A collage of Sinop, Turkey. Top left: view of Sinop North Wall, nearby Demirci and Bezirci area; top right: Sinop Fortress and Port of Sinop;
middle right: View of Plaj Yolu, nearby Sinop Anadolu Imam Hatip College from Baris Manco Park;
bottom left: Panorama view of downtown Sinop, from Hippodrome Hill; bottom right: Hamsilos resort area
|• Mayor||Baki Ergül (Republican People's Party, CHP)|
|• Governor||Dr.Yasemin ÖZATA ÇETİNKAYA|
|• District||438.58 km2 (169.34 sq mi)|
|• District density||130/km2 (340/sq mi)|
|Time zone||EET (UTC+2)|
|• Summer (DST)||EEST (UTC+3)|
|Area code(s)||(+90) 368|
Sinop (Greek: Σινώπη, Sinōpē, historically known as Sinope //) is a city with a population of 36,734 on the isthmus of İnce Burun (İnceburun, Cape Ince), near Cape Sinope (Sinop Burnu, Boztepe Cape, Boztepe Burnu) which is situated on the most northern edge of the Turkish side of the Black Sea coast, in the ancient region of Paphlagonia, in modern-day northern Turkey. The city serves as the capital of Sinop Province.
Long used as a Hittite port, which appears in Hittite sources as "Sinuwa", the city proper was re-founded as a Greek colony from the city of Miletus in the 7th century BC. Sinope flourished as the Black Sea port of a caravan route that led from the upper Euphrates valley. It issued its own coinage, founded colonies, and gave its name to a red earth pigment called sinopia, which was mined in Cappadocia for use throughout the ancient world.
Sinope escaped Persian domination until the early 4th century BC. It was ruled by Scydrothemis from 301 to 280 BC. In 183 BC it was captured by Pharnaces I and became capital of the Kingdom of Pontus. The Roman general Lucullus conquered Sinope in 70 BC, and Julius Caesar established a Roman colony there, Colonia Julia Felix, in 47 BC. Mithradates Eupator was born and buried at Sinope, and it was the birthplace of Diogenes, of Diphilus, poet and actor of the New Attic comedy, of the historian Baton, and of the Christian heretic of the 2nd century AD, Marcion.
After the division of the Roman Empire in 395, Sinope remained with the Eastern Roman or Byzantine Empire. Its history in the early Byzantine period is obscure, except for isolated events: it was used by Justinian II as a base from which to reconnoitre Cherson, participated in the rebellion of the Armeniac Theme in 793, was the site of Theophobos' proclamation as emperor by his Khurramite troops in 838, and suffered its only attack by the Arabs in 858.
In 1081, the city was captured by the Seljuk Turks, who found there a sizeable treasury, but Sinope was soon recovered by Alexios I Komnenos, ushering a period of prosperity under the Komnenian dynasty. After the sacking of Constantinople by the Fourth Crusade in 1204, it was captured for the Empire of Trebizond by David Komnenos, until the Seljuk Turks of Rûm successfully captured the city in 1214. The city returned briefly to Trapezuntine rule in 1254, but returned to Turkish control in 1265, where it has remained since.
After 1265, Sinop became home to two successive independent emirates following the fall of the Seljuks: the Pervâne and the Jandarids. The Ottoman Sultan Mehmet II overawed Ismail, the emir of Sinope on his march on Trebizond, and forced him to surrender the city to the Sultan late June 1461 without a fight. The emir was exiled to Philippopolis (modern Plovdiv) in northern Thrace.
In November 1853, at the start of the Crimean War, in the Battle of Sinop, the Russians, under the command of Admiral Nakhimov, destroyed an Ottoman frigate squadron in Sinop, leading Britain and France to declare war on Russia.
As of 1920, Sinop was described as populated mainly by Greeks with an approximate population of 8,000. It was also considered the "safest" port "between Bosphorus and Batum," at the time. During this period, the port was exporting wheat, tobacco, seeds, timber and hides. They imported produce, coal and hardware.
