw4.pngMJw5.pngMJw6.pngMJw7.pngMJw8.pngMJw9.png

Honour Tiles[edit]

Honour Tiles(字牌zì-pái / 大牌dà-pái) consists of 4 Wind tiles & 3 Dragon tiles.

Wind tiles (四风牌, pinyin sì fēng pái)

MJf1.pngMJf2.pngMJf3.pngMJf4.png
From left to right: East, South, West, North

Dragon tiles (三元牌, pinyin sān yuán pái)

MJd1.pngMJd2.pngMJd3.png
From left to right: Red Dragon, Green Dragon, White Dragon

Bonus (flower/animal) Tiles[edit]

Flower set (花牌 huā pái) and Season set (季牌 jì pái)

MJh5.pngMJh6.pngMJh7.pngMJh8.pngMJh1.pngMJh2.pngMJh3.pngMJh4.png
From left to right: Plum, Orchid, Chrysanthemum, Bamboo, Spring, Summer, Autumn, Winter

Animal Tiles(禽兽牌qín shòu pái / 动物牌dòng wù pái)

MJAT1.jpgMJAT2.jpgMJAT3.jpgMJAT4.jpg

From left to right: Cat, Rat, Rooster, Centipede

Scoring points[edit]

Points (台) are scored from the difficulty of gathering the winning hand. If monetary rewards (and losses) are involved, it is common that playing parties will agree upon a monetary value awarded to a one-point winning hand. Subsequently, for each additional point scored, this value is accordingly doubled.

There is a typical maximum scoring limit of five points, though this has to be agreed among players. This point limit (simply known as the limit), and will be used to describe the points awarded by certain tile-combinations from now on. In other words, a certain tile combination that awards the limit means that it scores the maximum number of points, as agreed upon before the game.

For example, assume that players agree on a value of S$1 for a one-point winning hand. A two-point winning hand thus has a value of S$2, a three-point hand with a value of $4, up to a limit of $16 for a five-point winning hand.

Furthermore, the party who is guilty of discarding the tile with which another party takes to complete a winning hand has to pay double of the agreed payout. Another situation where the winning player receives double of the agreed payout is when he draws the winning tile by himself i.e. Self-Pick(自摸zì-mō).

The following table summarizes the payouts, based on an assumed base payout of S$1 for a one-point winning hand.

Points(台) scored Losing players each pay Guilty player pays Winning player gains
1 S$1 S$2 S$4
2 S$2 S$4 S$8
3 S$4 S$8 S$16
4 S$8 S$16 S$32
5 S$16 S$32 S$64

In the event that the winning player draws the winning tile by himself, Self-Pick(自摸zì-mō), the payout is as follows:

Points(台) scored All players each pay Winning player gains
1 S$2 S$6
2 S$4 S$12
3 S$8 S$24
4 S$16 S$48
5 S$32 S$96

Triplet of any Dragon Tile (元 yuán )[edit]

Having a triplet of any Dragon Tile(元yuán) scores 1 point. This triplet can be obtained by Pong(碰pèng), Kong(杠gàng), or simply having these 3 tiles in your hidden hand.

MJd1.pngMJd1.pngMJd1.png or MJd2.pngMJd2.pngMJd2.png or MJd3.pngMJd3.pngMJd3.png

Winds (风fēng)[edit]

Having a triplet of the seat wind or the prevailing wind scores 1 point. This triplet can be obtained by Pung(碰pèng), Kong(杠gàng ), or simply having these three tiles in your hidden hand.

MJf1.pngMJf1.pngMJf1.png or MJf2.pngMJf2.pngMJf2.png or MJf3.pngMJf3.pngMJf3.png or MJf4.pngMJf4.pngMJf4.png

If the Prevailing Wind(圈风quān-fēng) happens to coincide with your Seat Wind(门风mén-fēng), and you manage to obtain a triplet of that wind, you score 2 points. For example, if the prevailing wind is East and a player whose seat wind is East, a triplet of East by the player will score 2 points upon Mahjong.

If there is a triplet of both the Seat Wind(门风mén-fēng) and the Prevailing Wind(圈风quān-fēng), you score 2 points. For example, if the Prevailing Wind(圈风quān-fēng) is East and a player whose Seat Wind(门风mén-fēng) is South, a triplet of East and a triplet of South by the player will score 2 points (1 point for each triplet) upon Mahjong.

Animal Tiles[edit]

MJAT1.jpgMJAT2.jpgMJAT3.jpgMJAT4.jpg

Each animal tile obtained scores 1 point. 1 more point (for a total of 5) is awarded if all 4 animals are collected.

Instant payment[edit]

It is commonly accepted that there will be a one-time payout by all playing parties to the party who collects either

a) Both the cat tile and the mouse tile.

b) Both the chicken tile and the centipede tile.

The above two events are known as yǎo-dào (咬到). Literally it means 'Bitten' in English.

c) All the four animal tiles. This generally also earns double of the agreed one-time payout.

Note 1.1.1: One-time refers to each instance whenever any player collects any of the above. In other words, if player A collects set(c) in the current game, he will receive the payout from all other parties immediately. In the event that player A collects the same set in the next game, he will again have to be compensated as well. This compensation will take place each time any set described above is collected.

Note 1.1.2: This payout is also one-time because the player who obtains the set combination(s) will not be re-compensated for these combinations at the end of the game, regardless of the result.

Note 1.1.2.1: However, pertaining to the above, the points scored by obtaining animal tiles will still be in effect. In other words, if player A collects set(c), he will be rewarded with an instant payout. In the event that he wins that same instance of the game as well, he will have scored 5 points by virtue of having 4 animal tiles, on top of any other points that he scores with his winning hand.

Note 1.2: The payout above is cumulative. This means that if a player collects set(c), he will have to be compensated for set(a), set(b) and set(c).

Note 1.3: A commonly agreed payout is, assuming a base payout of S$1 for a one-point winning hand, S$2 (which means collecting set(c) will earn a payout of $2+$2+$4). In other words, the payout can be pegged to that of a one-point 'Self-Pick'(自摸zì-mō). This must however be separately agreed-upon before the start of the game.

Note 1.4: In the special event that set (a) or set (b) is collected immediately at the start of the game (even before the 'Replacement Tile'(补花bǔ-huā) event), the payout is again doubled. With reference to Note 1.3, if a player collects set (c) in this special case, he will receive a payout of $2*2 + $2*2 + $4.

