Sino-Korean vocabulary

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This article is about the set of Korean words that had its roots in the hanja. For the Korean use of Sino-ideogram, see hanja.

Sino-Korean or Hanja-eo (Hangul한자어; hanja漢字) refers to the set of words in the Korean language vocabulary that originated from or were influenced by hanja. The Sino-Korean lexicon consists of both words loaned from Chinese and words coined in the Korean language using hanja.

Sino-Korean words are one of the three main types of vocabulary in Korean. The other two are native Korean words and foreign words imported from other languages, mostly from English.[1]

Sino-Korean words today make up about 60% of the Korean vocabulary,[1] though in actual speech (especially informally) native words are more common.[2]

Terms Differences[edit]

Sino-Korean words are derived mainly from literary Chinese, and many from modern Sino-Japanese.

The formulae of (日/月/火/水/木/金/土)+曜日 in Korean and Japanese stem from an ancient Chinese usage in its horoscope, which is now considered obsolete in Modern Chinese.

English Korean
(Hangul)
Korean
(Hanja)
Japanese
(Shinjitai / Kyūjitai)
Mandarin
(Traditional / Simplified)
Note
Hello / Goodbye 안녕
(annyeong)
安寧 お早う
(ohayō)
左様なら
(sayōnara)
你好 (nǐhǎo)
再見 (zàijiàn)
Gunpowder 화약
(hwayak)
火藥 火薬
(kayaku)
火藥 / 火药
(huǒyào)
Tofu 두부
(dubu)
豆腐 豆腐
(tōfu)
豆腐 (dòufu)
Milk 우유
(uyu)
牛乳 牛乳 (gyūnyū) 牛奶 (niúnăi)
Automobile 자동차
(jadongcha)
自動車 自動車
(jidōsha)
汽車 / 汽车
qìchē
(自動 means "automatic, moving on its own in Mandarin.")
President 대통령
(daetongnyeong)
大統領 大統領
(daitōryō)
總統 / 总统
(zǒngtǒng)
Letter 편지
(pyeonji)
便紙
片紙
手紙 (tegami) (xìn)
信函 (xìnhán)
(紙/纸 means paper. , means "letter" in Classical Chinese.)
Tissue 휴지 (hyuji) 休紙 塵紙 (chirigami, chirishi) 衛生紙 (wèishēngzhǐ)
Gift 선물 (seonmul) 膳物 土産 / 土產 (miyage) 禮物 / 礼物 (lǐwù) (土產 / 土产 (tǔchǎn) means "domestic products" in Chinese, often used as gifts.)
Newspaper 신문 (sinmun) 新聞 新聞 (shinbun) 報紙 / 报纸 (bàozhǐ)
報 / (bào)
(新聞 / 新闻 (xīnwén) means simply "news" in modern Chinese.)
Tab / bill (in a restaurant or bar) 외상 (oesang) 外上 勘定 (kanjō) 賬單 / 账单 (zhàngdān)
Dining table 식탁 (siktak) 食卓 食卓 (shokutaku) 餐桌 (cānzhuō) ( (shí) only means "food" in Mandarin, in most other dialects which still retains the meaning from Middle Chinese, it still means "eat". (cān) means "meal(s)" in Modern Chinese. (zhuō, means "outstanding") and (zhuō, means "table") are two different words of different meanings in Modern Chinese.)
Check / cheque 수표 (supyo) 手票 小切手 (kogitte) 支票 (zhīpiào)
Name card, business card 명함 (myeongham) 名銜
名啣
名刺 (meishi) 名片 (míngpiàn)
Doctor 의사 (uisa) 醫師 医師/醫師 (ishi)
医者/醫者 (isha)
醫生 / 医生 (yīshēng)
西醫 / 西医 (xīyī)
大夫 (dàfū)
醫師 / 医师 (yīshī)
中醫師 / 中医师 (zhōngyī shī)
(西醫 / 西医 This is an alternate term for "doctor" which literally means "a doctor who practices Western medicine"), 大夫 (This is the term used for doctors who practiced Traditional Chinese medicine, and the meaning is transferred into "doctor", for anyone who practices medicine), and 醫師 / 医师 is alternately used in some formal circumstances, stemming from 中醫師 / 中医师, a doctor that practices Traditional Chinese Medicine.
Maid 식모 (singmo < sik-mo)
하녀 (hanyeo)
食母
下女
女中 (jochū) 女傭 / 女佣 (nǚyōng)
女僕 / 女仆 (nǚpū)
