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|Native to||Colombia, Ecuador|
|Ethnicity||Siona people, Teteté people|
There are 6 oral vowels and six nasal vowels. Only nasal vowels occur next to a nasal consonant /m/ or /n/.
|High||i ĩ||ɨ ɨ̃||u ũ|
|Mid||ɛ æ̃||o õ|
There are two series of obstruent consonant. Both often produce a noticeable delay before the onset of the following vowel: the 'fortis' series (written p t č k kw s h hw) tends to be aspirated, with a noisy transition to the vowel, while the 'lenis' series (written b d g gw ’ z), optionally voiced, is glottalized, with a silent transition to the vowel, which in turn tends to be laryngealized. The glottal stop is faint, and noticeable primarily in the laryngealizing effect it has on adjacent vowels.
|voiced plosives||pˀ ~ bˀ||ʈˀ ~ ɖˀ ~ ɾ||kˀ ~ ɡˀ||kʷˀ ~ ɡʷˀ||ʔ|
|Fricative||s ; sˀ ~ zˀ||h ; hʷ|
|Semi-vowel||j ~ ɲ||w|
/ʈˀ/ is realized as [ɾ] between vowels. /j/ is realized as [ɲ] next to nasal vowels.
Stress is obligatory on all verb stems, root words, and some suffixes. It disappears when the syllable is not the nucleus of a phonological word. Some monosyllabic morphemes have both stressed and unstressed forms. Although the position of stress within a word is not contrastive, vocalic and consonantal allophony depends on whether a syllable is stressed. Initial stressed vowels followed by unstressed vowels are long and have a falling tone.
- Siona at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
Teteté at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
- Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin; Bank, Sebastian, eds. (2016). "Siona". Glottolog 2.7. Jena: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.
- "Vocabulary of the Language Used by the Indians in These Missions". World Digital Library. Retrieved 2013-05-23.
- Hammarström (2015) Ethnologue 16/17/18th editions: a comprehensive review: online appendices
- Wheeler, Alva. 1970. Grammar of the Siona language, Colombia, South America. Ph.D. thesis. University of California. 192 p.
- Vocabulario de la lengua que usan los indios de estas misiones. World Digital Library. Around 600 - 1699. Retrieved 2013-05-23. Check date values in: