|• Executive||Conseil municipal
with 15 members
|• Mayor||Président (list)
Marcel Maurer FDP/PRD/PLR
(as of February 2014)
|• Parliament||Conseil général
with 60 members
|• Total||29.76 km2 (11.49 sq mi)|
|Elevation||500 m (1,600 ft)|
|Population (Dec 2013)|
|• Density||1,100/km2 (2,900/sq mi)|
|Surrounded by||Ayent, Conthey, Grimisuat, Grône, Les Agettes, Nax, Nendaz, Saint-Léonard, Salins, Savièse, Vernamiège, Vex|
Sion (German: Sitten; Italian: Seduno; Latin Sedunum) is the capital of the Swiss canton of Valais. As of December 2013[update] it had a population of 32,797. On 17 January 1968 the former municipality of Bramois merged into the municipality of Sion. On 1 January 2013 the former municipality of Salins merged into the municipality of Sion.
- 1 History
- 2 Geography
- 3 Coat of arms
- 4 Demographics
- 5 Historic Population
- 6 Politics
- 7 Economy
- 8 Heritage sites of national significance
- 9 Airshows
- 10 Sport
- 11 Media
- 12 Education
- 13 Transport
- 14 Religion
- 15 Notable people
- 16 Twin towns
- 17 References
- 18 External links
Sion is one of the most important pre-historic sites in Europe. The alluvial fan of Sionne, the rocky slopes above the river and, to a lesser extent, Valeria and Tourbillon hills have been settled nearly continuously since antiquity. The oldest trace of human settlement comes from 6200 BC during the late Mesolithic. Around 5800 BC early Neolithic farmers from the Mediterranean settled in Sion. The settlements remained small until about 4500 BC, during the middle Neolithic, when the number of settlements increased sharply. To support the population increase, farming and grazing spread throughout the valley. They also began burying their dead in Chablandes-type stone burial cists with engraved anthropomorphic stelae. The individual graves changed at the beginning of the third Millennium BC in large, dry stone wall communal tombs (such as the Dolmen of Le Petit-Chasseur). During the Beaker culture period in the second half of the third Millennium, dolmens were built once again, but they were smaller and had no podium. Stelae continued to be carved, though these were rich with geometric patterns and sometimes built out of old dolmen. At the beginning of the Early Bronze Age (around 2300 BC) the last stelae were erected.
The early settlements have been well documented. There are huts from the middle Neolithic period found near Le Petit Chasseur and under Ritz Avenue. Late Neolithic sites have been found at Bramois and the early Early Bronze Age site is at Le Petit Chasseur. The Middle Bronze Age, however, is poorly documented. From the subsequent epochs, the great necropolis of Don Bosco (the "aristocrat" tumulus of the Late Bronze Age and Iron Age) and the necropolis of Sous-le-Scex from the La Tène culture.
Celtic and Roman town
At the end of the first century BC, Sion was the capital of the Seduni, one of the four Celtic tribes of the Valais. Julius Caesar mentions them as Nantuates Sednnos Veragrosque. They were conquered by the Romans in the second decade BC. By 8-7 BC, Emperor Augustus praised the tribe (civitas) of Seduner with an inscription. The town-hall is said to contain several Roman inscriptions, one of which found at Sion commemorates the Roman presence: Civitas Sedunorum Patrono. Under the Romans it was known as Sedunum.
The Roman settlement stretched mainly from what is now St. Theodul, between the Sionne and to the west side of the hill, Valeria. Under the church, a large bath complex was discovered and partially excavated. Near La Sitterie, Sous-le-Scex and in the upper part of the Avenue du Petit Chasseur, portions of several villae suburbana were found. In the first Century AD, the Claudii Vallensium Forum, in what is now Martigny, became the capital of the civitas Vallensium. Sedunum lost political importance, but still remained the home of many notable families. Grave stelae attest to the presence of duumviri (magistrates of the civitas), of flamines (priest of the imperial cult), a Roman knight and a former consuls in the town. In the 4th Century Praesides (provincial governors) are mentioned living in Sedunum, including a man named Pontius Asclepiodotus, who rebuilt an imperial building and, according to an inscription, converted to Christianity in 377.
Seat of a Catholic bishop
The Roman Catholic diocese of Sion is the oldest in Switzerland and one of the oldest north of the Alps. At first the see was sited at Octodurum, now called Martigny/Martinach. The first authentically historical bishop was Saint Theodore/Theodolus (died in 391), who was present at the Council of Aquileia in 381. He founded the Abbey of Saint-Maurice, with a small church in honor of Saint Maurice, martyred there ca. 300, when he united the local hermits in a common life, thus beginning the Abbey of Saint-Maurice, the oldest north of the Alps. Theodore rebuilt the church at Sion, which had been destroyed by Emperor Maximinus at the beginning of the fourth century. At first the new diocese was a suffragan of the archdiocese of Vienne; later it became suffragan of Tarentaise.
In 589 the bishop, St. Heliodorus, transferred the see to Sion, leaving the low-lying, flood-prone site of Octodurum, where the Drance joins the Rhône. Though frequently the early bishops were also abbots of Saint-Maurice, the monastic community was jealously watchful that the bishops should not extend their jurisdiction over the abbey. Several of the bishops united both offices: Wilcharius (764-780), previously Archbishop of Vienne, whence he had been driven by the Moors; St. Alteus, who received from the pope a bull of exemption in favor of the monastery (780); Aimo II, son of Count Humbert I of Savoy, who entertained Leo IX at Saint-Maurice in 1049.
The first cathedral is probably from the 6th Century. It was halfway up the hill, where later the church of St. Peter stood, until the 19th Century when that church was demolished.
The fortunes of the city grew when the bishop settled there. In 999, King Rudolph III of Burgundy granted the entire County of Valais to the Bishop, and Sion became the capital of this County. The Prince-Bishop had the rights of high and low justice, the right to his own regalia and to appoint his own vassals. The residents of Sion were ruled by three appointees of the Bishop, the maior, the vice dominus or Viztum and the salterus.
As a result of the decline of the feudal social order and thanks to privileges and concessions granted by the bishop, the citizens of Sion had a limited independence in the Middle Ages. A contract between Bishop Kuno and his maior William of Turn from 1179, is seen as the first step in the creation of an independent city government. An agreement between the bishop, the collegiate church of St. Viztums and William of Turn in 1217 is the first written charter of freedom for the city. It includes civil and criminal laws and punishments as well as trade and market regulations. In 1269, the burghers of the town had their own council with its own statutes. The council governed the use and management of the common lands through twelve councilors led by the Viztum. These administrators later became syndics and were known by this title in 1323. In 1338, the vicar general confirmed the existing rights and freedom of the citizens of Sion in a document. The document was renewed by the bishop in 1339 and was presented to each successive bishop to re-confirm after his election. In the same year, Emperor Louis the Bavarian raised Sion to a free imperial city and collected the surrounding lands into a barony. In 1346, the episcopal Viztum and the citizenry collectively wrote the police regulations. Sion was now a city with city walls, documented freedoms and the market right.
From the late middle ages to the end of the ancien regime
From the middle of the 14th Century to 1475, the history of Sion was filled with wars and destruction. Bishop Witschard Tavel tried to reduce the privileges of the cathedral collegiate chapter and the citizenry with the support of the Count of Savoy. In 1352, Sion was conquered, pillaged and plundered by an army from Savoy. In 1373, the Bishop bought back the majority of the fief of Sion from the de Greysier family. Majorie Castle became the Bishop's residence and the maior was now appointed by the Bishop every year. Sion was attacked and looted in 1384, again during the Raron affair in 1418 and finally in 1475 during the Burgundian Wars.
During this period, the citizenry strove to defend their acquired privileges and whenever possible to expand those rights. In 1414, the city council approved a new set of statutes for the citizens. In 1433, Bishop Andreas dei Benzi approved a strict set of regulations concerning the granting of citizenship rights to applicants. Two years later, in 1435, he allowed the city council to appoint the Bishop's representative to Sion. He retained only the right to approve or reject the council's choice. In 1560, the citizenry bought the office of Viztum from the feudal landholder, the de Chevron family. A year earlier the bishop assigned the office of salterus to the citizenry. So by the mid 16th Century, the city enjoyed a nearly total autonomy.