(下女 (xiànǚ) is the word used in Classical Chinese.)
Prohibit, cancel 휴지 (hyuji)
해지 (haeji)
취소 (chwiso)
休止
解止
取消
禁止 (kinshi)
取消 (torikeshi)
禁止 (jìnzhǐ)
阻止 (zǔzhǐ)
取消 (qǔxiāo)
Study 공부 (Gongbu) 工夫 勉強 (benkyō)
学習 / 學習 (gak(u)shuu)
學習 / 学习 (xuéxí) (勉強 (miǎnqiáng) means "To force someone / oneself do something they're not willing to do" in Chinese)
Airport 공항 (gonghang) 空港 空港 (kūkō) 機場 / 机场 (jīchǎng)
空港 (kōnggǎng)
Airplane 비행기 (bihaenggi) 飛行機 飛行機 (hikōki) 飛機 / 飞机 (fēijī)
Prisoner 수인 (suin) 囚人 囚人 (shuujin) 囚犯 (qiúfàn)
犯人 (fànrén)
Computer 전산기 (jeonsangi)
(←Rarely used)
電算機 電算機 (densanki) 電腦 / 电脑 (diànnǎo)
計算機 / 计算机 (jìsuànjī)
(only 计算机 is only used in Mainland China to mean "computer": 计算 is a direct translation of French "computer" meaning "To calculate", whereas in Hong Kong, Taiwan and all over the world, 電腦 is used to mean "computer":電 means "Electricity"/ "Power" needed to turn on the computer, and 腦, meaning "brain" is used because the way a computer calculates and memorizes is somewhat similar in function to the human brain.)
Introduction 소개 (sogae) 紹介 紹介(shōkai) 介紹 / 介绍 (jièshào)
Case, Situation 경우
(gyeong-u)
境遇 場合
(baai)
境遇 (kyōguu)
状況 / 狀況
(joukyou)
情況
(joukyou)
情形,境遇,場合 / 场合
(One's) Whereabouts 행방 (haengbang) 行方 行方 (yukue) 行踪,去向
Foreign currency 외환 (oehwan) 外換 為替 / 爲替 (kawase) 兌換 / 兑换
Currency exchange 환전 (hwanjeon) 換錢 両替 / 兩替 (ryōgae) 換錢 / 换钱
Promise 약속 (yaksok)
언약 (eonyak)
約束
言約
約束 (yakusoku) 約定 / 约定,承諾 / 承诺 (約束 in modern Chinese means "restriction" and when used carries a negative connotation.)
Bomber (aircraft) 폭격기 (pokgyeokki) 爆擊機 爆撃機 / 爆擊機 (bakugek(i)ki) 轟炸機 / 轰炸机
Company, firm 회사 (hoesa) 會社 会社/會社 (kaisha) 公司
faction 파벌 (pabeol) 派閥 派閥 (habatsu) 派系
Sunday 일요일 (iryoil) 日曜日 日曜日 /
(nichiyōbi)
星期日
週日
(日 means "Day" in Chinese. 太陽, literally translated as "Sun", is the Chinese/Japanese name of Sun.)
Monday 월요일 (woryoil) 月曜日 月曜日 /
(getsuyōbi)
星期一, 週一 (月 means "Moon" in Chinese.)
Tuesday 화요일 (hwayoil) 火曜日 火曜日 /
(kayōbi)
星期二, 週二 (火 means "Fire" in Chinese. 火星, literally translated as "Fire star", is the Chinese/Japanese name of Mars.)
Wednesday 수요일 (suyoil) 水曜日 水曜日 /
(suiyōbi)
星期三, 週三 (水 means "Water" in Chinese. 水星, literally translated as "Water star", is the Chinese/Japanese name of Mercury.)
Thursday 목요일 (mogyoil) 木曜日 木曜日 /
(mokuyōbi)
星期四, 週四 (木 means "Wood" in Chinese. 木星, literally translated as "Wood star", is the Chinese/Japanese name of Jupiter.)
Friday 금요일 (geumyoil) 金曜日 金曜日 /
(kin'yōbi)
星期五,週五 (金 means "Gold" in Chinese. 金星, literally translated as "Gold star", is the Chinese name of Venus. As a last name, 金 is romanized as "Kim" from 김 in Korean pronunciation via whereas 金 for Friday undergoes vowel centralization, as is the case in Cantonese.)
Saturday 토요일 (toyoil) 土曜日 土曜日 /
(doyōbi)
星期六, 週六 (土 means "earth" or "soil" in Chinese. 土星, literally translated as "Soil star", is the Chinese name of Saturn.)
The person in charge (of) 담당자 (damdangja) 擔當者 担当者 / 担當者
(tantōsha)
負責人 / 负责人 (担當/担当 is a synonym to 負責 / 负责 in modern Chinese.)
Movie, film, cinema 영화 (yeonghwa) 映畵 映画/映畫
(eiga)
電影 / 电影 (Movie in Chinese used to be called 映畵戲 / 映画戏, probably a borrowing from the Japanese term + 戲 / 戏 meaning "theater / theatre" )
Support 지원 (jiweon) 支援 支援
(shien)
支援,支持
Drive 운전
(unjeon)
運轉 運転/運轉
(unten)

