Singin' in the Rain
|Singin' in the Rain|
Theatrical release poster
|Produced by||Arthur Freed|
|Music by||Lennie Hayton (original score)
Nacio Herb Brown (music)
Arthur Freed (lyrics)
|Edited by||Adrienne Fazan|
|Distributed by||Loew's Inc.|
|Box office||$12.4 million|
Singin' in the Rain is a 1952 American musical comedy film directed and choreographed by Gene Kelly and Stanley Donen, starring Kelly, Donald O'Connor, and Debbie Reynolds. It offers a lighthearted depiction of Hollywood in the late 1920s, with the three stars portraying performers caught up in the transition from silent films to "talkies."
The film was only a modest hit when first released. Donald O'Connor won the Golden Globe Award for Best Actor – Motion Picture Musical or Comedy and Betty Comden and Adolph Green's won the Writers Guild of America Award for their screenplay, while Jean Hagen was nominated for the Academy Award for Best Supporting Actress. But it has since been accorded legendary status by contemporary critics, and is frequently regarded as the best movie musical ever made, and the best film ever made in the "Arthur Freed Unit" at Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer. It topped the AFI's Greatest Movie Musicals list and is ranked as the fifth-greatest American motion picture of all time in its updated list of the greatest American films in 2007. In 1989, the United States Library of Congress selected the film for preservation in the National Film Registry.
Don Lockwood (Gene Kelly) is a popular silent film star with humble roots as a singer, dancer, and stuntman. Don barely tolerates his vain, cunning, and shallow leading lady, Lina Lamont (Jean Hagen), though their studio, Monumental Pictures, links them romantically to increase their popularity. Lina is convinced they are in love, despite Don's protestations otherwise.
At the premiere of his newest film, The Royal Rascal, Don tells the gathered crowd an exaggerated version of his life story, including his motto: "Dignity, always dignity." His words are humorously contradicted by flashbacks showing him alongside his best friend Cosmo Brown (Donald O'Connor). To escape from his fans after the premiere, Don jumps into a passing car driven by Kathy Selden (Debbie Reynolds). She drops him off, but not before claiming to be a stage actress and sneering at his "undignified" accomplishments as a movie star.
Later, at a party, the head of Don's studio, R.F. Simpson (Millard Mitchell), shows a short demonstration of a talking picture,[a] but his guests are unimpressed. To Don's amusement, Kathy pops out of a mock cake right in front of him, revealing herself to be a chorus girl. Furious at Don's teasing, she throws a real cake at him, only to hit Lina right in the face. She runs away. Don is smitten with Kathy and searches for her for weeks. While filming a love scene, Lina tells him that she had Kathy fired. Don finally finds Kathy working in another Monumental Pictures production. She confesses to having been a fan of his all along.
After a rival studio has an enormous hit with its first talking picture, the 1927 film The Jazz Singer, R.F. decides he has no choice but to convert the next Lockwood and Lamont film, The Duelling Cavalier, into a talkie. The production is beset with difficulties, including Lina's grating voice and strong New York accent. An exasperated diction coach tries to teach her how to speak properly, but to no avail. The Duelling Cavalier's test screening is a disaster; the actors are barely audible thanks to the awkward placing of the microphones, Don repeats the line "I love you" to Lina over and over, to the audience's derisive laughter,[b] and in the middle of the film, the sound goes out of synchronization, with hilarious results.
Don, Kathy and Cosmo come up with the idea to turn The Duelling Cavalier into a musical called The Dancing Cavalier, complete with a modern musical number called "Broadway Melody". Cosmo, inspired by a scene in The Duelling Cavalier where Lina's voice was out of sync, suggests that they dub Lina's voice with Kathy's. R.F. approves the idea but tells them not to inform Lina about the dubbing. When Lina finds out, she is infuriated. She becomes even angrier when she discovers that R.F. intends to give Kathy a screen credit and a big publicity buildup afterward. Lina threatens to sue R.F. unless he orders Kathy to continue working uncredited as Lina's voice. R.F. reluctantly agrees to her demands, as a clause in her contract states that she can sue whenever denied a role of her choosing.