In the 16th Century, due to a strong immigration from the German-speaking Upper Valais, Sion became almost totally Germanized. The town council minutes were written in Latin until 1540, when they changed to German. Official invoices changed to German in 1600.
The 17th and 18th Centuries were a peaceful time in Sion. The new city hall was built on Grand-Pont between 1657-65. In 1788, a fire broke out in the city. It damaged Majoria and Tourbillon castles and destroyed 115 of the 284 inhabited houses.
In the High Middle Ages, the residents of Sion were homines episcopi or people of the bishop. This was true both for the staff at the court as well as the serfs who tilled the land, and the craftsmen and traders. As the civic community gradually began to organize, they were no longer willing to automatically grant every new arrival the same rights as citizens. Those who were unwilling or unable to purchase citizenship, which cost about 60 shillings in 1326, but wished to live in Sion were classed as permanent residents and their descendants held the same status until they could buy their citizenship. The permanent residents were mainly workers, craftsmen (often originating from the Swiss Confederation and the Germanies) and traders (mostly from Savoy and northern Italy). An outbreak of the plague in 1348 wiped out many citizens. In addition to the citizen's deaths, the restrictive attitude of the citizenry toward new members led to citizens becoming a minority in Sion. In the first population census in 1610 the town had 1,835 inhabitants, of whom 412 were citizens and 1,423 were permanent residents. In the 18th Century, a third category, the tollerati, was added. On the eve of the revolution the city's population was 19% citizen, 30% permanent resident and 51% tollerati and other marginalized groups. There were only 41 citizen families, of which twelve were nobility and nine belonged to the patrician class.
Starting in 13th Century and in the first half of the 14th Century, long distance trade began to pick up from northern Italy via the Simplon Pass and through the Valais into the Champagne region. Sion became an important relay station on this route. The station at Sion included a Sust or warehouse that also provided additional animals to help haul wagons over the pass. Many local nobles and farmers were involved in animal husbandry to support the Sust and pastured their animals, during the summer, in pastures on the other side of the Rhône. The Sust's barns are stables were still in operation until the 19th Century. Along the Sionne river, there were mills, saw mills and other industries that needed water power. In addition there were many tanneries in the same area. In 1466, the smiths, bricklayers and stonemasons' guilds arose from an ecclesiastical fraternity. Those three guilds were followed by the butchers' guild in 1512, the bakers' guild in 1525, the tailors and drapers' guild in 1527 and in 1602 the guild of shoemakers and tanners. These guilds played a major economic role in Sion until the end of the Ancien Régime. The Inn of the White Cross opened in 1550 for merchants and wealthy travelers, followed in 1688 by the inn of the Golden Lion, which was built beside the town hall.
Very little is known about the early churches in Sion since written sources are meager before the 12th Century. The predecessor of the present cathedral, the church of Notre-Dame-du Glarier in the Palacio district served both as the bishop's church and the parish church in the 12th Century. It was destroyed in the 14th Century during one of the wars between the Bishop of Sion and the House of Savoy. It was rebuilt in the second half of the 15th Century. In the meantime, St. Peter's church took over as the bishop's and parish church. It was demolished in 1806. The Valeria Church was built in the 11th Century and originally consecrated to St. Catherine. This church was probably the first church for the cathedral chapter. St. Theoduls church was first mentioned in the 13th Century. It was probably built in 1100 on the ruins of Roman baths and a Carolingian era church. This church was probably built as a grave and pilgrimage church with a shrine in the Theodulskrypta. It was destroyed in the wars with the House of Savoy in the 14th Century. Construction began on a new church in 1510-16 under Bishop Matthew Schiner and continued until the 17th Century. St. Theoduls served the French-speaking urban population as a parish church until 1798. In the 17th Century, citizens claimed the right to choose their parish priest, over objections of the ecclesiastical authorities. The dispute eventually required mediation through the Papal Nuncio. The resolution allowed the citizens to choose the pastor from one of four proposed by the archbishop.
