Sinorhizobium meliloti

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Sinorhizobium meliloti
Sinorhizobium meliloti strain Rm1021 on TY agar.JPG
Sinorhizobium meliloti strain Rm1021 on an agar plate.
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Bacteria
Phylum: Proteobacteria
Class: Alpha Proteobacteria
Order: Rhizobiales
Family: Rhizobiaceae
Genus: Sinorhizobium
Species: S. meliloti
Binomial name
Sinorhizobium meliloti
(Dangeard 1926) De Lajudie et al. 1994, comb. nov.
Type strain
ATCC 9930

CCUG 27879
CFBP 5561
CIP 107332
DSM 30135
HAMBI 2148
IAM 12611
ICMP 12623
IFO 14782
JCM 20682
LMG 6133
NBRC 14782
NCAIM B.01520
NCIMB 12075
NRRL L-45
NZP 4027
OUT 30010
USDA 1002

biovars
  • S. m. bv. acaciae[1]
  • S. m. bv. ciceri[2][3]
  • S. m. bv. lancerottense[4]
  • S. m. bv. medicaginis[5]
  • S. m. bv. mediterranense[6]
  • S. m. bv. meliloti
  • S. m. bv. rigiduloides[7]
  • S. m. ecotype NRR[8]
Synonyms
  • Rhizobium meliloti Dangeard 1926
  • Ensifer meliloti (Dangeard 1926) Young 2003

Sinorhizobium meliloti is a Gram-negative bacteria which fixes atmospheric nitrogen. It forms a symbiotic relationship with legumes from the genera Medicago, Melilotus and Trigonella, including the model legume Medicago truncatula. This symbiosis results in a new plant organ termed a root nodule and is deemed symbiotic as it leaves excess nitrogen behind for the plant. S. meliloti are mobile and possess a cluster of peritrichous flagella. The S. meliloti genome contains four genes coding for flagellin. These include fliC1C2–fliC3C4.[9] The genome contains three replicons: a chromosome (~3.7 megabases), and two megaplasmids pSymB (~1.7 megabases), and pSymA (~1.4 megabases). Five S. meliloti genomes have been sequenced to date: Rm1021,[10] AK83,[11] BL225C,[11] Rm41,[12] and SM11[13] with 1021 considered to be the wild type.

Nitrogen fixation by S meliloti is interfered with by the plastic modifier bisphenol A.[14]

Symbiosis[edit]

Indeterminate nodule

Symbosis by S. meliloti is conferred by genes residing on pSymA.[15] Once infiltrating the nodule, the bacteria undergoes indeterminate nodulation with plants such as those in the genus Medicago. This is symbiotic relationship is not fully understood as it seems to be detrimental to the bacteria as once they are inside root nodules they become terminally differentiated into bacteroids and lose the ability to reproduce independently in the soil environment.[16]

Symbosis between S. meliloti and its plant hosts begins when the plant secretes an array of betaines and flavonoids into the rhizosphere: 4,4′-dihydroxy-2′-methoxychalcone,[17] chrysoeriol,[18] cynaroside,[18] 4′,7-dihydroxyflavone,[17] 6′′-O-malonylononin,[19] liquiritigenin,[17] luteolin,[20] 3′,5-dimethoxyluteolin,[18] 5-methoxyluteolin,[18] medicarpin,[19] stachydrine,[21] and trigonelline.[21] These compounds attract S. meliloti to the surface of the root hairs of the plant where the bacteria begin secreting nod factor.

Bacteriophage[edit]

Plaques in S. meliloti caused by ΦM12.

