Sioux Falls, South Dakota

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
  (Redirected from Sioux Falls)
Jump to: navigation, search
Sioux Falls, South Dakota
City
Downtown Sioux Falls, near the intersection of 10th St. and Phillips Ave.
Downtown Sioux Falls, near the intersection of 10th St. and Phillips Ave.
Flag of Sioux Falls, South Dakota
Flag
Official seal of Sioux Falls, South Dakota
Seal
Nickname(s): Best Little City in America, Queen City of the West
Motto: The Heart of America
Location in Minnehaha County and in the state of South Dakota
Location in Minnehaha County and in the state of South Dakota
Map of the U.S.
Map of the U.S.
Sioux Falls
Location of Sioux Falls in the contiguous United States
Coordinates: 43°32′11″N 96°43′54″W / 43.53639°N 96.73167°W / 43.53639; -96.73167Coordinates: 43°32′11″N 96°43′54″W / 43.53639°N 96.73167°W / 43.53639; -96.73167
Country United States
State South Dakota
Counties Minnehaha, Lincoln
Government
 • Mayor Mike Huether[1]
Area[2]
 • City 73.47 sq mi (190.29 km2)
 • Land 72.96 sq mi (188.97 km2)
 • Water 0.51 sq mi (1.32 km2)
Elevation 1,470 ft (448 m)
Population (2010)[3][4]
 • City 153,888
 • Estimate (2015)[5] 171,544
 • Rank US: 145th
 • Density 2,109.2/sq mi (814.4/km2)
 • Urban 156,777 (US: 212th)
 • Metro 251,854 (US: 186th)
Time zone Central (UTC−6)
 • Summer (DST) Central (UTC−5)
ZIP codes
Area code 605
FIPS code 46-59020
GNIS feature ID 1267670[7]
Website www.siouxfalls.org

Sioux Falls (/ˌs ˈfɔːlz/) (Lakota: Íŋyaŋ Okábleča Otȟúŋwahe;[8] "Stone Shatter City") is the largest city in the U.S. state of South Dakota. It is the county seat of Minnehaha County,[9] and also extends into Lincoln County to the south. It is the 47th fastest-growing city in the United States[10] and the fastest-growing metro area in South Dakota, with a population increase of 22% between 2000 and 2010.[11]

As of 2015, Sioux Falls had an estimated population of 171,544. The metropolitan population of 251,854 accounts for 29% of South Dakota's population. It is also the primary city of the Sioux Falls-Sioux City Designated Market Area (DMA), a larger media market region that covers parts of four states and has a population of 1,043,450.[12] Chartered in 1856 on the banks of the Big Sioux River, the city is situated in the rolling hills on the western edge of the Midwest at the junction of Interstate 90 and Interstate 29.

History[edit]

Falls of the Big Sioux River

The history of Sioux Falls revolves around the cascades of the Big Sioux River. The falls were created about 14,000 years ago during the last ice age. The lure of the falls has been a powerful influence. Ho-Chunk, Ioway, Otoe, Missouri, Omaha (and Ponca at the time), Quapaw, Kansa, Osage, Arikira, Dakota, Nakota and Cheyenne people inhabited and settled the region previous to Europeans and European descendants. Numerous burial mounds still exist on the high bluffs near the river and are spread throughout the general vicinity. Indigenous people maintained an agricultural society with fortified villages, and the later arrivals rebuilt on many of the same sites that were previously settled. Lakota populate urban and reservation communities in the contemporary state and many Lakota, Dakota, Nakota, and numerous other Indigenous Americans reside in Sioux Falls today.[13]

French voyagers/explorers visited the area in the early 18th century. The first documented visit by an American (of European descent) was by Philander Prescott, who camped overnight at the falls in December 1832. Captain James Allen led a military expedition out of Fort Des Moines in 1844. Jacob Ferris described the Falls in his 1856 book "The States and Territories of the Great West".[14]

Two separate groups, the Dakota Land Company of St. Paul and the Western Town Company of Dubuque, Iowa organized in 1856 to claim the land around the falls, considered a promising townsite for its beauty and water power. Each laid out 320-acre (1.3 km2) claims, but worked together for mutual protection. They built a temporary barricade of turf which they dubbed "Fort Sod", in response to hostilities threatened by native tribes. Seventeen men then spent "the first winter" in Sioux Falls. The following year the population grew to near 40.

Although conflicts in Minnehaha County between Native Americans and white settlers were few, the Dakota War of 1862 engulfed nearby southwestern Minnesota. The town was evacuated in August of that year when two local settlers were killed as a result of the conflict. The settlers and soldiers stationed here traveled to Yankton in late August 1862. The abandoned townsite was pillaged and burned.

Fort Dakota, a military reservation established in present-day downtown, was established in May 1865.[15] Many former settlers gradually returned and a new wave of settlers arrived in the following years. The population grew to 593 by 1873, and a building boom was underway in that year. The Village of Sioux Falls, consisting of 1,200 acres (4.9 km2), was incorporated in 1876 and was granted a city charter by the Dakota Territorial legislature on March 3, 1883.[16]

The arrival of the railroads ushered in the great Dakota Boom decade of the 1880s. The population of Sioux Falls mushroomed from 2,164 in 1880 to 10,167 at the close of the decade. The growth transformed the city. A severe plague of grasshoppers and a national depression halted the boom by the early 1890s. The city grew by only 89 people from 1890 to 1900.