Flower Tiles[edit]

Flower tile matching the Seat Wind(正花)[edit]

Each flower tile that matches a player's seat wind scores one point(正花zhèng-huā).Other flower tiles won't score any point.(偏花piān-huā)

  1. East player: MJh5.pngMJh1.png
  2. South player: MJh6.pngMJh2.png
  3. West player: MJh7.pngMJh3.png
  4. North player: MJh8.pngMJh4.png
Instant payment[edit]

It is commonly accepted that there will be a one-time payout by all playing parties to the party who collects both flowers (red and blue) that match the player's Seat Wind. This is a 'Bitten'(咬到yǎo-dào) event. This payout is equivalent to obtaining a set of cat-and-mouse tile, or chicken-and-centipede tile. Refer to the discussion above. This will earn the payout agreed for a 'Bitten'(咬到yǎo-dào) event. The double payout scheme applies when the collection of both flowers occurs before the 'Replacement Tile'(补花bǔ-huā) event. Refer to the discussion above. This will earn the payout agreed for an 'Concealed Kong'(暗杠àn-gàng) event.

Note: Not everybody plays with all these "Bitten'(咬到yǎo-dào) events so it is best to confirm with everybody before commencing your mahjong game. Some play with 'Bitten'(咬到yǎo-dào) events only for the Animal tiles, and some do not play with any 'Bitten'(咬到yǎo-dào) events at all.

Complete flower group (一台花)[edit]

A complete group of 4 flower tiles of the same colour scores a total of 2 points, 1 for the flower tile that matches the player's seat wind, and 1 for collecting all four.

MJh5.pngMJh6.pngMJh7.pngMJh8.png or MJh1.pngMJh2.pngMJh3.pngMJh4.png

Instant payment[edit]

It is commonly accepted that there will be a one-time payout by all playing parties to the party who collects the complete set of flowers of the same colour. This is a 'Concealed Kong'(暗杠àn-gàng) event.

This payout is equivalent to obtaining a set of cat-mouse-chicken-centipede tile. In other words, this will earn the payout agreed for a 'Concealed Kong'(暗杠àn-gàng) event. Refer to the discussion above.

Two complete flower groups(花胡)[edit]

Any player who collects 2 complete groups of 4 flower tiles (8 in total) either by 'Self-Pick'(自摸zì-mō) or by 'robbing' has achieved a '8 Flower Tile-set'(花胡huā-hù) that scores the limit. Because of its rarity, there is a lack of agreement as to the number of points actually scored by this hand. However, in practice, this combination simply scores the maximum number of points.

MJh5.pngMJh6.pngMJh7.pngMJh8.pngMJh1.pngMJh2.pngMJh3.pngMJh4.png

All Flowers & Seasons(八仙过海)[edit]

Any player who collects 2 complete groups of 4 flower tiles (8 in total) all by himself i.e. 'Self-Pick'(自摸zì-mō) is called 'All Flowers & Seasons' or 'Eight Immortals'(八仙过海bā-xiān-guò-hǎi), a type of '8 Flower Tile-set'(花胡huā-hù). The combination of hidden cards held by the player does not matter at all, and the game is considered to have been won and game is ended as a win for the player.

However, some players are notably particular regarding the above point. If any player collects the complete '8 Flower Tile-set', he wins the game, but he should never reveal his hidden cards to anyone. This follows from the fact that the player has not won the game by virtue of his hidden cards, which should be the case. If the player with the complete set of flowers display his hidden hand to the rest, and it is not a hand that fulfills any winning combination, he is considered to have cheated, or 'Fake Hand' (诈胡zhà-hú) and must instead compensate the rest of the parties. The point to note is that the player who collects the complete '8 Flower Tile-set' should immediately close his hidden cards and declare himself to have won the game.

Instant payment[edit]

The player who completes the flower set has triggered 3 events, on top of winning the game. He has gathered

  1. Both flowers (red and blue) which corresponds to his seat wind. This is a 'Bitten'(咬到yǎo-dào) event.
  2. A complete set of red flowers
  3. A complete set of blue flowers.

All 3 events above are liable for one-time compensation by the rest of the playing parties, if the event themselves are not compensated already. This is on top of the payout given to the winning party by winning the game.

Robbing the Eighth(七抢一)[edit]

If a player has already drawn 7 flower tiles, and any of the other three players draws the last flower tile, the player with the 7 tiles is considered to have won the game by "robbing" the last flower tile as a discard of the player that draws the last flower tile. This is called 'Robbing the Eighth'(七抢一 qī-qiǎng-yī).

The player who drew the last flower tile, strictly speaking, did not discard the tile. However, due to the immense probabilistic difficulty of achieving a complete '8 Flower Tile-set'(花胡huā-hù), such a situation described above is considered a sufficient condition for a '8 Flower Tile-set'(花胡huā-hù) event.

Note 1: The player who drew the last flower tile, and thus causing the player with 7 flower tiles to win the game, will thus be the 'guilty' party, and is subjected to the same payout scheme described in Table 1.1.

Note 2: It is extremely important that, in the event that a player amasses 7 flower tiles, he must declare that he demands an inspection of everyone's hidden hand at the end of the game and describe the 'Pao'(包bāo) condition in this scenario which is described below. In the event if the eighth flower did not appear in the course of the game, and the game ends:

(i)in a stalemate(荒牌huāng pái) with 15 un-drawn tiles remaining, the player who amasses the 7 flower tiles must just before the last tile (which is the 16th tile from the back) is drawn, declare that he will conduct an inspection of everyone's hidden hand.

(ii) with some other player won the game, the player who amasses the 7 flower tiles must immediately declare that he will conduct an inspection of everyone's hidden hand, so to prevent anyone from dismantling their tiles away.

After this declaration, the rest of the playing parties should reveal their hidden hand to the declaring player. If he discovers that one of the parties has been keeping the eighth flower within his hidden hand, he is considered to have won the game with a '8 Flower Tile-set'(花胡huā-hù), even if the game has already ended.

The 'guilty' party can either be made to pay for everyone's losses (known as 'Pao'(包bāo)), or pay as if the game was won mid-way, as it should be. This will depend on the agreement between all playing parties. Any party who does not heed the declaration of card inspection and proceeds to dismantle the tiles upon the ending of the game (so that it will be impossible for the declaring player to inspect his cards) will also be deemed to be guilty of holding on the eight flower tile in secret, and the declaring player is considered to have won the game with a '8 Flower Tile-set'(花胡huā-hù).

Note 3: As described above, the winning party should not disclose his hidden hand, in the event of a '8 Flower Tile-set'(花胡huā-hù), if it does not fulfill the criteria of any winning combinations. If he does, some players may consider this to be cheating, or 'Fake Hand'(诈胡zhà-hú), and the winning-turned-losing party must compensate the rest of the playing parties.