In the second half of the 16th Century a large Protestant community grew in Sion under the leadership of renowned burghers, who had learned of the new doctrine while students in Bern, Basel, Zürich, Lausanne or Geneva. After 1604, the Valais government had clearly decided to remain part of the old faith. Some individuals or families emigrated to reformed areas, while others went back to the old faith. The Counter-Reformation, led by the Capuchin friars of Savoy and the Jesuits destroyed the last hopes of the Protestants to establish a foothold in the cathedral town. The Capuchins founded a monastery in 1631 and started construction of the monastery church in 1636) and the Jesuits started missionary activity in the 17th century and established a school in 1734.
From the Helvetic Republic to 1848
During the anti-patrician unrest in the Lower Valais at the end of the 18th Century, Sion remained a bastion of the aristocracy. The leaders of the Les Crochets conspiracy were executed in 1791 in Sion to avoid riots. After the French invasion of Switzerland on 5 March 1798, Sion was caught between the revolutionary spirit of a portion of its population (who established a liberty pole in town on 10 March) and conservative elements who wanted to prevent any change in the Valais. Following the creation of the Helvetic Republic in May 1789, a counter-revolutionary rebellion erupted in the upper Valais. This short-lived rebellion was crushed on 17 May by French and Vaudois troops and Sion was plundered.
Under the Helvetic Republic, Sion was source of conflict between supporters and opponents of the new regime. In May 1799 counter revolutionary forces from Upper Valais looted the city again. In order to ensure peace in the Valais, the French General Louis Marie Turreau de Garambouville occupied Sion in 1801 and in 1802 Napoleon Bonaparte declared the independent Rhodanic Republic. It then remained independent until 1810 when it was annexed into France as the département of Simplon. Between 1798 and 1801 the representative of the Helvetic government resided in Sion. Under the French occupation, Joseph du Fay de Lavallaz was appointed by the emperor to be the mayor of the district of Sion.
After Napoleons defeats during the War of the Sixth Coalition the Valais was occupied by Austria at the end of December 1813. Under the Austrians, the citizenry received many of the their rights back. During the following year, the government was split between supporters of the Ancien Régime and the supporters of the independent republic, with each party forming a council. When the two councils combined, the number of Council members was set to 20. Between 1815 and 1839, the patrician class gradually took more and more of the rights and duties of the citizenry back on themselves, gaining more and more power. In response to this, Alexandre de Torrente founded a liberal party in 1830. In the cantonal government, Sion agreed most often with the German-speaking Upper Valais. Which gave the Upper Valais a majority of the Zenden in the council, to the detriment of the French-speaking Lower Valais. However, after the vote on the constitution of 1839, the Upper Valais broke away from the rest of the canton. Sion was chosen as the capital of the Valais, while the breakaway Upper Valais chose Sierre. In 1840, the Upper and Lower Valais were reunited. But four years later, Sion was occupied by Upper Valais troops during the beginning of the Sonderbund War. Federal troops occupied Sion in November 1847.
Sion lost to Turin, Italy in its bid to host the 2006 Winter Olympics. Sion also bid for the 2002 Winter Olympics, which it lost to Salt Lake City, and the 1976 Winter Olympics, which it lost to Denver (the games were reassigned to Innsbruck when Denver residents voted down additional funding).
Sion has an area, as of 2009[update], of 25.6 square kilometers (9.9 sq mi). Of this area, 10.21 km2 (3.94 sq mi) or 39.9% is used for agricultural purposes, while 2.47 km2 (0.95 sq mi) or 9.6% is forested. Of the rest of the land, 10.79 km2 (4.17 sq mi) or 42.1% is settled (buildings or roads), 1.46 km2 (0.56 sq mi) or 5.7% is either rivers or lakes and 0.65 km2 (0.25 sq mi) or 2.5% is unproductive land.