But prosperity eventually returned with the opening of the John Morrell meat packing plant in 1909, the establishment of an airbase and a military radio and communications training school in 1942, and the completion of the interstate highways in the early 1960s. Much of the growth in the first part of the 20th century was fueled by agriculturally based industry, such as the Morrell plant and the nearby stockyards (one of the largest in the nation).

Downtown Sioux Falls in 1908, looking west.

In 1955 the city decided to consolidate the neighboring incorporated city of South Sioux Falls. At the time South Sioux Falls had a population of nearly 1,600 inhabitants, according to the 1950 census. It was third largest city in the county after Sioux Falls and Dell Rapids. By October 18, 1955 South Sioux Falls residents voted 704 in favor and 227 against to consolidate with Sioux Falls. On the same issue, Sioux Falls residents voted on November 15 by the vote 2,714 in favor and 450 against.

In 1981, to take advantage of recently relaxed state usury laws, Citibank relocated its primary credit card center from New York to Sioux Falls. Some claim that this event was the primary impetus for the increased population and job growth rates that Sioux Falls has experienced over the past quarter century. Others point out that Citibank's relocation was only part of a more general transformation of the city's economy from an industrially based one to an economy centered on health care, finance and retail trade.[17]

Sioux Falls has grown at a rapid pace since the late 1970s, with the city's population increasing from 81,000 in 1980 to 153,888 in 2010.

Downtown Sioux Falls in 2010, looking west.

Geography[edit]

Primary geographic features of Sioux Falls.

Sioux Falls is located at 43°32'11" North, 96°43'54" West (43.536285, −96.731780).[18] According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 73.47 square miles (190.29 km2), of which, 72.96 square miles (188.97 km2) is land and 0.51 square miles (1.32 km2) is water.[2] The city is located in the extreme eastern part of South Dakota, about 15 miles (24 km) west of the Minnesota border. Sioux Falls has been assigned the ZIP codes 57101, 57103–57110, 57117–57118, 57188–57189 and 57192–57198 and the FIPS place code 59020.

Metropolitan area[edit]

The Sioux Falls Metropolitan Statistical Area consists of four counties, all of which are located in South Dakota: Lincoln, McCook, Minnehaha, and Turner. The estimated population of this MSA in 2014 was 248,351, an increase of 6.68% from the 2010 census.[4] According to recent estimates, Lincoln County is the ninth fastest-growing county (by percentage) in the United States.[19] In addition to Sioux Falls, several cities and towns included in the metropolitan area are Canton, Brandon, Dell Rapids, Tea, Harrisburg, Worthing, Beresford, Lennox, Hartford, Crooks, Baltic, Montrose, Salem, Renner, Rowena, Chancellor, Colton, Humboldt, Parker, Hurley, Garretson, Sherman, Corson, Viborg, Irene, and Centerville.

Parks and recreation[edit]

The South Dakota Department of Game, Fish, and Parks' Outdoor Campus.

Sioux Falls has more than 70 parks and greenways. Probably the best known is Falls Park, established around the city's namesake waterfalls on the Big Sioux River, just north of downtown. Other notable parks include Terrace Park, McKennan Park, Sherman Park, and Yankton Trail park. A popular feature of the park system is a paved 16-mile (26 km) path used for biking, jogging, and walking. The path follows the course of the Big Sioux River, forming a loop around Sioux Falls, along with a few spurs off the main bike trail. Recently, the city stepped up efforts to beautify a stretch of the bike trails through downtown along an area known as the River Greenway. Currently, two out of three planned phases of construction and updates have occurred. Among the updates were newer widened bike paths, new landscaping and lighting, improved street access to the bike trails, a new interactive fountain, a new pedestrian bridge across the river, removal of the old "River Ramp" parking structure, new stepped terraces leading down to the rivers edge, new retaining walls along portions of the river, and a new amphitheater/performing space. New trailheads at Elmen, Dunham, and Lien parks have helped to improve access to outlying trail spurs as well. The city is in the process of expanding the bike trail network east from Sioux Falls at Lien Park to eventually connect to Brandon, South Dakota and ultimately the Big Sioux Recreation Area. The South Dakota Department of Game, Fish and Parks has an Outdoor Campus in Sioux Falls at Sertoma Park where it has several outdoor areas and acreages devoted to fish and wildlife. The Outdoor Campus hosts many outdoor activities through the year as well; these activities include such things as star gazing and snowshoeing. During the winter, Great Bear Recreation Park offers skiing, snowboarding, and tubing.