Several bacteriophages that infect Sinorhizobium meliloti have been described:[22] Φ1,[23] Φ1A,[24] Φ2A,[24] Φ3A,[25] Φ4 (=ΦNM8),[26] Φ5t (=ΦNM3),[26] Φ6 (=ΦNM4),[26] Φ7 (=ΦNM9),[26] Φ7a,[23] Φ9 (=ΦCM2),[26] Φ11 (=ΦCM9),[26] Φ12 (=ΦCM6),[26] Φ13,[27] Φ16,[27] Φ16-3,[28] Φ16a,[27] Φ16B,[25] Φ27,[23] Φ32,[28] Φ36,[28] Φ38,[28] Φ43,[23] Φ70,[23] Φ72,[28] Φ111,[28] Φ143,[28] Φ145,[28] Φ147,[28] Φ151,[28] Φ152,[28] Φ160,[28] Φ161,[28] Φ166,[28] Φ2011,[29] ΦA3,[23] ΦA8,[23] ΦA161,[29] ΦAL1,[30] ΦCM1,[29] ΦCM3,[29] ΦCM4,[29] ΦCM5,[29] ΦCM7,[29] ΦCM8,[29] ΦCM20,[29] ΦCM21,[29] ΦDF2,[30] Φf2D,[30] ΦF4,[31] ΦFAR,[30] ΦFM1,[29] ΦK1,[32] ΦL1,[27] ΦL3,[27] ΦL5,[27] ΦL7,[27] ΦL10,[27] ΦL20,[27] ΦL21,[27] ΦL29,[27] ΦL31,[27] ΦL32,[27] ΦL53,[27] ΦL54,[27] ΦL55,[27] ΦL56,[27] ΦL57,[27] ΦL60,[27] ΦL61,[27] ΦL62,[27] ΦLO0,[30] ΦLS5B,[29] ΦM1,[22][33] ΦM1,[22][34] ΦM1-5,[29] ΦM2,[35] ΦM3,[23] ΦM4,[23] ΦM5,[22][23] [36] ΦM5 (=ΦF20),[22][33] ΦM5N1,[29] ΦM6,[33] ΦM7,[33] ΦM8,[35] ΦM9,[33] ΦM10,[33] ΦM11,[33] ΦM11S,[29] ΦM12,[33] [37]ΦM14,[33] ΦM14S,[29] ΦM19,[38] ΦM20S,[29][39] ΦM23S,[29] ΦM26S,[29] ΦM27S,[29] ΦMl,[40] ΦMM1C,[29] ΦMM1H,[29] ΦMP1,[41] ΦMP2,[41] ΦMP3,[41] ΦMP4,[41] ΦN2,[23] ΦN3,[23] ΦN4,[23] ΦN9,[23] ΦNM1,[29][39] ΦNM2,[29][39] ΦNM6,[29][39] ΦNM7,[29][39] ΦP6,[31] ΦP10,[31] ΦP33,[31] ΦP45,[31] ΦPBC5,[42] ΦRm108,[43] ΦRmp26,[44] ΦRmp36,[44] ΦRmp38,[44] ΦRmp46,[44] ΦRmp50,[44] ΦRmp52,[44] ΦRmp61,[44] ΦRmp64,[44] ΦRmp67,[44] ΦRmp79,[44] ΦRmp80,[44] ΦRmp85,[44] ΦRmp86,[44] ΦRmp88,[44] ΦRmp90,[44] ΦRmp145,[44] ΦSP,[23] ΦSSSS304,[45] ΦSSSS305,[45] ΦSSSS307,[45] ΦSSSS308,[45] and ΦT1.[23] Of these, ΦM5[36], ΦM12[37], Φ16-3[46] and ΦPBC5[42] have been sequenced.

References[edit]