Triplets Hand[edit]

Triplets Hand(对对胡/碰碰胡)[edit]

MJt2.pngMJt2.pngMJt2.png MJs3.pngMJs3.pngMJs3.png MJw4.pngMJw4.pngMJw4.png MJt8.pngMJt8.pngMJt8.png MJs6.pngMJs6.png

The above is an example of a hand that satisfies a 碰碰胡pèng-pèng-hù combination that scores two points, that is, any 4 triplets and any pair of tiles (eyes) to fulfill this combination. It does not matter if your hand of tiles is a mixture of Exposed Pong(碰pèng) tiles and triplets held within your hidden hand.

Hidden Treasure(四暗刻/坎坎胡)[edit]

However a special condition arises when this combination is held entirely within the winning party's hidden hand. That is, the winning party fulfills this combination with a Self-Pick(自摸zì-mō), and has no exposed 'Pong'(碰pèng) tiles or 'Exposed Kong'(明杠mìng-gàng). In other words, the winning party drew and obtained every tile in this combination himself. This hand is refer to as 'Hidden Treasure'(四暗刻sì-àn-kè or 坎坎胡kǎn-kǎn-hù) is extremely rare and it is generally awarded the limit.

Note 1: To achieve the winning combination of Hidden Treasure, the winning party can only perform 'Concealed Kong'(暗杠àn-gàng) if he has 4-of-a-kind of a particular tile. He cannot perform an 'Exposed Kong'(明杠mìng-gàng) on any discarded tile from the rest of the players. If he does, the winning hand can only be considered as a 'Triplets Hand'.

Note 2: To achieve a winning combination of Hidden Treasure, the winning party must complete the game with a 'Self-Pick'(自摸zì-mō). It is immaterial whether he has already 4 hidden triplets, and is awaiting one single tile to complete the eye, or otherwise.

Note 3: In some playing circles, it is sufficient to have 4 hidden triplets and go mahjong with a single tile, and still be able to qualify for this hand as all the 4 triplets are still in the hand.

Suits[edit]

Half Flush(混一色 or 半色)[edit]

A 'Half Flush Hand'(混一色hún-yī-sè or 半色bàn-sè) scores 2 points.

MJt2.pngMJt3.pngMJt4.png MJt6.pngMJt7.pngMJt8.png MJf1.pngMJf1.pngMJf1.png MJd1.pngMJd1.pngMJd1.png MJt1.pngMJt1.png

MJw2.pngMJw2.pngMJw2.png MJw4.pngMJw5.pngMJw6.png MJw7.pngMJw7.pngMJw7.png MJd2.pngMJd2.pngMJd2.png MJf2.pngMJf2.png

The above are examples of combinations which fulfill the 'Half Flush' criteria. This combination simply requires

1) a pure set of tiles from one single suit either from the 'Character'(万子), 'Dots'(筒子) or 'Bamboo'(索子) tile sets, plus

2) any set of tiles from the 'Winds Tiles'(四风牌sì fēng pái) or 'Dragon Tiles'(三元牌sān yuán pái) suit.

Full Flush(清一色)[edit]

If the set of tiles are entirely from one single suit only , then this combination is known as Full Flush Hand(清一色qīng-yī-sè). This combination is awarded 4 points.

MJt2.pngMJt2.pngMJt2.png MJt3.pngMJt4.pngMJt5.png MJt6.pngMJt6.pngMJt6.png MJt7.pngMJt7.pngMJt7.png MJt8.pngMJt8.png

Again, special conditions can arise from this.

(i)Full Flush Sequence Hand(清一色平胡)

If the set of tiles are entirely from one single suit, and it also fulfill the Sequence Hand, then this special combination is known as Full Flush Sequence Hand(清一色平胡). Due to its extreme difficulty, in addition to the probabilistic difficulty of not drawing any animal or flower tiles, it is generally awarded 10 points, or the limit.

MJt2.pngMJt3.pngMJt4.png MJt3.pngMJt4.pngMJt5.png MJt5.pngMJt6.pngMJt7.png MJt6.pngMJt7.pngMJt8.png MJt9.pngMJt9.png

Full Flush Lesser Sequence Hand(清一色小平胡) , in which the winning party has drawn flowers or animals, wins a total of 5 points, 1 for the Lesser Sequence Hand(小平胡) combination and 4 for Full Flush Hand(清一色) combination.

(ii)Full Flush Triplets Hand(清一色碰碰胡)

Another special condition can arise from having a hand of all triplets and a pair of eyes, either from the wàn-zǐ (万子), tòng-zǐ (筒子) or suò-zǐ (索子) tile sets. This Full Flush Triplets Hand(清一色碰碰胡) will score 8 points (2 for the hand itself, 2 for a Triplets Hand(碰碰胡) combination, and 4 for a Full Flush Hand(清一色) combination).

MJt2.pngMJt2.pngMJt2.png MJt4.pngMJt4.pngMJt4.png MJt5.pngMJt5.pngMJt5.png MJt7.pngMJt7.pngMJt7.png MJt8.pngMJt8.png

Nine Gates(九连宝灯)[edit]

(iii)Another special condition can arise from amassing the 13 tiles as shown below, either from the Character(万子wàn-zǐ),the Dots (筒子tòng-zǐ) or the Bamboo(索子suò-zǐ) tile sets.

MJt1.pngMJt1.pngMJt1.png MJt2.pngMJt3.pngMJt4.png MJt5.pngMJt6.pngMJt7.png MJt8.pngMJt9.pngMJt9.pngMJt9.png

Notice that these 13 tiles do not constitute a winning hand. However, any player, by virtue of having these 13 cards, can simply win the game with any discarded tile from that same suit. The player can chow to obtain the sequences, or pong to obtain the ones and nines triplets. As long as a player amasses these 13 cards, and wins the game with any tile of the same suit, he will have completed this rare 'Nine Gates Hand'(九连宝灯jǐu-lián-bǎo-dēng), which awards the limit.

Mixed Terminals (混么九/混老头)[edit]

A Mixed Terminals Hand (混么九hún-yāo-jǐu/混老头hún-lǎo-tou), or commonly known as dà-pái-yī-jǐu (大牌一九) scores 4 points (2 for the combination itself, and 2 for the Triplets Hand (對對胡 or 碰碰胡)).

MJt1.pngMJt1.pngMJt1.png MJs9.pngMJs9.pngMJs9.png MJf1.pngMJf1.pngMJf1.png MJd1.pngMJd1.pngMJd1.png MJw1.pngMJw1.png

This is a mixture of

1. ones or nines (thus, terminals) from either of the wàn-zǐ (万子), tòng-zǐ (筒子) or suò-zǐ (索子)

or

2. either of the Winds tiles (风fēng) or Dragon tiles (元yuán).