Climate[edit]

Due to its inland location, Sioux Falls experiences a humid continental climate (Köppen Dfa), which is characterized by hot, relatively humid summers and cold, dry winters, and is located in USDA Plant Hardiness Zone 4b.[20] The monthly daily average temperature ranges from 16.6 °F (−8.6 °C) in January to 73.0 °F (22.8 °C) in July, while there are 18 days of 90 °F (32 °C)+ highs and 26 days with sub-0 °F (−18 °C) lows annually. Snowfall occurs mostly in light to moderate amounts during the winter, totaling 44.6 inches (113 cm). Precipitation, at 26.3 inches (668 mm) annually, is concentrated in the warmer months. Extremes range from −42 °F (−41 °C) on February 9, 1899 to 110 °F (43 °C) as recently as June 21, 1988.[21]

Law and government[edit]

2015 Mayor and City Council
Mayor Mike Huether[1]
Southeast Rick Kiley
Southwest Greg Jamison
Northeast Kenny Anderson Jr.
Northwest Dean Karsky
Central Michelle Erpenbach
At-large Kermit Staggers
At-large Christine Erickson
At-large Rex Rolfing
City Hall
  • City government: The city of Sioux Falls is led by a mayor-council (strong mayor) form of government. Mayoral elections occur every four years. City council seats are also contested every four years. However, not all of the council members are elected in the same year, as the council elections are staggered throughout even-numbered years. The council consists of five members elected to represent specific sections of the city and three additional seats that represent the city as a whole (that is, at-large). The council member position is designed to be part-time. Sioux Falls operates under a home rule charter as permitted by the South Dakota constitution.[25]
  • Crime: The per-capita general violent crime rate in Sioux Falls is roughly half the United States average.[26] The Sioux Falls Police Department is the municipal law enforcement agency.
  • Politics: In the 2004 presidential election, George W. Bush won both Minnehaha and Lincoln counties, receiving 56% and 65% of the vote, respectively.[27] In 2008, Barack Obama won Minnehaha County by 0.7%, while John McCain won Lincoln County by 15%.[28]

Economy[edit]

Major Area Employers 2014[29]
Employees Organization
8,571 Sanford Health
6,259 Avera Health
3,350 Smithfield Foods/John Morrell & Co.
3,000 Sioux Falls School District
2,884 Wells Fargo
2,813 Hy-Vee
2,300 Citigroup
1,363 The Evangelical Lutheran
Good Samaritan Society
1,159 City of Sioux Falls
1,151 LifeScape
1,150 Walmart/Sam's Club
1,130 First Premier Bank/Premier Bankcard
1,049 Department of Veterans Affairs
Medical & Regional Office
960 Midcontinent Communications/Midco Connections
950 Raven Industries
925 Capital One
858 Esurance
725 Cigna
620 Sammons Financial Group/Midland National Life
616 Billion Automotive
600 Lewis Drug
593 StarMark Cabinetry
565 United States Postal Service
556 USGS EROS Data Center/SGT
524 Minnehaha County

Originally centered on quarrying and agriculturally based industries, the economy of Sioux Falls has become greatly diversified and more service-based over the last half-century, making the city an important location for financial services, health care, and retail trade.

Commerce and Industry[edit]

Partially due to the lack of a state corporate income tax, Sioux Falls is the home of a number of financial companies. The largest employers among these, and fourth and fifth largest employers overall,[29] are Wells Fargo and Citigroup. Other important financial service companies located in Sioux Falls include Great Western Bank, Western Surety Company (CNA Surety), Total Card Inc., Capital Card Services, Midland National Life Insurance Company, Capital One, and First Premier Bank.

Sioux Falls is a significant regional health care center. There are four major hospitals in Sioux Falls: Sanford Health (formerly Sioux Valley), Avera McKennan Hospital, the South Dakota Veterans Affairs Hospital, and the Avera Heart Hospital of South Dakota. Sanford Health and Avera Health are the largest and second largest employers in the city, respectively. Emergency medical services (EMS) are provided by Paramedics Plus and Sioux Falls Fire Rescue.

Companies based in Sioux Falls include Raven Industries, retailers Lewis Drug and Sunshine Foods, as well as communications companies SONIFI Solutions and Midcontinent Communications.

The John Morrell plant, owned by Smithfield Foods Inc., has always been a major employer in Sioux Falls, although the city's economy has become more diversified in recent decades.

Because of the relatively long distances between Sioux Falls and larger cities, Sioux Falls has emerged as an important regional center of shopping and dining. The Empire Mall, with over 180 stores, anchors one of the primary retail zones in the southwest section of the city. This area, centered mainly around the intersection of 41st Street and Louise Avenue, contains many large national chain stores and restaurants.

In Central Downtown, shops line Phillips Avenue, and in the "EastBank" shops and restaurants fill a boardwalk style center called "8th and Railroad." "The Bridges" is an outdoor shopping center located at the intersection of 57th Street and Western Avenue on the south side of the city. The Bridges contains over 30 restaurants, boutiques, and private businesses. Dawley Farm Village is a major commercial development located on the east side of the city at the intersection of Arrowhead Parkway (SD Highway 42) and Veterans Parkway (SD Highway 11, previously known as Powder House Road).

While no longer as economically dominant as it once was, the manufacturing and food processing sector remains an important component of the economy of Sioux Falls. The Smithfield Foods/John Morrell meat packing plant is the third largest employer in the city. Other important manufacturing companies include Wheeler Tank Mfg, Maguire Iron, Amesbury Group, Teem, Raven Industries, Bell Incorporated, Tyco, Gage Brothers, and Rosenbauer America.