  1. ^ Ba S, Willems A, de Lajudie P, Roche P, Jeder H, Quatrini P, Neyra M, Ferro M, Promé JC, Gillis M, Boivin-Masson C, Lorquin J (April 2002). "Symbiotic and taxonomic diversity of rhizobia isolated from Acacia tortilis subsp. raddiana in Africa". Systematic and Applied Microbiology. 25 (1): 130–45. doi:10.1078/0723-2020-00091. PMID 12086180. 
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  3. ^ Rogel MA, Ormeño-Orrillo E, Martinez Romero E (April 2011). "Symbiovars in rhizobia reflect bacterial adaptation to legumes". Systematic and Applied Microbiology. 34 (2): 96–104. doi:10.1016/j.syapm.2010.11.015. PMID 21306854. 
  4. ^ León-Barrios M, Lorite MJ, Donate-Correa J, Sanjuán J (September 2009). "Ensifer meliloti bv. lancerottense establishes nitrogen-fixing symbiosis with Lotus endemic to the Canary Islands and shows distinctive symbiotic genotypes and host range". Systematic and Applied Microbiology. 32 (6): 413–20. doi:10.1016/j.syapm.2009.04.003. PMID 19477097. 
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  7. ^ Gubry-Rangin C, Béna G, Cleyet-Marel JC, Brunel B (October 2013). "Definition and evolution of a new symbiovar, sv. rigiduloides, among Ensifer meliloti efficiently nodulating Medicago species". Systematic and Applied Microbiology. 36 (7): 490–6. doi:10.1016/j.syapm.2013.06.004. PMID 23871297. 
  8. ^ Bailly X, Olivieri I, Brunel B, Cleyet-Marel JC, Béna G (July 2007). "Horizontal gene transfer and homologous recombination drive the evolution of the nitrogen-fixing symbionts of Medicago species". Journal of Bacteriology. 189 (14): 5223–36. doi:10.1128/JB.00105-07. PMC 1951869Freely accessible. PMID 17496100. 
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  12. ^ The sequence hasn't been officially announced, but is available at NCBI: chromosome, pSymA, pSymB, and pRM41a.
  13. ^ Schneiker-Bekel S, Wibberg D, Bekel T, Blom J, Linke B, Neuweger H, Stiens M, Vorhölter FJ, Weidner S, Goesmann A, Pühler A, Schlüter A (August 2011). "The complete genome sequence of the dominant Sinorhizobium meliloti field isolate SM11 extends the S. meliloti pan-genome". Journal of Biotechnology. 155 (1): 20–33. doi:10.1016/j.jbiotec.2010.12.018. PMID 21396969. 
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  16. ^ Checcucci A, Azzarello E, Bazzicalupo M, Galardini M, Lagomarsino A, Mancuso S, Marti L, Marzano MC, Mocali S, Squartini A, Zanardo M, Mengoni A (2016-06-13). "Mixed Nodule Infection in Sinorhizobium meliloti-Medicago sativa Symbiosis Suggest the Presence of Cheating Behavior". Frontiers in Plant Science. 7: 835. doi:10.3389/fpls.2016.00835. PMC 4904023Freely accessible. PMID 27379128. 
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  19. ^ a b Dakora FD, Joseph CM, Phillips DA (March 1993). "Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) Root Exudates Contain Isoflavonoids in the Presence of Rhizobium meliloti". Plant Physiology. 101 (3): 819–824. doi:10.1104/pp.101.3.819. PMC 158695Freely accessible. PMID 12231731. 
  20. ^ Peters NK, Frost JW, Long SR (August 1986). "A plant flavone, luteolin, induces expression of Rhizobium meliloti nodulation genes". Science. 233 (4767): 977–80. Bibcode:1986Sci...233..977P. doi:10.1126/science.3738520. PMID 3738520. 
  21. ^ a b Phillips DA, Joseph CM, Maxwell CA (August 1992). "Trigonelline and Stachydrine Released from Alfalfa Seeds Activate NodD2 Protein in Rhizobium meliloti". Plant Physiology. 99 (4): 1526–31. doi:10.1104/pp.99.4.1526. PMC 1080658Freely accessible. PMID 16669069. 
  22. ^ a b c d e Systematic naming of bacteriophages is rarely followed in the scientific literature. Thus, a variety of phages end up sharing the same name. So, while there exists an RNA phage called ΦM12, which infects enterobacteria, it is not synonymous with the DNA phage ΦM12 listed here. The same may be true for other phages in this list. It should also be noted that within this list two phages have independently been named ΦM5.
  23. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p Lesley SM (1982). "A bacteriophage typing system for Rhizobium meliloti". Canadian Journal of Microbiology. 28 (2): 180–189. doi:10.1139/m82-024. 
  24. ^ a b Singh RB, Dhar B, Singh BD (1986). "Morphology and general characteristics of viruses active against cowpea Rhizobium CB756 and 32H1". Archives of Virology. 64 (1): 17–24. doi:10.1002/jobm.3620270309. PMID 7377972. 