It must also fulfill the Triplets Hand(碰碰胡pèng-pèng-hù) criteria. However, special situations, as described below, can arise from this.

Pure Terminals (清么九/清老头)[edit]

The 'Pure Terminals Hand'(清么九qīng-yāo-jǐu/清老头qīng- lǎo-tou) is made up entirely of ones or nines from either of the wàn-zǐ (风子), tòng-zǐ (筒子) or suò zi (索子) tilesets. This condition is also known as 一九yī-jǐu. Due to its extreme rarity, this is awarded the limit.

MJt1.pngMJt1.pngMJt1.png MJt9.pngMJt9.pngMJt9.png MJs1.pngMJs1.pngMJs1.png MJs9.pngMJs9.pngMJs9.png MJw1.pngMJw1.png

All Honour(字一色)[edit]

The All Honours Hand(字一色zì-yī-sè) is made up entirely of tiles from either the Winds tiles(风fēng) or Dragon tiles (元yuán) tiles. This condition is also known as 大字dà-zì. Due to its extreme rarity, this is awarded the limit.

MJf1.pngMJf1.pngMJf1.png MJf2.pngMJf2.pngMJf2.png MJd1.pngMJd1.pngMJd1.png MJd2.pngMJd2.pngMJd2.png MJf3.pngMJf3.png

Sequence Hand (平胡)[edit]

A Sequence Hand (平胡píng-hù) scores 4 points. In addition, the winning player has to be waiting for at least 2 different tiles in order to win.

A 'Sequence Hand' is one where a player obtains a winning hand of 4 sets of sequences (順子shùn zǐ) and 1 pair of tiles, all from either the Character(万子wàn-zǐ), Dots(筒子tòng-zǐ) or Bamboo(索子sùo-zǐ) tile sets.(However, special allowance is given to the nature of the pair of tiles. These pair of tiles can be from the Character tiles, Dots tiles or the Bamboo tiles, or any Winds(风fēng) which is neither the Prevailing Wind(圈风quān-fēng) nor the Seat Wind(门风mén-fēng) of the winning player.

The act of forming a melded sequence is called 'Chow'(吃chī).

MJt6.pngMJt7.pngMJt8.png MJt1.pngMJt2.pngMJt3.png MJw2.pngMJw3.pngMJw4.png MJs7.pngMJs8.pngMJs9.png MJw6.pngMJw6.png

A 'Sequence Hand' is considered difficult to amass because winning with this hand requires that (i)the player does not draw any animal or flower tiles. (ii)The player cannot win on a discarded tile by another player, if that discarded tile is an in-between tile(嵌张qiàn zhāng), edge tile(边张biān zhāng), or only one tile required to complete the pair(单钓dān diào), i.e. All Single Wait(一飞yī fēi/单听dān tīng) is not acceptable for this hand. Note: 2-Sided Wait or more is acceptable for this hand in Singapore. For example, 6,7,8 & 9 of the Dots tiles, waiting for 6 & 9 of the Dots tiles to win by forming a pair.

Example: A player has the seven of the Dots tiles and the nine of the Dots tiles, he requires the eight of the Dots tiles to complete the winning hand. He cannot declare his combination of tiles to be a 'Sequence Hand' if another player discards the eight of the Dots tiles. That is, the four point awarded to the Sequence Hand does not count. He can, however, still win the game by virtue of other points he has already scored, by drawing animals for example. But, if he manages to draws the eight of the Dots tiles by himself(自摸zì-mō), his winning combination is considered to be a 'Sequence Hand'.

The point here to note is that, a player waiting for either an in-between tile, edge tile (an eight and a nine, waiting for a seven) or a single tile to complete the required pair can only claim a 'Sequence Hand' if he Self-Pick(自摸zì-mō) that particular tile. If he is waiting for any two tiles (a two and a three, waiting for either a one or a four) to complete the winning hand, he can claim these tiles from any party who discards it.

A special situation exists where a player cannot claim a 'Sequence Hand' even if he Self-Pick(自摸zì-mō) the last required tile. This situation happens when a player melded all 4 sequences required by discards from other player, and is left with a single tile. In this event it is clear that he is awaiting that single tile to complete his hand, therefore it cannot be considered a 'Sequence Hand'.

If a player manages to amass a combination of cards that adheres to the requirements set above, but has drawn flowers and/or animal tiles, then he can only claim a 'Lesser Sequence Hand'(小平胡xiǎo-píng-hù/臭平胡chòu-píng-hù), which awards only 1 point, on top of any points awarded to him by the flower and/or animal tiles.

Winning on Replacement Tile(花上,杠上)[edit]

A special event known as 'Winning on Replacement Tile For Flower'(花上huā-shàng) scores one point.

This event happens when a party, who is waiting for a tile to complete his winning hand (also known as the 'Ready Hand'(听牌tīng-pái)), draws a flower and/or animal. This will require him to replace the drawn flower and/or animal by drawing a 'Replacement Tile For Flower'(补花bǔ-huā) from the end of the wall. In the event that the tile drawn to replace the flower and/or animal is the tile needed to complete his winning hand, he is considered to score a 'Winning on Replacement Tile For Flower'(花上huā-shàng). This event itself is worth one point, as mentioned above, in addition to any points scored by the combination of his winning hand.

There exists a special event in which a player draws two flower and/or animal tiles in a row, and upon the second consecutive 'Replacement Tile For Flower'(补花bǔ-huā), he draws the tile which he requires to complete his winning hand. This event is known as 'Flower on Flower'(花上花huā-shàng-huā). Some players may choose to consider this as a special event which awards 5 points, but not others. There are also some players who consider each consecutive 'Replacement Tile For Flower'(补花bǔ-huā ), leading up to a final 'Winning on Replacement Tile For Flower'(花上huā-shàng), to contribute one additional point each. For example, Player A draws 3 consecutive flower and/or animal tiles before finally obtaining the tile required for a winning hand on the third 'Replacement Tile For Flower'(补花bǔ-huā), he will have gotten 3 additional points for 3 consecutive 'Replacement Tile For Flower'(补花bǔ-huā) followed by a 'Winning on Replacement Tile For Flower'(花上huā-shàng). The point scored for the above special events will have to be agreed upon before the game.

In any of the above huā-shàng (花上) event, it is immaterial whether the drawn flower matches the seat number of the player's.

Another special event known as 'Winning on Replacement Tile For Kong'(杠上gàng-shàng) scores one point.

