Single transverse palmar crease

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Single transverse palmar crease
Other namesSimian crease, simian line
Simian crease2.jpg
Single transverse palmar crease on an infant's hand
SpecialtyMedical genetics

In humans, a single transverse palmar crease is a single crease that extends across the palm of the hand, formed by the fusion of the two palmar creases (known in palmistry as the "heart line" and the "head line") It is often found in Down Syndrome,[1] but is not necessarily an indication that a person with single transverse palmar crease has the condition. It is also found in 1.5% of the general population in at least one hand.[2]

Because it resembles the usual condition of non-human simians, it is also known as a simian crease or simian line, although these terms have widely fallen out of favor due to their pejorative connotation.[3]

Medical significance[edit]

Males are twice as likely as females to have this characteristic, and it tends to run in families. In its non-symptomatic form, it is more common among Asians and Native Americans than among other populations, and in some families there is a tendency to inherit the condition unilaterally; that is, on one hand only.[citation needed]

The presence of a single transverse palmar crease can be, but is not always, a symptom associated with abnormal medical conditions, such as fetal alcohol syndrome, or with genetic chromosomal abnormalities, including Down syndrome (chromosome 21), cri du chat syndrome (chromosome 5), Klinefelter syndrome, Wolf-Hirschhorn Syndrome, Noonan syndrome (chromosome 12), Patau syndrome (chromosome 13), IDIC 15/Dup15q (chromosome 15), Edward's syndrome (chromosome 18), and Aarskog-Scott syndrome (X-linked recessive), or autosomal recessive disorder, such as Leukocyte adhesion deficiency-2 (LAD2).[4] A unilateral single palmar crease was also reported in a case of chromosome 9 mutation causing Nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome and Robinow syndrome.[5] It is also sometimes found on the hand of the affected side of patients with Poland syndrome, and craniosynostosis.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ McPherson M.D., Katrina (3 May 2004). "Simian crease". Medical Encyclopedia. United States National Library of Medicine. Retrieved 28 September 2006.
    - "Definition of Simian crease". MedicineNet. MedicineNet, Inc. 2005. Retrieved 28 September 2006.
    - Hammer, edited by Stephen J. McPhee, Gary D. (2010). "Pathophysiology of Selected Genetic Diseases". Pathophysiology of disease : an introduction to clinical medicine (6th ed.). New York: McGraw-Hill Medical. pp. Chapter 2. ISBN 9780071621670.CS1 maint: extra text: authors list (link)
  2. ^ Dar M.D., Hannah (6 August 1976). "Palmar Crease Variants and Their Clinical Significance" (PDF). Medical Encyclopedia. United States National Library of Medicine. Retrieved 20 October 2016.
  3. ^ Cooley, W. Carl; Wilson, Golder (2000). Preventive management of children with congenital anomalies and syndromes. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. p. 147. ISBN 978-0-521-77673-8.
  4. ^ Marquardt, Thorsten; Brune, Thomas; Lühn, Kerstin; Zimmer, Klaus-Peter; Körner, Christian; Fabritz, Larissa; Van Der Werft, Natascha; Vormoor, Josef; Freeze, Hudson H.; Louwen, Frank; Biermann, Bettina; Harms, Eric; von Figura, Kurt; Vestweber, Dietmar; Koch, Hans Georg (30 June 1999). "Leukocyte adhesion deficiency II syndrome, a generalized defect in fucose metabolism". The Journal of Pediatrics. 134 (6): 681–688. doi:10.1016/S0022-3476(99)70281-7. PMID 10356134.
  5. ^ Olivieri, C.; Maraschio, P.; Caselli, D.; Martini, C.; Beluffi, G.; Maserati, E.; Danesino, C. (February 2003). "Interstitial deletion of chromosome 9, int del(9)(9q22.31-q31.2), including the genes causing multiple basal cell nevus syndrome and Robinow/brachydactyly 1 syndrome". European Journal of Pediatrics. 162 (2): 100–3. doi:10.1007/s00431-002-1116-4. PMID 12548386. Retrieved 10 January 2013.

External links[edit]

Classification
External resources