The premiere of The Dancing Cavalier is a tremendous success. When the audience clamors for Lina to sing live, Don, Cosmo, and R.F. tell her to lip sync into the microphone while Kathy, hidden behind the curtain, sings into a second one. While Lina is "singing," Don, Cosmo and R.F. gleefully raise the curtain. Lina flees. A distressed Kathy tries to run away as well, but Don proudly announces to the audience that she's "the real star of the film." Later, Kathy and Don kiss in front of a billboard for their new film, Singin' in the Rain.
- Gene Kelly as Don Lockwood, humble mood music musician turned stunt man turned Hollywood heartthrob. His performance in the song "Singin' in the Rain" is now considered to be iconic.
- Debbie Reynolds as Kathy Selden. Directors Gene Kelly and Stanley Donen insisted that Reynolds was always first in their minds for the role. Although the film revolves around the idea that Kathy has to dub over for Lina's voice, in the scene where Kathy is dubbing a line of Lina's dialogue ("Our love will last 'til the stars turn cold"), Jean Hagen's normal voice is used.
- Donald O'Connor as Cosmo Brown, Don's lifelong pal, and vaudeville partner, who becomes the head of Monumental Pictures' music department.
- Jean Hagen as Lina Lamont. Fresh off her role in The Asphalt Jungle, Hagen read for the part for producer Arthur Freed. She did a dead-on impression of Judy Holliday's Billie Dawn character from Born Yesterday, which won her the role.
- Millard Mitchell as R.F. Simpson. The initials of the fictional head of Monumental Pictures are a reference to producer Arthur Freed. R.F. also uses one of Freed's favorite expressions when he says that he "cannot quite visualize it" and has to see it on film first, referring to the "Broadway Melody" sequence. This is a joke, since the audience has just seen it.
- Cyd Charisse as the long-legged woman in the green sequined dress and Louise Brooks hair who vamps Gene Kelly in the "Broadway Melody" sequence.
- Douglas Fowley as Roscoe Dexter, the director of Don and Lina's films.
- Rita Moreno as Zelda Zanders, the "Zip Girl" and Lina's friend.
- King Donovan as Rod, head of the publicity department at Monumental Pictures.
- Judy Landon as Olga Mara, a silent screen vamp who attends the premiere of The Royal Rascal.
- Madge Blake as Dora Bailey, a radio show host.
- Kathleen Freeman as Phoebe Dinsmore, Lina's diction coach.
- Bobby Watson as diction coach during the "Moses Supposes" number.
- Jimmy Thompson as the singer of "Beautiful Girl".
- Mae Clarke as the hairdresser who puts the finishing touches on Lina Lamont's hairdo.
Singin' in the Rain was originally conceived by MGM producer Arthur Freed, the head of the "Freed Unit" responsible for turning out MGM's lavish musicals, as a vehicle for his catalog of songs written with Nacio Herb Brown for previous MGM musical films of the 1929–39 period. Screenwriters Betty Comden and Adolph Green wrote two entirely new songs, "Make 'Em Laugh" and "Moses Supposes", the latter with music director Roger Edens providing the music. (see below).
All songs have lyrics by Freed and music by Brown unless otherwise indicated. Some of the songs, such as "Broadway Rhythm," "Should I?," and most notably "Singin' in the Rain," have been featured in numerous films. The films listed below mark the first time each song was presented on screen.
- "Fit as a Fiddle (And Ready for Love)" from College Coach (1933) (music by Al Hoffman and Al Goodhart, lyrics by Freed)
- "Temptation" (instrumental only) from Going Hollywood (1933)
- "All I Do Is Dream of You" from Sadie McKee (1934)
- "Singin' in the Rain" from The Hollywood Revue of 1929 (1929)
- "Make 'Em Laugh," considered an original song, but bearing a striking resemblance to Cole Porter's "Be a Clown," used in another MGM Freed-produced musical, The Pirate (1948). Credited to Comden and Green.