Sion has an average of 82.6 days of rain or snow per year and on average receives 598 mm (23.5 in) of precipitation. The wettest month is December during which time Sion receives an average of 61 mm (2.4 in) of rain or snow. During this month there is precipitation for an average of 7.4 days. The month with the most days of precipitation is August, with an average of 8.2, but with only 55 mm (2.2 in) of rain or snow. The driest month of the year is April with an average of 36 mm (1.4 in) of precipitation over 5.9 days. According to the Köppen Climate Classification system, Sion has an Marine West Coast Climate, abbreviated "Cfb" on climate maps.
|Climate data for Sion (1981-2010)|
|Average high °C (°F)||4.4
|Daily mean °C (°F)||−0.1
|Average low °C (°F)||−3.8
|Average precipitation mm (inches)||51
|Average snowfall cm (inches)||14.1
|Avg. precipitation days (≥ 1.0 mm)||6.8||5.5||6.5||5.2||7.4||7.7||7.7||7.9||6.2||6.8||7.0||7.4||82.1|
|Avg. snowy days (≥ 1.0 cm)||3.0||1.6||0.5||0.1||0.0||0.0||0.0||0.0||0.0||0.0||0.7||2.4||8.3|
|Avg. relative humidity (%)||78||72||64||61||63||63||64||68||73||77||79||81||70|
|Mean monthly sunshine hours||92||124||176||197||218||245||269||244||204||158||98||68||2,093|
|Source: MeteoSwiss |
Of the built up area, industrial buildings made up 5.2% of the total area while housing and buildings made up 13.0% and transportation infrastructure made up 16.7%. Power and water infrastructure as well as other special developed areas made up 2.1% of the area while parks, green belts and sports fields made up 5.2%. Out of the forested land, 7.4% of the total land area is heavily forested and 2.3% is covered with orchards or small clusters of trees. Of the agricultural land, 4.7% is used for growing crops and 4.4% is pastures, while 30.7% is used for orchards or vine crops. Of the water in the municipality, 0.9% is in lakes and 4.8% is in rivers and streams.
Coat of arms
Sion has a population (as of December 2013[update]) of 32,797. As of 2008[update], 26.9% of the population are resident foreign nationals. Over the last 10 years (2000–2010 ) the population has changed at a rate of 10%. It has changed at a rate of 10.1% due to migration and at a rate of 2.3% due to births and deaths.
Most of the population (as of 2000[update]) speaks French (22,338 or 82.2%) as their first language, German is the second most common (1,523 or 5.6%) and Portuguese is the third (912 or 3.4%). There are 855 people who speak Italian and 19 people who speak Romansh.
As of 2008[update], the population was 47.8% male and 52.2% female. The population was made up of 10,128 Swiss men (34.1% of the population) and 4,089 (13.8%) non-Swiss men. There were 11,642 Swiss women (39.2%) and 3,859 (13.0%) non-Swiss women. Of the population in the municipality, 9,542 or about 35.1% were born in Sion and lived there in 2000. There were 7,481 or 27.5% who were born in the same canton, while 2,939 or 10.8% were born somewhere else in Switzerland, and 6,285 or 23.1% were born outside of Switzerland.
As of 2000[update], there were 11,846 people who were single and never married in the municipality. There were 12,335 married individuals, 1,509 widows or widowers and 1,481 individuals who are divorced.
As of 2000[update], there were 11,326 private households in the municipality, and an average of 2.3 persons per household. There were 4,114 households that consist of only one person and 703 households with five or more people. In 2000[update], a total of 10,670 apartments (88.3% of the total) were permanently occupied, while 1,072 apartments (8.9%) were seasonally occupied and 345 apartments (2.9%) were empty. As of 2009[update], the construction rate of new housing units was 4.7 new units per 1000 residents.
As of 2003[update] the average price to rent an average apartment in Sion was 919.42 Swiss francs (CHF) per month (US$740, £410, €590 approx. exchange rate from 2003). The average rate for a one room apartment was 473.25 CHF (US$380, £210, €300), a two room apartment was about 679.12 CHF (US$540, £310, €430), a three room apartment was about 854.95 CHF (US$680, £380, €550) and a six or more room apartment cost an average of 1075.25 CHF (US$860, £480, €690). The average apartment price in Sion was 82.4% of the national average of 1116 CHF. The vacancy rate for the municipality, in 2010[update], was 0.53%.
The historical population is given in the following chart:
|Historic Population Data |
|Year||Total Population||French Speaking||German Speaking||Catholic||Protestant||Other||Jewish||Islamic||No religion given||Swiss||Non-Swiss|
The municipal council is the executive power in the commune. Its 15 members, non-permanent except the President, are elected every 4 years by the people.