駕駛 / 驾驶
(jiàshǐ)
運行 / 运行
(yùnxíng)

Constitution 헌법
(heonpeop)
憲法 憲法
(kenpō)
憲法 / 宪法
(xiànfǎ)
Pacific Ocean 태평양
(taepyungyang)
太平洋 太平洋
(taihēyō)
太平洋
(tàipíngyáng)

Native Japanese Words in Sino-Korean Vocabulary[edit]

Some Sino-Korean words derive from Japanese kun'yomi words, that is, native Japanese words written in Chinese characters. When borrowed into Korean, the characters are given Sino-Korean pronunciations. (Note that in Japanese, these words are not considered to belong to the Sino-Japanese part of the vocabulary as they are native Japanese words.) [3]

English Japanese
(Kanji)
Korean
(Hanja)
Korean
(Hangul)
Chinese term
(Cantonese Jyutping / Mandarin Pinyin)
assemble 組立
組み立て
組立 조립 組合 组合
kumi-tate jo.rip zou2hap6 / zǔhé
building 建物 建物 건물 建築物 建筑物
樓宇 楼宇
tate-mono geon.mul gin3zuk1mat6 / jiànzhùwù,
lau4jyu5 / lóuyǔ
discount 割引
割り引き
割引 할인
wari-biki hal.in
estimate 見積
見積り
見積 견적 估計 估计
mi-tsumori gyeon.jeok gu2gai3 / gūjì
handling 取扱
取り扱い
取扱 취급
tori-atsukai chwi.geup
package 小包 小包 소포
ko-dutsumi so.po
match 試合 試合 시합 比賽 比赛
shi-ai si.hap bei2coi3 / bǐsǎi
share of stock 株式 株式 주식 股份
kabu-shiki ju.sik gu2fan6 / gǔfèn
wharf 船着場 船着場 선착장
funa.tsuki.ba seon.chak.jang

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Sohn, Ho-Min. The Korean Language (Section 1.5.3 "Korean vocabulary", p.12-13), Cambridge University Press, 2001. ISBN 0-521-36943-6
  2. ^ Writing and Literacy in Chinese, Korean and Japanese; Insup Taylor, Martin M. Taylor, Maurice Martin Taylor; 1995; John Benjamins Publishing; p.195
  3. ^ Kuiwon (歸源, 귀원) (26 August 2013). "Japanese Kanji-isms in Sino-Korean Words". —歸源 (Kuiwon). Retrieved 31 May 2016.