This event happens when a party, who is waiting for a tile to complete his winning hand (also known as the 'Ready Hand'(听牌tīng-pái)), either

1) draws a tile which complete a 4-of-a-kind in his hidden hand, in which he can perform an 'Concealed Kong'(暗杠àn-gàng), or

2) has a 3-of-a-kind in his hidden hand, and any other player discards the last tile of that kind, in which he can perform a 'Exposed Kong'(明杠mìng-gàng), or

3) has a Pong(碰pèng) triplet exposed, and draws the last tile of that kind himself, in which he can perform a 'Exposed Kong'(明杠mìng-gàng)

Any of the above 3 events will require him to replace the Kong(杠gàng) by performing a by drawing a 'Replacement Tile For Kong'(补杠bǔ-gàng). In the event that the tile drawn to replace the 'Kong'(杠gàng) is the tile needed to complete his winning hand, he is considered to score a 'Winning on Replacement Tile For Kong'(杠上gàng-shàng). This will event itself is worth one point, as mentioned above, in addition to any points scored by the combination of his winning hand.

Instant payment

Note 1: It is common that an instant payout is given to the party who performs a 'Exposed Kong'(明杠mìng-gàng), and the payout follows that of a yǎo-dào (咬到) event. For the performance of an 'Concealed Kong'(暗杠àn-gàng), it will generally earn double that of the 'Exposed Kong'(明杠mìng-gàng), just like the event of drawing a cat-mouse-chicken-worm set of tiles.

Note 1.1: However, in the event of a 'Robbing the Kong'(抢杠qiǎng-gàng), the player who performs the 'Kong'(杠gàng) need not be compensated, and instead will be the 'guilty' party who is considered to have discarded that tile for the player performing a 'Robbing the Kong'(抢杠qiǎng-gàng). This event is described in the next section.

A special event can also be triggered from a 'Winning on Replacement Tile For Kong'(杠上gàng-shàng). The sequence of events is as follows

1) Player A has a concealed triplet in his hand, and any other player discard the last of that tile, or

2) Player A has a concealed triplet in his hand, and he draws the last of that tile himself, or

3) Player A has an exposed triplet, and he draws the last of that tile himself

In all 3 scenarios above, he is able to perform a 'Kong'(杠gàng) and must perform a 'Replacement Tile For Kong'(补杠bǔ-gàng). In the event that he draws a tile from this 'Replacement Tile For Kong'(补杠bǔ-gàng), in which he is already holding on to either

4) a concealed triplet of that tile in his hand, or

5) an exposed triplet of that tile,

he is then naturally able to perform another Kong(杠gàng) and then another 'Replacement Tile For Kong'(补杠bǔ-gàng). If and only if Player A draws a replacement tile (from this particular second-in-a-row 'Replacement Tile For Kong'(补杠bǔ-gàng)) which he is able to complete a winning hand, he is considered to have performed a 'Kong on Kong'(杠杠胡gàng-gàng-hú). Due to the immense probabilistic difficulty of such a feat, it is generally awarded 10 points, or the limit, whichever is the smaller number.

Robbing the Kong (抢杠)[edit]

Robbing the Kong(抢杠qiǎng-gàng) scores one point.

This event occurs when

1) a playing party has a 'Pong'(碰pèng) triplet exposed,

2) and draws the last tile of that kind himself, and in which he

3) perform an Exposed Kong(明杠mìng-gàng), and

4) another player, who is waiting for that very last tile of that kind to complete his own winning hand,

5) 'robs' the 'Kong'(杠gàng) to complete his winning hand.

This exact sequence of events must occur for a 'Robbing the Kong'(抢杠qiǎng-gàng) event to be triggered.

Note that the other variant of 'Exposed Kong'(明杠mìng-gàng) in which a player calls a "Kong' from a discarded tile with a triplet in his hidden hand, does not count as 'Robbing the Kong'(抢杠qiǎng-gàng). The player who requires that last tile can still declare a win(胡 ), but will not have deemed to have performed a 'Robbing the Kong'(抢杠qiǎng-gàng) event.

There is a special condition where 'Robbing the Kong' can be used to rob an 'Concealed Kong'(暗杠an-gang). The condition is that a particular player is waiting for his last tile to complete the Thirteen Wonders(十三么). This is the only condition where 'Robbing the Kong' can be used to rob an 'Concealed Kong'.

Winning on the Last Available Tile (海底捞月)[edit]

'Winning on the Last Available Tile" scores 1 point. This event is also known as hái-dǐ-lāo-yuè (海底捞月). The last available tile is the last 16th un-drawn tile from un-drawn stack.

Note 1: There is a special condition in which "Winning on the Last Available Tile' does not trigger the hái-dǐ-lāo-yuè (海底捞月) event. This condition is fulfilled when the last 16th tile is drawn as a result of a 'Replacement Tile For Flower'(补花bǔ-huā) or 'Replacement Tile For Kong'(补杠bǔ-gàng) event.

Example 1. Player A draws the last 17th tile, which turns out to be a flower. He turn proceeds to perform a 'Replacement Tile For Flower'(补花bǔ-huā) by drawing the last 16th tile. In the event that he wins with that last tile, it will not be considered hái-dǐ-lāo-yuè (海底捞月).

Example 2. Player A draws the last 17th tile, which he does not want, and discards it. Player D performs a gàng (杠), and 'Replacement Tile For Kong'(补杠bǔ-gàng ) by drawing the last 16th tile. If Player D wins on the last tile, it will not be considered hái-dǐ-lāo-yuè (海底捞月).

Example 3. Player A draws the last 18th tile, which turns out to be a flower. He draws a replacement tile, the last 17th tile, and it turns out to be an animal. Finally, he draws the last 16th tile and completes his winning hand. This will not be considered hái-dǐ-lāo-yuè (海底捞月).

However a special event may have been triggered, depending on the agreement of playing parties. Refer to the above discussions on 'Winning on Replacement Tile'(花上,杠上).

Note 2: In some playing circles, the game is considered a draw if the last 16th tile is a Bonus Tile. No one-time payout will be required, unless the player has gotten 8 flower tiles for the special hand.

Pure Green Suit (绿一色)[edit]

A 'Pure Green Suit Hand'(绿一色lǜ-yī-sè) scores four points instead of just two points for Mixed One Suit, due to the increased difficulty. The hand only consist of the bamboo suit(索子) of 2, 3, 4, 6, and/or 8, plus the Green Dragon as a pair or triplet.(Note: As for why it is called Pure Green Suit is that in the early days, all the above tile carvings are painted green.)

However, this is generally not a recognised hand in Singapore. It will be wise to confirm with all playing parties regarding the points scored when this hand arises.