Sinop hosted a US military base that was important for intelligence during the cold war era. The US base was closed in 1992.
Explorer Bob Ballard discovered an ancient ship wreck north west of Sinop in the Black Sea and was shown on National Geographic.
Sinop has warm and humid summers with an average daytime high of 26 °C (78.8 °F) however temperatures rarely exceed 30 °C (86 °F). The highest recorded temperature for Sinop was 34.4 °C (93.92 °F) on 6 July 2000. The winters are cool and wet. The average for winter ranging around 5 °C (41 °F). The lowest recorded temperature for Sinop was -7.5 °C (18.5 °F) on 21 February 1985. Snowfall is quite common between the months of December and March, snowing for a week or two.
|Climate data for Sinop|
|Average high °C (°F)||9.7
|Daily mean °C (°F)||6.9
|Average low °C (°F)||4.6
|Average precipitation mm (inches)||73.6
|Average rainy days||15.5||13.4||13.3||11.6||10.3||8.2||5.5||6.3||9.1||12.2||13.1||15.8||134.3|
|Average relative humidity (%)||68||68||73||75||76||74||74||67||71||71||68||68||71.1|
|Mean monthly sunshine hours||71.3||86.8||127.1||153||207.7||264||291.4||263.5||207||145.7||96||68.2||1,981.7|
|Source #1: Sinop Turkish State Meteorological Service|
|Source #2: Weatherbase |
As of 1920, Sinop was producing embroidered cotton cloth. They also were known for boatbuilding. The British described the boats produced in Sinop as being of "primitive design but sound workmanship."
Sinop is currently slated to be the site of the Sinop Nuclear Power Plant, a $15.8 billion nuclear power plant being developed by Elektrik Üretim, Engie, Mitsubishi Heavy Industries and Itochu. The plant will consist of four reactors, with construction to begin as early as 2017 and completion by 2028.
Cultural and other attractions
Pasha Bastion (Turkish: Paşa Tabyası) is a half-moon coastal bastion, a semi-circular fortification, situated southeast of Sinop Peninsula. It was constructed to protect the city against attacks coming from the Black Sea during the Russo-Turkish War, Crimean War (1853–1856). It features an artillery battery of eleven cannons, an arsenal and basement. Today, it is used as a place for refreshments premise.
Historic Water Tunnel (Turkish: Tarihi Su Kanalı) is an ancient underground water supply channel situated at Sülüklü Göl (literally: Lake of Leeches. Dug in rock, it is about 230 m (750 ft) long and has a clearance of 1.50 m (4.9 ft). There exists a 20–30 m (66–98 ft) high cylindrical ventilation shaft of 1.50 metres (4 ft 11 in) diameter.
Balatlar Church (Turkish: Balatlar Kilisesi) is a ruined church from the Byzantine Empire period. It is partly preserved as only the chapel vault is in undamaged condition while other parts of the church have no roof any more. Fresco paintings on the chapel's ceiling and on the nave walls are still intact.
Pervane Medrese is a former Islamic religious school, which was closed down after the proclamation of the Republic. The 13th-century building was used as a depot for archaeological artifacts and ethnographic items from 1932 on, and served as a museum between 1941 and 1970. It hosts souvenir shops today.
Sinop Fortress (Turkish: Sinop Kalesi) is a fortification surrounding the peninsula and the isthmus of Sinop. It was built initially by migrants from Miletus in the 8th century BC. The fortress underwent reparation and expansion to its current extent during the reign of King Mithridates IV of Pontus in the 2nd century BC after its destruction by the Cimmerians in the 7th century BC. Some parts of the foftress, especially the north walls, are ruined.
Sinop Fortress Prison (Turkish: Sinop Tarihi Cezaevi) is a defunct state prison situated inside the Sinop Fortress. Served between 1887 and 1997, the prison rose to fame when it featured in many literature works of notable aıthors, who were inmates of the prison for political reasons. It became also a shooting set for many movies and television series. It is a prison museum today.
