Sino-Korean vocabulary

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Sino-Korean vocabulary or Hanja-eo (Hangul한자어; Hanja漢字) refers to Korean words of Chinese origin. Sino-Korean vocabulary includes words borrowed directly from Chinese, new Korean words created from Chinese characters, and words borrowed from Sino-Japanese vocabulary. About 60 percent of Korean words are of Chinese origin.[1]

History[edit]

The use of Chinese and Chinese characters in Korea dates back to at least 194 BCE. While Sino-Korean words were widely used during the Three Kingdoms period, they became even more popular during the Silla period. During this time, male aristocrats changed their given names to Sino-Korean names. Additionally, the government changed all official titles and place names in the country to Sino-Korean.[1]

Sino-Korean words remained popular during the Goryeo and Joseon periods.[1] Ultimately, the majority of Sino-Korean words were introduced before 1945, including Sino-Japanese words that were introduced to Korea during the Japanese occupation.[2] However, Sino-Korean vocabulary has continued to grow in South Korea, where the meanings of Chinese characters are used to produce new words in Korean that do not exist in Chinese. By contrast, North Korean policy has called for many Sino-Korean words to be replaced by native Korean terms.[3]

Usage[edit]

Sino-Korean words constitute about 60 percent of South Korean vocabulary, the remainder being native Korean words and loanwords from other languages, mostly English. Sino-Korean words are typically used in formal or literary contexts,[2] and to express abstract or complex ideas.[4] Almost all Korean surnames and most Korean given names are Sino-Korean.[1] Additionally, Korean numerals can be expressed with Sino-Korean and native Korean words, though each set of numerals has different purposes.[4]

Sino-Korean words may be written either in the Korean alphabet, known as Hangul, or in Chinese characters, known as Hanja.[5]

Examples[edit]

Words borrowed from Chinese[edit]

Sino-Korean words borrowed directly from Chinese come mainly from Chinese classics, literature, and colloquial Chinese.[3]

Word Hangul (RR) Hanja Hanja meaning Ref
parents 부모 (bumo) 父母 "father mother" [6]
student 학생 (haksaeng) 學生 "study student" [7]
sun 태양 (taeyang) 太陽 "great light" [8]
question 질문 (jilmun) 質問 "background ask" [9]

Words created from Chinese[edit]

These Chinese words below are created in Korea. They are not used in China or Japan or Vietnam.

Word Hangul (RR) Hanja Hanja meaning Ref
letter 편지 (pyeonji) 便紙 "comfortable paper" [10]
kettle 주전자 (jujeonja) 酒煎子 "drink boil" [11]

Words borrowed from Sino-Japanese[edit]

Sino-Korean words borrowed from Sino-Japanese are used only in Korean and Japanese, not in Chinese.[3]

Word Hangul (RR) Hanja Hanja meaning[1] Ref
airplane 비행기 (bihaenggi) 飛行機 "fly go machine" [12]
factory 공장 (gongjang) 工場 "work place" [13]
movie 영화 (yeonghwa) 映畫 "shine picture" [14]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e Sohn, Ho-Min (2006). Korean Language in Culture And Society. University of Hawaii Press. pp. 44–55. ISBN 0824826949. 
  2. ^ a b Choo, Miho (2008). Using Korean: A Guide to Contemporary Usage. Cambridge University Press. pp. 85–92. ISBN 1139471392. 
  3. ^ a b c Lee, Peter H. (2003). A History of Korean Literature. Cambridge University Press. pp. 21–25. ISBN 1139440861. 
  4. ^ a b Byon, Andrew Sangpil (2017). Modern Korean Grammar: A Practical Guide. Taylor & Francis. pp. 3–18. ISBN 1351741292. 
  5. ^ Choo, Miho; O'Grady, William (1996). Handbook of Korean Vocabulary: An Approach to Word Recognition and Comprehension. University of Hawaii Press. pp. ix. ISBN 0824818156. 
  6. ^ "父母". Naver Hanja Dictionary (in Korean). Retrieved 2018-02-19. 
  7. ^ "學生". Naver Hanja Dictionary (in Korean). Retrieved 2018-02-19. 
  8. ^ "太陽". Naver Hanja Dictionary (in Korean). Retrieved 2018-02-19. 
  9. ^ "質問". Naver Hanja Dictionary (in Korean). Retrieved 2018-02-19. 
  10. ^ "便紙". Naver Hanja Dictionary (in Korean). Retrieved 2018-02-19. 
  11. ^ "酒煎子". Naver Hanja Dictionary (in Korean). Retrieved 2018-02-19. 
  12. ^ "飛行機". Naver Hanja Dictionary (in Korean). Retrieved 2018-02-19. 
  13. ^ "工場". Naver Hanja Dictionary (in Korean). Retrieved 2018-02-19. 
  14. ^ "映畫". Naver Hanja Dictionary (in Korean). Retrieved 2018-02-19.