- "Beautiful Girl Montage" comprising "I've Got a Feelin' You're Foolin'" from Broadway Melody of 1936 (1935), "The Wedding of the Painted Doll" from The Broadway Melody (1929), "Should I?" from Lord Byron of Broadway (1930) and "Beautiful Girl" from Stage Mother (1933)
- "You Were Meant for Me" from The Broadway Melody (1929)
- "You Are My Lucky Star" from Broadway Melody of 1936 (1935)
- "Moses Supposes" (music by Roger Edens, lyrics by Comden and Green)
- "Good Morning" from Babes In Arms (1939)
- "Would You?" from San Francisco (1936)
- "Broadway Melody" composed of "The Broadway Melody" from The Broadway Melody (1929) and "Broadway Rhythm" from Broadway Melody of 1936 (1935) The music for the "Broadway Ballet" section is by Nacio Herb Brown.
Revisions from early drafts
- In an early draft of the script, the musical number "Singin' in the Rain" was to be sung by Reynolds, O'Connor, and Kelly, emerging from a restaurant after the flop preview of The Dueling Cavalier, to celebrate the idea of changing the film into a musical.
- Kelly singing "You Were Meant For Me" to Reynolds on an empty sound stage was not included in that draft. The number was originally conceived as Kelly singing a medley of other songs to her as they romped around various studio back lot sets.
- Rita Moreno was originally to have sung the lead in "I've Got a Feelin' You're Foolin'" with other showgirls, but this ended up as part of the "Beautiful Girl Montage" without her.
Scenes filmed but cut before release
- Gene Kelly sang a reprise of "All I Do is Dream of You" after the party at R.F. Simpson's house when Kelly chases after Reynolds. The song, ending in Kelly's bedroom, was cut from the release version after two previews, and the footage has been lost.
- Reynolds' solo rendition of "You Are My Lucky Star" (to a billboard showing an image of Lockwood) was cut after previews. This number has survived and is included on the original soundtrack and DVD version of the film.
- In the steamy "Vamp Dance" segment of the "Broadway Melody Ballet" with Cyd Charisse and Gene Kelly, reviewers from both the Production Code and the Catholic Church's Legion of Decency objected to a brief, suggestive pose or movement between the dancers. Although there is no precise documentation of what or where it was, close examination of footage toward the end of the dance shows an abrupt cut when Charisse is wrapped around Kelly, indicating the probable location.
In the famous dance sequence in which Gene Kelly sings the title song while spinning an umbrella, splashing through puddles and getting soaked to the skin, Kelly was sick with a 103 °F (39 °C) fever. The rain in the scene caused Kelly's wool suit to shrink during filming. A common myth is that Kelly managed to perform the entire song in one take, thanks to cameras placed at predetermined locations. However, this was not the case, as the filming of the sequence took place over 2–3 days. Another myth is that the rain was mixed with milk in order for the drops to show up better on camera; but the desired visual effect was produced, albeit with difficulty, through backlighting.
Debbie Reynolds was not a dancer when she made Singin' in the Rain; her background was as a gymnast. Kelly apparently insulted her for her lack of dance experience, upsetting her. In a subsequent encounter when Fred Astaire was in the studio, he found Reynolds crying under a piano. Hearing what had happened, Astaire volunteered to help her with her dancing. Kelly later admitted that he had not been kind to Reynolds and was surprised that she was still willing to talk to him afterwards. After shooting the "Good Morning" routine, which had taken from 8:00 a.m. until 11:00 p.m. to shoot, Reynolds' feet were bleeding. Years later, she was quoted as saying that "Singin' in the Rain and childbirth were the two hardest things I ever had to do in my life."
Most of the costumes from this film were eventually acquired by Debbie Reynolds and held in her massive collection of original film costumes, sets, and props. Many of these items were sold at a 2011 auction in Hollywood. While most items were sold to private collectors, Donald O'Connor's green check "Fit As a Fiddle" suit and shoes were purchased by Costume World, Inc. They are now on permanent display at the Costume World Broadway Collection Museum in Pompano Beach, Florida.