The commune of Sion comprises also of a counsel of public rights of the medieval commune, the Bourgeoisie. Who protect the rights of the original inhabitants against new inhabitants. The counsel is made up of 7 people : a president, a vice-president and five counsellors.
In the 2007 federal election the most popular party was the CVP which received 34.5% of the vote. The next three most popular parties were the SP (19.08%), the SVP (15.52%) and the FDP (13.9%). In the federal election, a total of 9,828 votes were cast, and the voter turnout was 55.6%.
In the 2009 Conseil d'Etat/Staatsrat election a total of 8,663 votes were cast, of which 907 or about 10.5% were invalid. The voter participation was 49.1%, which is much less than the cantonal average of 54.67%. In the 2007 Swiss Council of States election a total of 9,688 votes were cast, of which 835 or about 8.6% were invalid. The voter participation was 55.8%, which is similar to the cantonal average of 59.88%.
The tertiary sector is the main economic sector in Sion, mainly due to the presence of the cantons administration, the Valaisan parliament and the cantons courthouse. Tourism is also an important sector due to its historic châteaux and museums.
The secondary sector is also represented.
The primary sector, although marginalized, is ever present. Sion is the third largest wine making region in Switzerland, however, the valuable agricultural land and vineyards are undergoing constant regression due to the process of urbanisation.
Sion has also become an important medical site. The Sion-Region hospital is situated here next to the central institute of Valaisan hospitals and the Romande clinic for physical rehabilitation (SUVA).
Finally the commune hosts a waste incinerator which disposes of the waste from 44 surrounding communes. This incinerator is equipped with a catalytic converter which lowers the levels of NOx emissions below acceptable levels. In addition, the heat created from the combustion is converted into electrical energy which is then provided to local communes.
As of 2010[update], Sion had an unemployment rate of 6%. As of 2008[update], there were 415 people employed in the primary economic sector and about 125 businesses involved in this sector. 5,102 people were employed in the secondary sector and there were 357 businesses in this sector. 20,227 people were employed in the tertiary sector, with 1,906 businesses in this sector. There were 13,101 residents of the municipality who were employed in some capacity, of which females made up 45.5% of the workforce.
In 2008[update] the total number of full-time equivalent jobs was 21,338. The number of jobs in the primary sector was 245, all of which were in agriculture. The number of jobs in the secondary sector was 4,830 of which 1,976 or (40.9%) were in manufacturing, 51 or (1.1%) were in mining and 2,323 (48.1%) were in construction. The number of jobs in the tertiary sector was 16,263. In the tertiary sector; 3,356 or 20.6% were in wholesale or retail sales or the repair of motor vehicles, 858 or 5.3% were in the movement and storage of goods, 968 or 6.0% were in a hotel or restaurant, 685 or 4.2% were in the information industry, 1,566 or 9.6% were the insurance or financial industry, 1,357 or 8.3% were technical professionals or scientists, 1,249 or 7.7% were in education and 2,989 or 18.4% were in health care.
In 2000[update], there were 13,194 workers who commuted into the municipality and 2,857 workers who commuted away. The municipality is a net importer of workers, with about 4.6 workers entering the municipality for every one leaving. Of the working population, 10.4% used public transportation to get to work, and 57.1% used a private car.
Heritage sites of national significance
There are 14 buildings or sites in Sion that are listed as Swiss heritage site of national significance. The secular buildings include the Archives de l’Etat du Valais, the Archives and Museum of the Bishop of Sion and the cathedral, the town hall, Majorie Castle, La Majorie on Rue des châteaux 19, Le Vidomnat on Place de la Majorie 15, the Maison Supersaxo, the Médiathèque Valais Sion, the Cantonal Fine Arts and History Museums and the ruins of Tourbillon Castle. The religious buildings on the list are the Cathédrale Notre-Dame, the Capuchin monastery and library, the church of the Notre-Dame de Valère and the church of St-Théodule. The remains of a neolithic settlement and the modern city of Sion are also on the list. The entire town of Sion and the village of Bramois are both part of the Inventory of Swiss Heritage Sites.
Sion is host to a number of newspapers, television and radio stations. Such as :
- Le Nouvelliste, a daily Valaisan paper printed in Sion;
- Canal 9, regional Valaisan television;
- Rhône FM, private Valaisan radio;
- TSR, retransmission of public Swiss television.