MJs2.pngMJs3.pngMJs4.png MJs6.pngMJs6.pngMJs6.png MJs8.pngMJs8.pngMJs8.png MJd2.pngMJd2.pngMJd2.png MJs2.pngMJs2.png

Three Lesser Scholars(小三元)[edit]

The 'Three Lesser Scholars'(小三元xiǎo-sān-yuán) scores three points (one for the eye pair, and two for the pong/kong of the other two Dragon tiles).

Example 1: MJd1.pngMJd1.pngMJd1.pngMJd2.pngMJd2.pngMJd2.pngMJd3.pngMJd3.png

Example 2: MJd1.pngMJd1.pngMJd1.pngMJd3.pngMJd3.pngMJd3.pngMJd2.pngMJd2.png

Example 3: MJd2.pngMJd2.pngMJd2.pngMJd3.pngMJd3.pngMJd3.pngMJd1.pngMJd1.png

Four Lesser Blessings(小四喜)[edit]

A 'Four Lesser Blessings'(小四喜xiǎo-sì-xǐ) score three or four points (two for the hand itself, plus the bonus points for a pong/kong of the prevailing wind and/or player wind).

Example 1: MJf1.pngMJf1.pngMJf1.pngMJf2.pngMJf2.pngMJf2.pngMJf3.pngMJf3.pngMJf3.pngMJf4.pngMJf4.png

Three Great Scholars(大三元)[edit]

A 'Three Great Scholars"(大三元dà-sān-yuán) scores 10 points, or the limit, whichever is the smaller number.

MJd1.pngMJd1.pngMJd1.pngMJd2.pngMJd2.pngMJd2.pngMJd3.pngMJd3.pngMJd3.png

Note 1 : A common rule in Singapore dictates that any player who collects all 3 triplets of the 3 元 tiles, either by having them in your hidden hand, or by performing Pong(碰pèng) to obtain exposed triplets, can declare himself to have fulfilled the 大三元 combination. The combination of the hidden hands, under this rule, does not matter. Invoking this rule when a player collects all 3 triplets earns that player 5 points, instead of 10.

Note 1.1 : Care must be taken by any player, who invokes the above rule, to conceal their hidden hand while declaring the game to be won. Otherwise, if the hidden hand is revealed, certain players consider this to be cheating, because the said party has not won the game by virtue of his entire hand of tiles, as it should be. If such a situation arise, the winning-turned-losing party must compensate the rest of the playing parties.

Four Great Blessings (大四喜)[edit]

A 'Four Great Blessings'(大四喜dà-sì-xǐ) score the limit (Generally, there appears to be a lack of agreement as to the number of points actually scored by these hands. However, in practice, this combination simply scores the maximum number of points).

MJf1.pngMJf1.pngMJf1.pngMJf2.pngMJf2.pngMJf2.pngMJf3.pngMJf3.pngMJf3.pngMJf4.pngMJf4.pngMJf4.png

Note 1 : For 'Four Great Blessings', a common rule in Singapore dictates that any player who collects all 4 triplets of the 4 individual Wind(风fēng) tiles, either by having them in your hidden hand, or by performing 'Pong'(碰pèng ) to obtain exposed triplets, can declare himself to have fulfilled the 大四喜 combination. The combination of the hidden hand (more specifically, the last required pair of any tile) under this rule, does not matter. Invoking this rule when a player collects all 4 triplets earns that player 10 points, instead of the limit.

Note 1.1 : Care must be taken by any player, who invokes the above rule, to conceal their hidden hand while declaring the game to be won. Otherwise, if the hidden hand is revealed, certain players consider this to be cheating, because the said party has not won the game by virtue of his entire hand of tiles, as it should be. If such a situation arise, the winning-turned-losing party must compensate the rest of the playing parties.

Thirteen Wonders(十三么)[edit]

  • The "Thirteen Wonders" or "Thirteen Orphans"(十三么shí-sān-yāo) Hand score thirteen points, or the limit, whichever is the smaller number.

MJt1.pngMJt9.pngMJs1.pngMJs9.pngMJw1.pngMJw9.pngMJf1.pngMJf2.pngMJf3.pngMJf4.pngMJd1.pngMJd2.pngMJd3.png + any tile in the same set

This winning hand is considered to be one of the hardest to accomplish and therefore has priority to win from a tile from any player's discard, superseding players in front of you who could have gamed from that tile. Thirteen Wonders is the only hand that can snatch an 'Concealed Kong'(暗杠àn-gàng) and supersede any players in front of you who could have gamed from that.

Other special scenarios[edit]

Eighteen Arhats/Four Kongs(十八罗汉shí bā luó hàn)[edit]

This refers to the scenario where the player manages to 'Kong'(杠gàng) four times. It results in the player having 18 tiles excluding flower and animal tiles, hence its name. The player does not need to complete the remaining 2 tiles as the eyes and will be declared winner of the round immediately. It also scores maximum points due to its rarity.

Heavenly Hand (天胡tiān hú)[edit]

This refers to the scenario where the first player, as the dealer, wins the round on the first turn (i.e. with the tiles given after dealing and flower/animal/kong any and all etc... replacement needed without draw card). Because of its extreme rarity, this criterion is often awarded the limit.

Earthly Hand (地胡dì hú)[edit]

This refers to the scenario where a non-dealer wins from the dealer's first discard. Because of its rarity, this criterion is often awarded the limit.

Humanly Hand (人胡rén hú)[edit]

This refers to the scenario where a non-dealer wins by discard within the first go around of the game before his/her first draw & no exposed meld(except Concealed Kong) formed by anyone. Because of its rarity, this criterion is often awarded the limit. Note: Not everybody plays with this rule so it is best to confirm with everybody before commencing your mahjong game.

Fully Concealed Hand(门清自摸mén qīng zì mō)[edit]

This refers to the scenario where you do not eat or pong and draw all the tiles yourself, including the winning tile. This adds one point to your hand. Note: Not everybody plays with this rule so it is best to confirm with everybody before commencing your mahjong game.

Chicken Hand(鸡胡ji hú/推倒胡tuī dǎo hú)[edit]

This refer to the scenario where the Hand does not conform to any scoring pattern, no value Bonus tile and no value 'Pong'(碰pèng) etc. This Hand used to be played in Singapore but with the introduction of Minimum Point Requirement(起胡qǐ-hú) of one point in Singapore, this Hand has became invalid in most playing circles, perhaps the elderly still play it.

Is there any value in having this Hand at all in Mahjong? This Hand is perhaps the best Defensive Strategy Play against high value hand of your opponent.