According to MGM records, during the film's initial theatrical release, it made $3,263,000 in the US and Canada and $2,367,000 internationally, earning the studio a profit of $666,000. It was the tenth highest-grossing movie of the year in the US and Canada.
Awards and honors
Donald O'Connor won the Golden Globe Award for Best Actor in a Motion Picture – Musical or Comedy for his portrayal of Cosmo Brown. Betty Comden and Adolph Green received the Writers Guild of America Award for Best Written American Musical.
Singin' in the Rain has appeared twice on Sight & Sound's list of the ten best films of all time, in 1982 and 2002. Its position in 1982 was at number 4 on the critics list; on the 2002 critics' list, it was listed as number 10, and it tied for 19 on the directors' list.
Review aggregate website Rotten Tomatoes reported that 100% of critics gave the film a positive review based on 48 reviews, with an average score of 9.2/10. The film is currently ranked as No. 10 on Rotten Tomatoes' list of best rated films. Rotten Tomatoes summarizes the critical consensus as, "Clever, incisive, and funny, Singin' in the Rain is a masterpiece of the classical Hollywood musical." In 2008, Singin' in the Rain was placed on Empire's 500 Greatest Movies of All Time List, ranking at #8, the highest ranked G-rated movie on the list.
In 1989, Singin' in the Rain was among the first 25 films chosen for the newly established National Film Registry for films that are deemed "culturally, historically or aesthetically significant" by the United States Library of Congress and selected for preservation.
The film is recognized by American Film Institute in these lists:
- 1998: AFI's 100 Years...100 Movies – #10
- 2000: AFI's 100 Years...100 Laughs – #16
- 2002: AFI's 100 Years...100 Passions – #16
- 2003: AFI's 100 Years...100 Heroes & Villains:
- Lina Lamont – Nominated Villain
- 2004: AFI's 100 Years...100 Songs:
- 2005: AFI's 100 Years...100 Movie Quotes:
- Lina Lamont: "What do they think I am, dumb or something? Why, I make more money than Calvin Coolidge! Put together!" – Nominated
- 2006: AFI's Greatest Movie Musicals – #1
- 2007: AFI's 100 Years...100 Movies (10th Anniversary Edition) – #5
The 40th Anniversary Edition VHS version released in 1992 includes a documentary, the original trailer, and Reynolds' solo rendition of "You Are My Lucky Star," which had been cut from the final film.
According to the audio commentary on the 2002 Special Edition DVD, the original negative was destroyed in a fire. Despite this, the film was digitally restored for its DVD release. A Blu-ray Ultimate Collector's Edition was released in July 2012.
Comic book adaptation
The Broadway musical Singin' in the Rain was adapted from the motion picture, and the plot of the stage version closely adheres to the original. Directed and choreographed by post-modern choreographer Twyla Tharp, the opening night cast starred Don Correia as Don Lockwood, Mary D'Arcy as Kathy Selden, Richard Fancy as Roscoe Dexter, Faye Grant as Lina Lamont, and Peter Slutsker as Cosmo Brown. The musical opened on July 2, 1985 at the Gershwin Theatre after 39 previews, and ran for 367 performances, closing on May 18, 1986.
In popular culture
- Kelly's hometown Pittsburgh Pirates games at PNC Park play the scene from the film during rain delays.
- "Singin' in the Rain" is sung mockingly by Alex DeLarge, played by Malcolm McDowell, in the rape scene in Stanley Kubrick's 1971 film A Clockwork Orange. The Gene Kelly version plays during the end credits.
- Singin' in the Rain is sung by Inspector Jacques Clouseau played by Peter Sellers as part of the extended version of the grocery scene from The Pink Panther Strikes Again in Blake Edwards 1982 film Trail of the Pink Panther.
- In their 1976 Christmas special, the British comedy act Morecambe and Wise parodied the "Singin' in the Rain" sequence.
- Gene Kelly's "Singin' in the Rain" sequence is one of the opening scenes of The Great Movie Ride at Disney's Hollywood Studios. Kelly approved his Audio-Animatronics likeness prior to its delivery to Florida.