The USGS Earth Resources Observation and Science Center is located approximately 10 miles north of Sioux Falls. It currently houses one of the largest computer complexes in the Department of the Interior. EROS has approximately 600 government and contractor employees.

Demographics[edit]

Historical population
Census Pop.
1880 2,164
1890 10,177 370.3%
1900 10,266 0.9%
1910 14,094 37.3%
1920 25,202 78.8%
1930 33,362 32.4%
1940 40,832 22.4%
1950 52,969 29.7%
1960 65,466 23.6%
1970 72,488 10.7%
1980 81,182 12.0%
1990 100,814 24.2%
2000 123,975 23.0%
2010 153,888 24.1%
Est. 2015 171,544 [30] 11.5%
U.S. Decennial Census[31]
2015 Estimate[5]

2010 census[edit]

As of the census[3] of 2010, there were 153,888 people, 61,707 households, and 37,462 families residing in the city. The population density was 2,109.2 inhabitants per square mile (814.4/km2). There were 66,283 housing units at an average density of 908.5 per square mile (350.8/km2). The racial makeup of the city was 86.8% White, 4.2% African American, 2.7% Native American, 1.8% Asian, 0.1% Pacific Islander, 2.0% from other races, and 2.5% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 4.4% of the population.

There were 61,707 households of which 31.9% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 45.5% were married couples living together, 10.9% had a female householder with no husband present, 4.4% had a male householder with no wife present, and 39.3% were non-families. 30.6% of all households were made up of individuals and 8.7% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.40 and the average family size was 3.02.

Saint Joseph Cathedral

The median age in the city was 33.6 years. 24.6% of residents were under the age of 18; 10.7% were between the ages of 18 and 24; 29.7% were from 25 to 44; 24.1% were from 45 to 64; and 10.9% were 65 years of age or older. The gender makeup of the city was 49.6% male and 50.4% female.

Income[edit]

In 1999, the median income for a household in the city was $41,221; in 2003 HUD reported Minnehaha County had a median household income of $45,872, while Lincoln County had a median household income of $59,571. The median income for a family in 1999 was $51,516; in 2005 HUD reported that the city's family median income was $56,150. Males have a median income of $32,216 versus $24,861 for females. The per capita income for the city is $21,374. 8.4% of the population and 5.6% of families are below the poverty line. Out of the total population, 10.3% of those under the age of 18 and 7.4% of those 65 and older are living below the poverty line.

Religion[edit]

After statehood in 1889, South Dakota was settled mainly by European immigrants, with Germans and Scandinavians representing the largest ethnic groups immigrating into the state. At present, the religious majority in the state and city is Lutheran, while Roman Catholics represent the second largest religious group. The Roman Catholic Diocese of Sioux Falls, one of two dioceses in the state, built St. Joseph Cathedral on Duluth Avenue beginning in 1915 and completed in 1919. Sioux Falls is also the seat of the Episcopal Diocese of South Dakota.

Education[edit]

Augustana University's mascot, Ole, with the Administration Building, East Hall, and Old Main visible in the background

Higher education[edit]

Sioux Falls is home to the University of Sioux Falls, Augustana University (formerly Augustana College), Sioux Falls Seminary, Kilian Community College, Southeast Technical Institute, National American University, the South Dakota School for the Deaf, Globe University/Minnesota School of Business, the University of South Dakota's Sanford School of Medicine (Sioux Falls campus), Stewart School and the South Dakota Public Universities and Research Center (formerly known as USDSU).

Public schools[edit]

The Sioux Falls School District serves over 23,000 students living in Sioux Falls and some of its surrounding suburbs.[32] Suburbs around Sioux Falls continue to experience dramatic growth as Sioux Falls expands. Suburbs experiencing rapid growth are in Brandon, Valley Springs, Baltic, Garretson, West-Central, Tri-Valley, Lennox, Parker, Canton, Harrisburg, and Tea Area. Many of these districts serve students who live on the outer edges of Sioux Falls city limits, and serve thousands of Metro-Area students.

The Sioux Falls School District has signed an agreement that will allow the district to participate in an Athletic Conference known as the "Metro Conference." Sioux Falls Lincoln, Washington, and Roosevelt High School along with Sioux Falls O'Gorman and Brandon Valley High School will compete in this conference, along with other potential suburban districts to help cut down on costs and to increase competition between schools in the Sioux Falls Metro Area.

High schools[edit]

There are three public high schools, serving grades 9-12:

School Enrollment (Fall 2015)
Lincoln 1,969
Roosevelt 2,234
Washington 2,002
Total 6,205

The school district also operates two alternative high schools serving grades 9-12, and one specialized middle/high school alternative education center:

School Enrollment (Fall 2014)
Axtell Park 326
Career and Technical Education Academy 875
New Technology High School 310
Total 1,511
  • Note: Axtell Park replaced the former Joe Foss High School beginning fall 2014 to consolidate both middle and high school alternative programs into one location.

Middle schools[edit]

There are five public middle schools in the city, serving grades 6-8:

School Enrollment (Fall 2014)
Edison 862
Memorial 1,205
Patrick Henry 1,136
George McGovern 711
Whittier 929
Total 4,843
  • Note: George McGovern Middle School replaced Axtell Park as one of the 5 primary middle schools serving Sioux Falls beginning with the 2014–2015 school year.