Ever since the introduction of Minimum Point Requirement(起胡qǐ-hú) of one point in Singapore, the only low value hand is 'Lesser Sequence Hand'(小平胡), but due to many restrictions, it is not an easy hand as well. Perhaps the reason why some players in Singapore started to introduce other low value hand in their playing circle. For example, the Fully Concealed Hand(门清自摸) above.

Paying for all players[edit]

High-risk discards are also an element of Singapore-style scoring, with the player making such a discard paying for the other two losing players, in addition to their own (the other two losing players are vindicated - they do not pay anyone anything). High-risk scenarios only occur when a player is visibly near victory, with that player winning because of a high-risk discard.

The following is a typical list of high-risk scenarios:

Dragon Tile Set Scenario (包三元)[edit]

Player A has two Dragon Pongs or Kongs exposed. Player B discards a third Dragon and the Player A is able to Pong/Kong it or complete an eye with it (and thereby winning), forming a third set of Dragons. If Player A wins the game with Player B's discard or his own tile, Player B pays all winnings.

Example:

Player A's exposed melds: MJd1.pngMJd1.pngMJd1.pngMJd2.pngMJd2.pngMJd2.png

High-risk discard would be: MJd3.png

Wind Tile Set Scenario (包四喜)[edit]

Same as Dragon Tile Set Scenario, but requires three exposed Wind sets and completing a fourth with a discard.

Example:

Player A's exposed melds: MJf1.pngMJf1.pngMJf1.pngMJf2.pngMJf2.pngMJf2.pngMJf3.pngMJf3.pngMJf3.png

High-risk discard would be: MJf4.png

NOTE: Dragon tiles are also considered high-risk discard: MJd1.pngMJd2.pngMJd3.png

due to the possibility of a 'All Honours Hand'(字一色).

Point Limit Scenario (包滿貫)[edit]

Player A has one less than the maximum number of points (typically 4) exposed. Player B discards a Dragon tile, a Prevailing Wind(圈风quān-fēng) or a Player's Seat Wind(门风mén-fēng) that is taken by A, thereby making a total of the maximum number of points (typically 5). If Player A wins the game with Player B's discard or his own tile, Player B pays all winnings. Another unique scenario is where Player A has two less than the maximum number of points (typically 3) exposed. Player B discards the Wind tile that is both the Prevailing Wind and the Player's Seat Wind, that is taken by A, thereby making a total of the maximum number of points (typically 5). If Player A wins the game with Player B's discard or his own tile, Player B pays all winnings.

Example:

The limit is 5 points. Player A already has 4 points on his exposed tiles. His seat wind is South and the prevailing Wind is East.

Player A's exposed tiles: MJh2.pngMJh6.pngMJd1.pngMJd1.pngMJd1.pngMJf2.pngMJf2.pngMJf2.png

High-risk discards: MJd2.pngMJd3.pngMJf1.png

Full Flush Scenario (包清一色/包字一色)[edit]

Player A has 3 or 4 sets of the same suit (bamboo, dots, character or honour) exposed. If Player B discards a tile of the same suit and Player A uses it to win, Player B pays all winnings.

Example:

Player A's exposed melds: MJt1.pngMJt1.pngMJt1.png MJt2.pngMJt3.pngMJt4.png MJt5.pngMJt6.pngMJt7.png

High-risk discards: Any tile from the same suit as player A's exposed melds.

Pure Green Suit Scenario (包绿一色)[edit]

Player A has 3 or 4 sets of the green suit (namely 2, 3, 4, 6, 8 of the bamboo suit, and the Green Dragon) exposed. If Player B discards a tile of in this suit and Player A uses it to win, Player B pays all winnings.

Example:

Player A's exposed melds: MJs2.pngMJs3.pngMJs4.png MJs6.pngMJs6.pngMJs6.png MJd2.pngMJd2.pngMJd2.png

High-risk discards: MJs2.pngMJs3.pngMJs4.pngMJs6.pngMJs8.pngMJd2.png

Note: Most Singaporean players do not recognise this hand as a higher-valued hand, and just treat it like a 'Half Flush Hand'(混一色). In this case, 包绿一色 does not come into effect.

Pure Terminals Scenario (包清老头)[edit]

Player A has 3 or 4 triplets exposed, all of which are of the terminal number one or nine of any suit. If Player B discards a tile of the terminal number one or nine, and Player A uses it to win, Player B pays for all winnings.

Example:

Player A's exposed melds: MJt1.pngMJt1.pngMJt1.png MJs9.pngMJs9.pngMJs9.png MJw1.pngMJw1.pngMJw1.png

High-risk discards: MJt1.pngMJt9.png MJs1.pngMJs9.png MJw1.pngMJw9.png

Of course, realistically, the high-risk discards are just MJt9.pngMJs1.pngMJw9.png since the rest have already appeared in Player A's exposed melds and can't form either the triplet or pair when he goes Mahjong.

Eighteen Arhats Scenario(包十八罗汉)[edit]

When Player A has 3 Kongs revealed, and Player B discards a tile that has not appeared anywhere on the table(Discard pool & exposed melds), and if Player A manage to perform the 4th Kong and goes Mahjong, Player B pays for all the winnings.

Fresh Tile Discard(生牌) Scenarios[edit]

Definition of 'Fresh tile'(生牌shēng-pái)[edit]

'Fresh tiles'(生牌shēng-pái) are tiles that have not been discarded.

However, Exposed tiles from 'Chow'(吃chī) sets are not considered as 'discarded' tiles. For example, if Player C has a 'Chow'(吃chī) set of one-two-three 'Character'(万子wàn-zǐ) exposed, and none other of these 3 'Character'(万子wàn-zǐ) tiles are not found in the discard pool, then all these 3 'Character'(万子wàn-zǐ) tiles are considered to be 'Fresh'(生shēng) tiles.

As for 'Pong'(碰pèng) sets are not considered as 'Fresh'(生牌shēng-pái) tile since someone did discard it to allow the set to be melded.

There appears to be variants of the "Definition of Fresh" tile among different players as oppose to the one already mentioned above.

The variants are: (i)Some players define "fresh" as any tile that is not already present in the discard pool.

(ii)while other player define "fresh" to be any tile that is not already exposed somewhere on the table.

I.e. to say, if a certain tile is present in one of the melded sets of a player but absent from the discard pool, it will be considered "fresh" under the definition of the first variant but not under that of the second variant.

As mentioned, it will be wise to agree upon the rules with all playing parties before the below two scenarios are triggered.

Fresh Tile Discard Kong Scenario (包杠)[edit]

There are fewer than 7 tiles remaining in the wall (excluding the last 15 tiles that are meant to be untouched). If Player B discards a 'Fresh'(生牌shēng-pái) tile (one not previously discarded) and Player A performs any Kong(杠gàng) with that discarded tile, Player B pays all the associated compensation that Player A should receive. This has no effect on the payout when the game is won. However, if Player A wins by a 'Winning on Replacement Tile For Kong'(杠上gàng-shàng) from that discard, Player B will be responsible to pay for all players.

Fresh Tile Mahjong Scenario (包生)[edit]

There are fewer than 5 tiles remaining in the wall (excluding the last 15 tiles that are meant to be untouched). If Player B discards a 'Fresh' tile and Player A wins the game with that tile, Player B pays all winnings payable to Player A for the points he has scored. That is, if Player A wins with a 5-point Hand, Player B will compensate Player A with S$64. Players C and D will not be involved in any payment within this scenario. The description of 'Fresh'(生shēng) tiles above applies here.

A simple phrase to help remember the number of the tiles remaining for the 'Fresh' tile discard scenarios is simply "7 tiles Pao Kong,5 Tiles Pao Fresh"(七张包杠,五张包生qī-zhang-bāo-gàng,wǔ-zhang-bāo-shēng).

There appears to be a variant of the above rule where the number of tiles involved are switched. Thus, for some players, the 'Fresh' Tile Discard Kong Scenario' comes into play when there are less than 5 tiles remaining, while the 'Fresh Discard Scenario' comes into play when there are less than 7 tiles remaining. Thus, the phrase in Note 1 becomes "7 tiles Pao Fresh,5 Tiles Pao Kong"(七张包生,五张包杠). It will be wise to agree upon the rules with all playing parties before the scenarios are triggered.

Note: About the 2 'Fresh' tile discard variants above, which is the original version?

Part of the rule: 5 Tiles 'Pao Fresh'(五张包生) in the first version, is also found in Hong Kong, Taiwanese, South African Mahjong variants etc. This means that it is probably very old and is probably originated from China. As for why the additional 7 tiles 'Pao Kong'(七张包杠) is added in Singapore Mahjong, that is because there is Instant Payment for Kong whereas the above other Mahjong variants don't.

Therefore, "7 tiles Pao Kong,5 Tiles Pao Fresh"(七张包杠,五张包生) is probably the original version.

In an event of 'Thirteen Wonders'(十三么), the two above-mentioned 'Fresh' tile discard variants do not apply in the rules.

Wrong Winning Claim Scenario(诈胡)[edit]

A scenario where a player claims he has completed his winning hand but in fact, he has not done so or there is a mistake in his hand. This scenario is called Fake or Trick Hand(诈胡zhà-hú).

Usually he will be penalised to pay 5 points or the Limit to the other three players. The discarder will get double, whereas the other two players get the normal rate. If it is the offender that wrongly claim the "winning tile" which he drew it himself, i.e.Self-Pick (自摸zì-mō), then he will pays all the three players double.

Note: Usually the penalty for this scenario is 5 points as most players set the Limit to 5 points, but it will be wise to confirm with all playing parties beforehand regarding the penalty when this scenario arises especially when the Limit is more than 5 points.

Other Penalties[edit]

Short Hand(小相公 xiǎo xiàng gōng)[edit]

Short Hand is when the offending player(i)has less than 13 tiles in hand, exposed or concealed(Kong is counted as 3 tiles) and/or (ii)has drawn the wrong tile/s from the wall and/or (iii)melded the wrong discarded tile.

The penalty will be the offender has forfeited the right to win for the current hand.

Long Hand(大相公 dà xiàng gōng)[edit]

Long Hand is when the offending player has more than 13 tiles in hand, exposed or concealed(Kong is counted as 3 tiles).

When detected by other player, the penalties will be the offender has forfeited the rights to win and to claim any Kong for instant payment for the current hand.

Note: For most Majong variants, there is no instant payment for Kong. Therefore, their penalty for Long Hand is only the forfeit of the right to win for the current hand. But for Singapore Mahjong, a mistake that causes Long Hand actually increase the chance of Kong with instant payment, that is why the forfeit of the right to claim any Kong is added here so that the offender will not benefit from his mistake.

Sacred Discard & Missed Discard Prohibition Rules[edit]

Singaporean Mahjong uses the Traditional Prohibition Rules concerning Sacred Discard & Missed Discard.

Sacred Discard(回头牌huí-tóu-pái)[edit]

When a player discard a certain tile, it will be the Sacred Discard for that player, because he cannot claim the same identical tile from other players' discards during the very same go around.

For example, East player discarded a 3 Bamboo without realising that he had a winning hand with 4555 Bamboo. So when South, West or North players discard a 3 Bamboo, he cannot claim it for the win during the very same go around, otherwise it will be considered as a 'Fake Hand'(诈胡zhà-hú)!

But he can still claim 4 or 6 Bamboo for the win during the very same go around and when his turn comes, he can still 'Self-Pick'(自摸zì-mō) 3 Bamboo to win since in Singaporean Mahjong, one does not need to reveal the 'Self-Pick'(自摸zì-mō) tile.

Missed Discard(过水牌guò-shuǐ-pái)[edit]

When a player misses a chance to claim a certain tile when other player discard it, he cannot claim the same identical tile from the other players' discards during the very same go around.

For example, East player has 4555 Bamboo in his hand, South player discarded a 3 Bamboo. East player did not claim it. So when West or North players discard the very same 3 Bamboo during the very same go around, East player is prohibited to claim for the win, otherwise it will be considered as a 'Fake Hand'(诈胡zhà-hú)!

But he can still claim 4 or 6 Bamboo for the win during the very same go around and when his turn comes, he can still 'Self-Pick'(自摸zì-mō) 3 Bamboo to win.

Note: There might be some dispute with the Sacred & Missed Discards especially with "the very same go around". For example, East player misses the chance to claim it, that tile should be either the Sacred or Missed Discard for East player.

So when North player discard a tile that let South player or West Player to 'Pong'(碰pèng) or when West player discard a tile that let South player to 'Pong'(碰pèng), both scenarios will skip the East player. It should then be a new go around for the East player, so East player could claim the former Sacred or Missed Discard when someone discard it after that.

But since East player did not draw any tile before that, some argue that the Sacred or Missed Discard should remain. The problem for this argument is that what if East Player was skipped more than one time, it would then be very confusing & argumentative.

Unless the rule is change from "Sacred & Missed Discards only valid within the very same go around" to 'Only valid till his next turn", then the above scenarios, East player is not allowed to claim it.

As mentioned, it will be wise to agree upon the rules with all playing parties before the scenarios are triggered.

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