- The "Singin' in the Rain" sequence was featured in a 2005 Volkswagen Golf commercial, with Gene Kelly seen break-dancing in the street. Also featured was Mint Royale's version of the song accompanying the commercial.
- The dance to the title song is parodied in the Broadway musical Spamalot in the dance break to "Always Look on the Bright Side of Life," complete with tap-dancing knights spinning bright yellow umbrellas around.
- The 2013 anime short Gisoku no Moses features a young female ghost dancing with a pair of haunted dance shoes to the tune of "Moses Supposes."
- The scene in which Gene Kelly sings "You Were Meant for Me" is featured in the 2015 Nancy Meyers film The Intern.
- In the movie Silver Linings Playbook, Jennifer Lawrence's character is inspired by a clip of Donald O'Conner and Gene Kelly dancing to "Moses Supposes" from Singin' in the Rain.
- List of films considered the best
- List of films with a 100% rating on Rotten Tomatoes, a film review aggregator website
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- Haley Jr., Jack: That's Entertainment!, Frank Sinatra segments. Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer, 1974
- Betty Comden, Adolph Green (2002). The story Behind Singin' in the Rain: Now It Can be Told, reprint of the Singin' In the Rain screenplay introduction, originally published in 1972, included in the liner notes of the Music from the original motion picture soundtrack (deluxe edition) Singin' in the Rain double CD by Rhino Entertainment and Turner Classic Movies.
- Osborne, Robert. TCM commentary, "Singing in the Rain."
- Hess, Earl J. and Dabholkarm Pratibha A. (2009) Singin' in the Rain: The Making of an American Masterpiece. Lawrence, Kansas: University Press of Kansas, p.145.
- Reynolds, Debbie; Columbia, David Patrick lastauthoramp=yes (1989). Debbie: My Life. Pocket Books. p. 97. ISBN 978-0671687922.
- Kermode, Mark (18 March 2007). "The 50 greatest film soundtracks: 11. Singin' In The Rain". The Observer. London. Retrieved 4 August 2015.
- George Feltenstein (2002). "Producer's Note," included in the liner notes of the "Music from the original motion picture soundtrack (deluxe edition) Singin' in the Rain" double CD by Rhino Entertainment and Turner Classic Movies
- Track list in the liner notes of the "Music from the original motion picture soundtrack (deluxe edition) Singin' in the Rain" double CD by Rhino Entertainment and Turner Classic Movies.
- CineBooks' Motion Picture Guide review of the film included on the Microsoft Cinemania 1997 CD
- Hess, Earl J.; Dabholkar, Pratibha A. (2009). Singin’ in the Rain: The Making of an American Masterpiece. Lawrence, Kansas: University Press of Kansas. p. 124. ISBN 978-0-7006-1656-5.
- Hess, pp. 23-24
- Hess, p. 70
- Hess, p. 173
- New 50th Anniversary Documentary What a Glorious Feeling, hosted by Debbie Reynolds on the film's DVD.
- Hess, pp. 180-181
- "The Biography Channel". Retrieved 2008-06-03.
- "Singin' in the Rain (1952) – Hollywood's Greatest Musical!". Key Light Enterprises. Retrieved 15 January 2012.
- Bubbeo, Daniel (July 11, 2012). "Gene Kelly's widow Patricia chats about her late husband and 'Singin' in the Rain'". Newsday. Retrieved July 27, 2012.
- The Basics: Was There Really Milk in Singin’ in the Rain? notes: "Gene Kelly himself described what happened in several interviews, including American Film (1979): 'Shooting the title number was just terrible for the photographer Hal Rossen [sic]. He had to backlight all the rain and then he had to put frontlight on the performer. That was as tough a job as I’ve ever seen, because you can’t photograph in rain and see it.'"
- Reynolds, Debbie (2013). Unsinkable: A Memoir. HarperCollins Publishers. p. 207. ISBN 978-0-06-221365-5.
- Patrick Perry, "ON TOUR WITH DEBBIE REYNOLDS: Feisty and Fit Actress Speaks Out About An All-Too-Common Problem - Overactive Bladder", The Saturday Evening Post, January/February 2003.
