Sinte Romani

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Sinte Romani
Romani, Sinte, Romany, Manuche, Manouche, Ziguener, Sintí, Tsigane, Rommanes, Sinte, Sinti, Zigeuner, European Romany
Native toGermany, France, Austria, Serbia, Croatia, Czech Republic, Netherlands, Northern Italy
EthnicitySinti
Native speakers
195,200 (2000–2014)[1]
DialectsLallere, Kranaria, Manouche, Gadschkene, Manuche, Praistiki, Estracharia, Slovenian-Croatian, Slovenian-Croatian Romani, Abbruzzesi, Eftawagaria, Krantiki, Piedmont Sintí, Serbian Romani
Language codes
ISO 639-3rmo
Glottologsint1235[2]

Sinte Romani (also known as Sintenghero Tschib(en), Sintitikes or Romanes /ˈrɒmənɪs/[3]) is the variety of Romani spoken by the Sinti people in Germany, France, Austria, some parts of northern Italy and other adjacent regions. It is characterized by significant German influence and is not mutually intelligible with other forms of Romani.[4] Romani is sometimes written as Romany (often in English) but native speaking people use the word Romani for the language.[5] The language is written in Latin script and is included in Indo-European, Indo-Aryan and Indo-Iranian language groups.[6]

Overview[edit]

Sinte or Sinti Romani is often known as the language of the Gypsies, a generally derogatory term used to describe the Romani people. Romani has derived from řom, the historical self-designation of speakers of the language.[5] Gypsies were known for being nomadic and free spirited, but today only a small percent of Romani people are unsettled due to forced assimilation and other government. Most Romani people speak more than Sinte Romani, they also usually speak the language of the country they live in. Sinte Romani is mostly spoken in Europe, evenly spread among Germany, Switzerland, Serbia, and France.

Sample vocabulary[edit]

Here is a list of some Romani to English words:[7]

Word Meaning Notes
Ale but Fr. Slavic
Ando foro into town
Bal hair Cf. Skr. Vadra, Hindi bara
Besh! sit!
Binak twin
Bogacha baked flour bread
Bori daughter-in-law Pl. boria
Chey girl/daughter
Dad, Dat father
Day mother
Glas voice Fr. Slavic
Kan ear Cf. Skr. khan, Hindi khan
Kish silk European/Welsh Romani; fr. Persian
Love money
Manch cheer up Fr. Romanian
Mom wax Fr. Persian
Patrin leaf/road sign/marking Non-Polish
Phal brother Welsh Romani
Prastlo dishonoured Sinti
Raya landowners Lovara
Shon moon
Stanya stable Fr. Slavic
Tacho true Welsh Romani

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Sinte Romani at Ethnologue (19th ed., 2016)
  2. ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Sinte Romani". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.
  3. ^ "Romanes" entry in Collins English Dictionary.
  4. ^ "International Encyclopedia of Linguistics: AAVE - Esperanto". Oxford University Press. 14 March 2018 – via Google Books.
  5. ^ a b Bakkar, Peter (2000). What is the Romani Language?. University of Hertfordshire Press.
  6. ^ "Romani, Sinte". Ethnologue, Languages of the World. Retrieved 15 March 2014.
  7. ^ "Romani-English Glossary". 2.arnes.si. Retrieved 15 December 2017.

Sources[edit]

  • Daniel Holzinger, Das Romanes. Grammatik und Diskursanalyse der Sprache der Sinte, Innsbruck 1993
  • Norbert Boretzky/Birgit Igla, Kommentierter Dialektatlas des Romani, Teil 1, Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz, 2004

Further reading[edit]

  • Acton, T. A., & Mundy, G. (1997). Romani culture and Gypsy identity. Hatfield: University of Hertfordshire.
  • Bakker, P., & Kuchukov, K. (2000). What is the Romani language? Paris: Centre de recherches tsiganes.
  • Gilbert, J. (2014). Nomadic peoples and human rights. New York, NY: Routledge.
  • Guy, W. (2001). Between past and future: The Roma of Central and Eastern Europe. Hatfield: University of Hertfordshire Press.
  • Matras, Y. (1999). "Writing Romani: The pragmatics of codification in a stateless language". Applied Linguistics. 20 (4): 481–502. doi:10.1093/applin/20.4.481.
  • Matras, Y. (2002). Romani: A linguistic introduction. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  • Matras, Y. (2010). Romani in Britain: The afterlife of a language. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press.
  • Saul, N., & Tebbutt, S. (2004). The role of the Romanies: Images and counter-images of "Gypsies"/Romanies in European cultures. Liverpool: Liverpool University Press.
  • Smith, T. (1997). "Recognising Difference: The Romani 'Gypsy' Child Socialisation and Education Process. British". Journal of Sociology of Education. 18 (2): 243–256. doi:10.1080/0142569970180207. JSTOR 1393193.
  • Wells, R. S.; Yuldasheva, N.; Ruzibakiev, R.; et al. (August 2001). "The Eurasian heartland: a continental perspective on Y-chromosome diversity". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 98: 10244–49. doi:10.1073/pnas.171305098. PMC 56946. PMID 11526236.

External links[edit]