Elementary schools[edit]

There are 25 public elementary schools in Sioux Falls, serving grades K-5. Some also serve early childhood:

Private schools[edit]

Sioux Falls Catholic Schools is a centralized Catholic school system that includes eight schools: six elementary schools, all PreK-6 (St. Mary, St. Lambert, St. Michael-St. Katharine Drexel, Holy Spirit and Christ the King); one junior high (O'Gorman Junior High, grades 7–8); and one high school, O'Gorman (9–12). Both the junior and senior high O'Gorman schools are on the same O'Gorman High School campus. Approximately 2,800 students attend Sioux Falls Catholic Schools. Although as of the 2009–2010 school year St. Joseph Cathedral School is closed. Other private schools include Sioux Falls Christian Schools, Christian Center, The Baan Dek Montessori, Cornerstone School and Sioux Falls Lutheran Schools.

Sioux Falls is home to several Lutheran schools teaching students from pre-school through high school. Lutheran schools include: Open Arms Christian Child Development Center, Sioux Falls Lutheran School, Lutheran High School of Sioux Falls.

Culture[edit]

Events[edit]

Downtown Sioux Falls plays host to a SculptureWalk[33] every summer. The exhibits change yearly and most often reflect historical significance and progressive standards for the city.

Downtown Sioux Falls also hosts "First Fridays." "First Fridays" are the first Friday of each summer month, and businesses and associations in the Downtown area take part in creating a major evening event. Concerts are held at the EastBank, and stores and restaurants are open with live music all along Phillips Avenue in south central Downtown.

The Downtown Riverfest is an annual Sioux Falls festival that embraces the beauty of the Big Sioux. (Additional information below.)

Festival of Bands is a regional competition that hosts over 40 marching bands each year from across the Midwest.

The Sioux Empire Spectacular draws Drum Corps participants and fans from across the nation to Sioux Falls for this regional competition. Thousands attend this event held at Howard Wood Memorial Field in July every summer. The event is run by DCI and by the music departments of the Sioux Falls School District.

Party in the Park is an annual outdoor musical event held at Terrace Park. The Sioux Empire Fair is a regional fair held at the W.H. Lyon Fairgrounds and the Sioux Falls JazzFest is hosted at Yankton Trail Park each year. (Additional information, and history, below.)

Arts[edit]

Replica of Michelangelo's Moses at Augustana University.

In the beginning of the 21st century, Sioux Falls experienced a renaissance of cultural interest. The Sioux Empire Arts Council continues to be an initiating leader in the arts scene of the Sioux Falls area and give out Mayor's Awards each year in several categories for excellence demonstrated by Sioux Falls residents within the particular form.[34] The Sioux Falls SculptureWalk was the first visual evidence of the renaissance and is an attraction of both visitors and resident artists and hosts over 55 sculptures today.[35][36] One of the earliest promoters of the contemporary arts scene was Sheila Agee, who still lives in nearby Brandon.[37] Her work was essential to the renovation of the original Washington High School into the Washington Pavilion (housing two performing arts, a visual arts, and a science center).[38]

The Northern Plains Indian Art Market (NPIAM) was established in 1988 by American Indian Services, Inc., of Sioux Falls, SD, as the Northern Plains Tribal Arts Show (NPTA) Northern Plains Tribal Arts had dominated the Sioux Falls art scene from its inception in 1988. American Indian Services produced the juried art show and market from 1988 to 2003 through the turn of the century. Since 2004, Sinte Gleska University of Rosebud has been the producing organization. 2012 marked the 25th continual year of the show. (Directors have included Marilyn Lone Hill and Jack Herman). In the first 25 years of its existence–one of the longest running Indian art shows in the country–over 800 artists from 7 northern plains states and two Canadian provinces have exhibited at NPTA/NPIAM. Writers for national publications, filmmakers, and researchers have all joined the audiences over the years.Northern Plains Indian Art Market continues under the auspices of Sinte Gleska now.[39][40]

A permanent Northern Plains Tribal Arts collection is housed in the Egger Gallery at the Washington Pavilion. As soon as the Washington Pavilion first opened its doors to the public in 1999, this unique collection of Native American artwork has called the Visual Arts Center home. Originally, the pieces were on an extended loan from American Indian Services, Inc. Then, in 2013, thanks to many supporters, the works were acquired under the title of the Augustana Tribal Arts Collection, and now officially belong to the Visual Arts Center.[41]

A lifelong and well-respected area musician and artist, Jim Groth, became an educator, when the Office of Indian Ed opened up and needed teachers for the new Native Connections classes, including his own, in Lincoln High School. He began a pit ceramics program for the students and a multitude of students working with him were able to move into the arts through the programming. The connections classes have grown to serve the city in cultural humanities and arts and Groth continues to be a leader in music in the city.[42][43][44]

Poetry and literary events began to come to greater popularity with the opening of the Sioux Empire Arts Council Horse Barn Gallery as the 21st century began (then directed by Deb Klebanoff),[45] and due to a National Endowment for the Arts-supported Y Writer's Voice, founded and directed by Allison Hedge Coke.[46] The Y Writer's Voice included a reading series of 38 nationally known poets and writers (per year) who performed works and youth workshops through the Sioux Falls Writers Voice in local performance spaces, at the YMCA afterschool program, and in local area schools, gaining national attention.[47]

These two entities along with the resurgence of events regularly hosted at the Washington Pavilion's Leonardo's Cafe (Lincoln High School Writer's Guild advised by SFSD Official Writer in Residence, Allison Hedge Coke, who also served on the Pavilion's Community Task Force, see Washington Pavilion Visual Arts Center - Timeline),[48] the Sioux Empire Arts Council's Horse Barn Art Gallery, and several coffee houses.