- Mankiewicz, Ben (2017) "Intro to Singin' in the Rain 65th Anniversary Theatrical Release" Accessed: January 15, 2017
- The Eddie Mannix Ledger, Los Angeles: Margaret Herrick Library, Center for Motion Picture Study.
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- "Top 100 Movies Of All Time". Rotten Tomatoes. Retrieved March 25, 2016.
- "Singin' in the Rain". Rotten Tomatoes. Retrieved May 31, 2014.
- "AFI's 100 Years...100 Movies" (PDF). American Film Institute. Retrieved 2016-07-17.
- "AFI's 100 Years...100 Laughs" (PDF). American Film Institute. Retrieved 2016-07-17.
- "AFI's 100 Years...100 Passions" (PDF). American Film Institute. Retrieved 2016-07-17.
- "AFI's 100 Years...100 Heroes & Villains Nominees" (PDF). Retrieved 2016-07-17.
- "AFI's 100 Years...100 Songs" (PDF). American Film Institute. Retrieved 2016-07-17.
- "AFI's 100 Years...100 Songs" (PDF). American Film Institute. Retrieved 2016-07-17.
- "AFI's 100 Years...100 Songs" (PDF). American Film Institute. Retrieved 2016-07-17.
- "AFI's 100 Years...100 Movie Quotes Nominees" (PDF). Retrieved 2016-07-17.
- "AFI's Greatest Movie Musicals" (PDF). American Film Institute. Retrieved 2016-07-17.
- "AFI's 100 Years...100 Movies (10th Anniversary Edition)" (PDF). American Film Institute. Retrieved 2016-07-17.
- "VHS back cover". Amazon.com. Retrieved 2010-03-06.
- "Movie Love #14". Grand Comics Database.
- Singin' in the Rain on the Internet Broadway Database
- "On Stage: Kate Hepburn, Richard Rauh and old Nixon". Arts & Entertainment. PG Publishing Co., Inc. July 9, 2003. Retrieved February 1, 2016.
- MacDougal, Stuart Y. (2003) Stanley Kubrick's A Clockwork Orange Cambridge University Press. p.98 ISBN 9780521574884
- "The Morecambe and Wise Show" BBC Two
- "Great Movie Ride Singin' In the Rain" Studios Central
- Fleming, Brenda "9 Facts and Secrets about the Great Movie Ride at Disney's Hollywood Studios" DisDining
- "Spamalot: And now for something completely silly". Retrieved 29 December 2016.
- ""Gisoku no Moses", a delightful anime short inspired by Gene Kelly". Nerdwatch!. Retrieved 20 April 2016.
- Comden, Betty; Green, Adolph (1986). Singin' in the Rain. New York: Lorrimer Publishing. ISBN 0-85647-116-X. OCLC 13125781.
- Ebert, Roger (14 February 1999). "Reviews: Singin' in the Rain". RogerEbert.com. Retrieved 2016-02-14.
- "FilmSite Review: Singin' in the Rain (1952)". Filmsite.org. AMC. Retrieved 2016-02-14.
- Hess, Earl J.; Dabholkar, Pratibha A. (2009). Singin' in the Rain: The Making of an American Masterpiece. Lawrence: University Press of Kansas. ISBN 978-0-7006-1656-5. OCLC 291908067. Retrieved 2016-02-14.
- Telek, Scott (11 November 2007). "Speaking vs. Dancing in the Rain". Cinema de Merde. Retrieved 2016-02-14.
- Wollen, Peter (1992). Singin' in the Rain. London: BFI Publishing. ISBN 0-85170-351-8. OCLC 27108548.
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- Singin' in the Rain at the American Film Institute Catalog
- Singin' in the Rain at the Internet Movie Database
- Singin' in the Rain at the TCM Movie Database
- Singin' in the Rain at AllMovie
- Singin' in the Rain at CinemaClassic (French)
- Singin' in the Rain at Rotten Tomatoes
- Singin' in the Rain at Virtual History