Sinop Archaeological Museum (Turkish: Sinop Arkeoloji Müzesi) is a 1941-established archaeological museum exhibiting artifacts datng back to Early Bronze Age and from the Hellenistic, Roman, Byzantine, Seljuk and Ottaman periods as well.
- Aquila of Sinope (2nd century), Bible translator
- Diogenes of Sinope (412 or 404 BC–323 BC), philosopher
- Diphilus (4th century BC), Middle Comedy playwright
- Gazi Chelebi (14th century), naval commander
- İsfendiyar Bey of the Candar beylik
- Marcion of Sinope (ca. 85–160), heretic
- Mithridates VI of Pontus (134 BC–63 BC), king of Pontus
- Saint Helen of Sinope (18th century)
- Seydi Ali Reis, Ottoman admiral, writer and scientist, was born into a family who was originally from Sinop.
- Rıza Nur (1879–1942), politician
- Ahmet Muhip Dıranas (1909–1980), poet
- Necmettin Erbakan (1926–2011), former prime minister
- Patriarch Maximus V of Constantinople (1897–1972), Ecumenical Patriarch of Constantinople
- Osman Pamukoğlu (1947–), politician
- Metin Tuğlu (1984–), footballer
- Hakan Ünsal (1973–), footballer
- Sinan Uzun (1990–), footballer
Sinope has given its name to the outermost satellite of Jupiter. A crater on Mars is named after Sinop.
Sinop has ten sister cities:
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- J. Garstang, The Hittite Empire, p. 74
- Xenophon, Anabasis 6.1.15; Diodorus Siculus 14.31.2; Strabo 12.545
- Herodotus 1.72; 2.34
- Thompson, Daniel V. (1956). The Materials and Techniques of Medieval Painting. New York: Dover Publications. ISBN 0-486-20327-1.
- Foss, Clive (1991). "Sinope". In Kazhdan, Alexander. The Oxford Dictionary of Byzantium. Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press. p. 1904. ISBN 978-0-19-504652-6.
- Vasiliev, V. V. (1936). "The Foundation of the Empire of Trebizond (1204-1222)". Speculum. pp. 26–29. JSTOR 2846872.
- Runciman, Steven (1969). The Fall of Constantinople. London: Cambridge. p. 174.
- Prothero, G. W. (1920). Anatolia. London: H.M. Stationery Office.
- Prothero, G. W. (1920). Anatolia. London: H.M. Stationery Office. p. 112.
- "2 Japanese companies aim to fund 30% of Turkish nuclear project". Nikkei Asian Review. Nikkei. 8 June 2015. Retrieved 9 June 2015.
- "Sinop". karalahana.com.
- "About Sinop". karalahana.com.
- "Gezilecek Yerler" (in Turkish). Sinop Arkeoloji Müzesi. Retrieved 2016-07-14.
- "Sinop Tarihi Cezaevi" (in Turkish). Kültür ve Turizm Bakanlığı – Müze. Retrieved 2016-07-15.
- "Camiler ve Medreseler" (in Turkish). Sinop Valiliği - İl Kültür ve Turizm Müdürlüğü. Retrieved 2016-07-15.
- "Kaleler" (in Turkish). Sinop Valiliği - İl Kültür ve Turizm Müdürlüğü. Retrieved 2016-07-15.
- "Sinop Tarihi Cezaevi" (in Turkish). Sinop Arkeoloji Müzesi. Retrieved 2016-07-14.
- "Sinop Arkeoloji Müzesi" (in Turkish). Sinop Valiliği – İl Küştür ve Turizm Müdürlüğü. Retrieved 2016-07-15.
- "Sinop Etnoğrafya Müzesi" (in Turkish). Sinop Arkeoloji Müzesi. Retrieved 2016-07-14.
- "Diyojen" (in Turkish). Rota Senin. Retrieved 2016-07-15.
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- Official website
- Sinope (Sinop)
- John Garstang, The Hittite Empire, Being a Survey of the History, Geography and Monuments of Hittite Asia Minor and Syria (London: Constable and Company Ltd, 1929).
- turkey travel guide, tourist spot in sinop (Turista Travel, since 2001)
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