During this renaissance, Allison Hedge Coke had moved to Sioux Falls from Rapid City (shortly after winning an American Book Award), as she was serving the state of South Dakota (SDAC & ArtsCorr), first as a part-time literary artist in the Sioux Falls Schools (while still serving schools and incarcerated youth centers across the state) and then as a full-time literary artist in residence for the Sioux Falls school district (SFSD, SDAC, & Office of Indian Ed funded). She held the literary artist role with the school district while simultaneously teaching at Kilian College and the University of Sioux Falls and founding/directing a Y Writers Voice at the Sioux Falls YMCA for several years, hosting readings at the Washington Pavilion, the Dakota Conference at the Great Plains Center of Augustana College, with Deb Klebanoff at the Art Barn, in Siouxland Sioux Falls Library, in Zandbroz Bookstore, and with the Sioux Falls Multicultural Center. The Lincoln High School Creative Writers Guild and district-wide Wings Program (both advised by Hedge Coke), began holding reading performances and study periods in cafes across the city, including Leonardo's. Hedge Coke edited and published two anthologies during her tenure at Sioux Falls School District: Coming to Life: Poems of Peace in the Wake of 9-11 and They Wanted Children: Poems and Stories of Coping with Sudanese, Native, Latino, Asian, and EuroAmerican students in the district. Hedge Coke successfully lobbied [49] for the preservation and protection of Blood Run (now Good Earth State Park, located just minutes east of town),[50] writing the verse play during her lobbying period under an SDAC grant. She continually participated at-large in the national literary field as a visiting writer/performing artist and publishing widely while serving on the Sioux Falls Housing Board and as a city Housing Revitalization Task Member, promoting arts, civil rights, affordability and inclusion.[46][51][52][53][54][55][55][56][57][58][59][60][61]

Hedge Coke also formally proposed a Poetry Sidewalk (contest for selected poems to be etched in Sioux Falls Quartzite to match the park aesthetic) during city council meetings for the cleaning up and development of Falls Park and the downtown area.[62] A version of the project is currently coming to fruition (in concrete, to match the Cathedral District) [63]) "Everyone deserves beauty," said Wayne Wagner, housing development director for Affordable Housing Solutions. Since the contest began in 2014, Wagner has installed poems in the sidewalk of new affordable housing within the neighborhood. This year, Wagner will imprint a 2016 winning poem, as will Cathedral Historic District neighbors Dan and Tamara Blodgett.

Charles Luden had been the widely accepted unofficial resident poet for several years already and remains such to this day.[64][65] Dr. Ron Robinson, a substantial Sioux Falls writer and professor of English at Augustana College,[66][67][68][69] was consistently on the scene.[70] Steve Boint; Charles Luden; Nicole Allen; Jason Freeman; Suzanne Sunshower lives converged in Sioux Falls, SD while performing poetry at Michelle's Coffee and at the Horsebarn Arts Center. Together, they published From the lonely cold : poems by Nicole Allen, Charles Luden, Jason Freeman, Suzanne Sunshower, Steve Boint.[71] Jason Freeman, poet and disability advocate was born in Sioux Falls (son of artist-writer/neurologist Dr. Jerome Freeman[72]) and has been a part of the literary arts scene since his youth.[73] Tom Foster moved to Sioux Falls (from California), having already developed a presence in the California Slam scene and was integral to keeping public open-mics going strong. The Washington Pavilion continued to donate space for literary activities as well as the Siouxland Sioux Falls Library. Eventually, David Allan Evans returned to Sioux Falls as the current State of South Dakota Poet Laureate and enhanced the literary scene with his reintroduction to the Sioux Falls community and presence as the state poet. Patrick Hicks, poet/writer, came to the city to teach at Augustana College and published the anthology A Harvest of Words: Contemporary South Dakota Poetry, later, in 2010.[74][75] Rosalee Blunk was the initial organizer for the Poetry Out Loud state finals held annually in Sioux Falls.[76] Maddie Lukomski, a Poetry Out Loud junior at Sioux Falls Lincoln High School in Sioux Falls, South Dakota, was named a winner in the National Endowment for the Arts Poetry Ourselves competition spoken category, most recently (May 2016).[36][77]

The Sioux Falls Mayor's Awards in Literary Arts designated movers and shakers during the growth and development of the literary arts scene.[78] Deb Klebanoff, born in Sioux Falls, who began the reading series at the Horse Barn with Allison Hedge Coke, after serving on the Sioux Falls Chamber of Commerce's Cultural Affairs committee, including a term as its chair and for almost a decade with the Sioux Empire Arts Council, including 8 years as its Executive Director. later moved south of Sioux Falls and founded a Writers' Retreat, The Retreat at Pointer's Ridge,[79] a significant additional to the state's literary arts scene.