In Sion about 8,560 or (31.5%) of the population have completed non-mandatory upper secondary education, and 3,670 or (13.5%) have completed additional higher education (either university or a Fachhochschule). Of the 3,670 who completed tertiary schooling, 54.9% were Swiss men, 32.0% were Swiss women, 7.5% were non-Swiss men and 5.6% were non-Swiss women.
Sion is home to 4 libraries. These libraries include; the Médiathèque Valais Sion, the Bibliothèque municipale de Sion, the HES-SO Valais Médiathèque santé-social and the HES-SO Valais, Domaine Sciences de l'ingénieur. There was a combined total (as of 2008[update]) of 690,513 books or other media in the libraries, and in the same year a total of 294,320 items were loaned out.
Sion has two high schools (colleges)
- the Lycée-Collège des Creusets (LCC);
- the Lycée-Collège de la Planta (LCP).
Sion is also host to the :
- Cantonal agricultural school, situated between Châteauneuf[disambiguation needed] and Sion;
- A circus school;
- A jazz school;
- HES-SO Valais, a technical college;
- HEM Valais (Conservatoire Supérieur et Académie de Musique Tibor Varga).
The HES-SO Valais offers education in Sciences, Engineering, Economics, Information Technology and Health Sciences.
- There is a Business and Tourism university situated near Sion Institut Universitaire Kurt Bösch.
Sion is situated on the main railway line, the motorway and also has an airport (Sion Airport).
From the 2000 census[update], 21,220 or 78.1% were Roman Catholic, while 1,198 or 4.4% belonged to the Swiss Reformed Church. Of the rest of the population, there were 212 members of an Orthodox church (or about 0.78% of the population), there were 18 individuals (or about 0.07% of the population) who belonged to the Christian Catholic Church, and there were 453 individuals (or about 1.67% of the population) who belonged to another Christian church. There were 16 individuals (or about 0.06% of the population) who were Jewish, and 1,360 (or about 5.01% of the population) who were Islamic. There were 86 individuals who were Buddhist, 52 individuals who were Hindu and 22 individuals who belonged to another church. 1,371 (or about 5.05% of the population) belonged to no church, are agnostic or atheist, and 1,385 individuals (or about 5.10% of the population) did not answer the question.
People associated with Sion include:
- Arealstatistik Standard - Gemeindedaten nach 4 Hauptbereichen
- Swiss Federal Statistics Office – STAT-TAB Ständige und Nichtständige Wohnbevölkerung nach Region, Geschlecht, Nationalität und Alter (German) accessed 18 August 2014
- Nomenklaturen – Amtliches Gemeindeverzeichnis der Schweiz (German) accessed 9 February 2013
- Sion in German, French and Italian in the online Historical Dictionary of Switzerland.
- Smith, William, ed. (1857). "Sedu'ni". Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography 2. London: John Murray. p. 947.
- Lins, Joseph (1912). The Catholic Encyclopedia. Vol. 14, Sion. New York: Robert Appleton Company.
- Swiss Federal Statistical Office-Land Use Statistics 2009 data (German) accessed 25 March 2010
- "Temperature and Precipitation Average Values-Table, 1961-1990" (in German, French, and Italian). Federal Office of Meteorology and Climatology - MeteoSwiss. Retrieved 8 May 2009., the Sion weather station elevation is 482 meters above sea level.
- Climate Summary for Sion (from Weatherbase.com)
- "Climate Normals Sion 1981-2010" (PDF). Climate diagrams and normals from Swiss measuring stations. Federal Office of Meteorology and Climatology (MeteoSwiss). Retrieved January 21, 2013.
- Flags of the World.com accessed 26-September-2011
- Swiss Federal Statistical Office - Superweb database - Gemeinde Statistics 1981-2008 (German) accessed 19 June 2010
- Swiss Federal Statistical Office accessed 26-September-2011
- STAT-TAB Datenwürfel für Thema 40.3 - 2000 (German) accessed 2 February 2011
- Ständige Wohnbevolkerung nach Geschlecht und Heimat am 31.12.2009.xls (German) (French) accessed 24 August 2011
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