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  28. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n Szende K, Ördögh F (1960). "Die Lysogenie von Rhizobium meliloti". Naturwissenschaften. 47 (17): 404–405. Bibcode:1960NW.....47..404S. doi:10.1007/BF00631269. 
    The full genome of this phage is available at NCBI
  29. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z Werquin M, Ackermann HW, Levesque RC (January 1988). "A Study of 33 Bacteriophages of Rhizobium meliloti". Applied and Environmental Microbiology. 54 (1): 188–196. PMC 202420Freely accessible. PMID 16347525. 
  30. ^ a b c d e Corral E, Montoya E, Olivares J (1978). "Sensitivity to phages in Rhizobium meliloti as a plasmid consequence". Microbios Letters. 5: 77–80. 
  31. ^ a b c d e Kowalski M, Małek W, Czopska-Dolecka J, Szlachetka M (2004). "The effect of rhizobiophages on Sinorhizobium melilotiMedicago sativa symbiosis". Biology and Fertility of Soils. 39 (4): 292–294. doi:10.1007/s00374-004-0721-y. 
  32. ^ Wdowiak S, Małek W, Grzadka M (February 2000). "Morphology and general characteristics of phages specific for Astragalus cicer rhizobia". Current Microbiology. 40 (2): 110–3. doi:10.1007/s002849910021. PMID 10594224. 
  33. ^ a b c d e f g h i Finan TM, Hartweig E, LeMieux K, Bergman K, Walker GC, Signer ER (July 1984). "General transduction in Rhizobium meliloti". Journal of Bacteriology. 159 (1): 120–4. PMC 215601Freely accessible. PMID 6330024. 
  34. ^ Małek W (1990). "Properties of the transducing phage M1 of Rhizobium meliloti". Journal of Basic Microbiology. 30 (1): 43–50. doi:10.1002/jobm.3620300114. 
  35. ^ a b Johansen E, Finan TM, Gefter ML, Signer ER (October 1984). "Monoclonal antibodies to Rhizobium meliloti and surface mutants insensitive to them". Journal of Bacteriology. 160 (1): 454–7. PMC 214744Freely accessible. PMID 6480561. 
  36. ^ a b Johnson MC, Sena-Veleza M, Washburn BK, Platta GN, Lua S, Brewer TE, Lynna JS, Stroupe ME, Jones KM (December 2017). "Structure, proteome and genome of Sinorhizobium meliloti phage ΦM5: A virus with LUZ24-like morphology and a highly mosaic genome". Journal of Structural Biology. 200 (3): 343–359. doi:10.1016/j.jsb.2017.08.005Freely accessible. 
  37. ^ a b Brewer Tess E, Elizabeth Stroupe M, Jones Kathryn M (Dec 25, 2013). "The genome, proteome and phylogenetic analysis of Sinorhizobium meliloti phage ΦM12, the founder of a new group of T4-superfamily phages". Virology: 84–97. PMID 24503070. 
  38. ^ Campbell GR, Reuhs BL, Walker GC (October 1998). "Different phenotypic classes of Sinorhizobium meliloti mutants defective in synthesis of K antigen". Journal of Bacteriology. 180 (20): 5432–6. PMC 107593Freely accessible. PMID 9765576. 
  39. ^ a b c d e Werquin M, Ackermann HW, Levesque RC (1989). "Characteristics and comparative study of five Rhizobium meliloti bacteriophages". Current Microbiol. 18 (5): 307–311. doi:10.1007/BF01575946. 
  40. ^ Małek W (1990). "Properties of the transducing phage Ml of Rhizobium meliloti". Journal of Basic Microbiology. 30 (1): 43–50. doi:10.1002/jobm.3620300114. 
  41. ^ a b c d Martin MO, Long SR (July 1984). "Generalized transduction in Rhizobium meliloti". Journal of Bacteriology. 159 (1): 125–9. PMC 215602Freely accessible. PMID 6330025. 
  42. ^ a b This phage has never been formally reported in the scientific literature. However, the full genomic sequence has been uploaded to NCBI, available here.
  43. ^ Novikova NI, Bazenova OV, Simarov BV (1987). "Phage sensitivity of natural and mutant strains of alfalfa nodule bacteria differing by cultural and symbiotic properties. (Summary in English)". Agric. Biol. 2: 35–39. 
  44. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p Khanuja SP, Kumar S (1989). "Symbiotic and galactose utilization properties of phage RMP64-resistant mutants affecting three complementation groups in Rhizobium meliloti". Journal of Genetics. 68 (2): 93–108. doi:10.1007/BF02927852. 
  45. ^ a b c d Sharma RS, Mishra V, Mohmmed A, Babu CR (April 2008). "Phage specificity and lipopolysaccarides of stem- and root-nodulating bacteria (Azorhizobium caulinodans, Sinorhizobium spp., and Rhizobium spp.) of Sesbania spp". Archives of Microbiology. 189 (4): 411–8. doi:10.1007/s00203-007-0322-x. PMID 17989956. 
  46. ^ Φ16-3 Complete Genome

External links[edit]

Further reading[edit]