In addition to Literary Arts Awards, there are Mayor's Awards in Visual Arts, Performing Arts, Music, Organizing in the Arts, Advocacy, and Lifetime Achievement, per mayor's discretion,[78] and numerous visual artists who got their start in and/or represent the city, including Carl Grupp, Mary Groth, Ceca Cooper, Marian Henjum, Brad Kringen, Nancyjane Huehl, Don Hooper, Nathan Holman, Gary Hartenhoff, Sheila Agee, Mary Selvig, Martha Baker, Chad Mohr, Paul Schiller, Liz Heeren, Edward Two Eagle, Edwin Two Eagle, James Starkey, and painter/muralist Byob Mergia [80][81][82]

The Sioux Falls Jazz and Blues Festival is a three-day outdoor musical event featuring two stages and is free to the public. The event is held the third weekend in July at Yankton Trail Park in Sioux Falls.[83][84] The Sioux Falls Jazz & Blues Society plays host to national musicians during their annual concert series. Each year the concert series includes approximately five concerts with acts from all over the world. JazzFest, with over 125,000 in annual attendance, has expanded over the years to include the Jazziest Diversity Project, the All-City Jazz Ensemble, the Concert Series, and JazzFest Jazz Camp.[85] 2016 is the festival's 25th anniversary year.[83]

The Downtown Riverfest [86] brings live music, art, kids' activities and more as an annual Sioux Falls festival that embraces the beauty of the Big Sioux.[87]

Downtown Sioux Falls boasts Ipso Gallery directed by Liz Bashore Heeren,[88] The Orpheum Theater, SculptureWalk, Sioux Empire Community Theater, Sioux Falls State Theater, The Museum of Visual Materials, The Interactive Water Fountain, Exposure Gallery and Studios, Falls Park and Cinema Falls, Creative Spirits, Eastbank Art Gallery, JAM Art and Supplies, and the Washington Pavilion is home to the South Dakota Symphony Orchestra and the occasional Poets & Painters show (P1, P2, P3, P4, P5...), in addition to the other arts noted above. Prairie Star Gallery, recently closed, was an additional American Indian Arts gallery and store.[89]

The LifeLight Music Festival is held yearly in nearby Worthing, South Dakota (20 miles south) over the last weekend in August. One of the largest outdoor Christian music festivals in the world, yearly attendance has continued to grow from less than 2,000 people in its first year (1998) to over 300,000+ attendees in 2013. The festival is a major attraction and has drawn multiple performances over the years from some of biggest names in Christian music including Skillet, Newsboys, Tenth Avenue North, and Remedy Drive.

Landmarks[edit]

Replica of Michelangelo's David in Fawick Park

The Washington Pavilion contains the Kirby Science Discover Center, as well as two performing arts centers that host several Broadway productions and operas. The South Dakota Symphony's home hosts dance groups as well as smaller theater and choral events. The Visual Arts Center, also part of the Pavilion complex, hosts six galleries of changing exhibits, all free of charge. The Wells Fargo Cinedome is a multiformat 60 ft (18 m) dome theater that plays several films each month.

The Great Plains Zoo & Delbridge Museum provides the area with natural history and animal exhibits in its 50-acre (200,000 m2) park, and has dioramas depicting wildlife.[90]

The U.S.S. South Dakota Battleship Memorial to the World War II battleship USS South Dakota is on State Highway 42 (West 12th Street) and Kiwanis Avenue.

The 114th Fighter Wing, located at Joe Foss Field. The 114th houses F-16C/D fighter aircraft. This unit is well known for its support of community activities and services.

A replica of Michelangelo's David is near the downtown area at Fawick Park.

Transportation[edit]

Roads[edit]

Most residents of Sioux Falls travel and commute by car. Interstate 90 passes east to west across the northern edge of the city, while Interstate 29 bisects the western portion of the city from the north and south. Interstate 229 forms a partial loop around Sioux Falls, and connects with Interstate 90 to the northeast and Interstate 29 to the southwest. A grid design system for city streets is the standard for the central (older) area of the city, while secondary streets in newer residential areas have largely abandoned this plan.

Due to current and expected regional growth, several large construction projects have been or will be undertaken. New interchanges have recently been added to Interstate 29. An interchange was also completed on I-90 at Marion Road. I-29 has recently been improved from I-90 to 57th Street. This upgrade includes additional lanes and auxiliary lanes. Over the next decade, the city of Sioux Falls and the South Dakota Department of Transportation plan to construct a limited-access highway around the outer edges of the city to the south and east known as South Dakota Highway 100.[91] This highway will start at the northern Tea exit (Exit 73 on I-29, 101st Street) and will travel east on 101st Street, and curve northeast east of Western Avenue, then turn northerly near Sycamore Avenue. The highway will end at the Timberline Avenue exit (Exit 402 on I-90).

Public/mass transit[edit]

Main downtown bus terminal.

Sioux Area Metro, the local public transit organization, operates 16 bus lines within the city.[92] Recently, the city added a new transfer station in Sioux Falls on Louise Avenue between 49th and 57th Streets. The Sioux Area Metro Paratransit serves members of the community who would otherwise not be able the travel by providing door to door service.

Sioux Falls also has several taxi companies that operate within the city.

Jefferson Lines runs long-distance bus routes to Sioux Falls. Non-transfer destinations include Grand Forks, Kansas City, Minneapolis, and Omaha. Amtrak passenger trains do not pass through South Dakota.

Air travel[edit]

Five domestic airlines (Delta Air Lines, United Airlines, American Airlines, Allegiant Air, and Frontier Airlines) serve Sioux Falls Regional Airport.[93] The airport is also known as Joe Foss Field (in honor of famed aviator and former Governor Joe Foss). Airlines offer non-stop flight service to a number of major U.S. airports, including Hartsfield–Jackson Atlanta International Airport, Chicago O'Hare, Dallas/Fort Worth International Airport, Denver International Airport, Detroit Metropolitan Wayne County Airport, Minneapolis–St. Paul International Airport, Orlando Sanford International Airport, Los Angeles International Airport, Phoenix-Mesa Gateway Airport, McCarran International Airport (Las Vegas) and St. Pete–Clearwater International Airport.

Sports[edit]

Club League Venue Established Championships
Sioux Falls Canaries AAIPB, Baseball Sioux Falls Stadium 1993 1
Sioux Falls Stampede USHL, Ice hockey Denny Sanford Premier Center 1999 3
Sioux Falls Storm IFL, Indoor football Denny Sanford Premier Center 2000 7
Sioux Falls Skyforce NBA-DL, Basketball Sanford Pentagon 1989 2

The Sioux Falls Canaries were known as the Sioux Falls Fighting Pheasants from 2010 to 2013.

Championships[edit]

  • The Sioux Falls Canaries won the 2008 American Association championship, beating the Grand Prairie Airhogs in a 5-game series that was capped off with a 5 to 4 walk-off win in the 12th inning of Game 4.
  • The Sioux Falls Skyforce have reached the playoffs nine times, winning the CBA Championship during the 1995–96 season, and later during the 2004–5 season. They currently play in the NBADL (the minor league of the NBA).
  • The Sioux Falls Storm, who currently play in the IFL, won four consecutive championships from 2005 to 2008, and have now won in 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014, and 2015 for a total of nine titles. The Storm won 40 straight games from July 30, 2005 to March 29, 2008, the longest winning streak in professional sports history.
  • The Storm is one of four indoor/arena football teams to ever post a shutout, beating the Peoria Roughriders 72–0 in 2006.
  • The Sioux Falls Stampede won the United States Hockey League's Anderson Cup during the 2005–6 season and two Clark Cup championships in the 2006–7 season and the 2014–2015 season.

Special sporting events[edit]

Sioux Falls has several multipurpose athletic stadiums: the primarily-baseball Sioux Falls Stadium, indoor Sioux Falls Arena, indoor Sanford Pentagon, and indoor Denny Sanford Premier Center. Sioux Falls Stadium played host to the 2007 American Association of Independent Professional Baseball all-star game.[94] Sioux Falls Arena hosted the Continental Basketball Association all-star game in 1996, 2000 and 2003. It also hosted the NBA Development League Showcase in early 2007 and the United States Hockey League Prospects/All-Star Game in the 2002 and 2009 seasons.

Constructed in 2014, the Denny Sanford Premier Center is home to The Summit League Men's Basketball Tournament and The Summit League Women's Basketball Tournament.[95]

Sioux Falls hosted the 16U Amateur Softball Association A National Championship of fastpitch softball in July 2009 and the 14U ASA A National Championship of fastpitch softball in July 2012. In August 1989 and 2009, Sioux Falls hosted the Air National Guard National Softball Tournament at Sherman Park Complex.

Foldings[edit]

On September 26, 2007, the Sioux Falls Spitfire suspended operations.[96]

Sister cities[edit]

In accordance with Sister Cities International, an organization that began under President Dwight Eisenhower in 1956, Sioux Falls has been given three international sister cities in an attempt to foster cross-cultural understanding:

Media[edit]

Awards[edit]

  • In 1992, a healthy economy, low unemployment, and a low crime rate led to Sioux Falls being named "the best place to live in America" by Money magazine.[98]
  • In 2006, Men's Health Magazine ranked Sioux Falls as the 93rd Angriest City in the Nation, out of 100 cities studied in the survey.[99]
  • In 2007, Allstate awarded Sioux Falls with the Allstate Safety Leadership Award in recognition of the safe drivers of the area, with Sioux Falls residents averaging an accident once every 13.7 years.[100] Sioux Falls was honored with the award again in 2008.
  • Also in 2007, Street & Smith's Sports Business Journal ranked Sioux Falls the 9th Best City for Minor League Sports, In its ranking of Minor League Markets.[101]
  • In the November 2007 issue of Men's Health Magazine, Sioux Falls was ranked #2 on the list of cities with the least debt, finishing just behind Billings, Montana.
  • Forbes named Sioux Falls the #1 Best Small Place For Business And Careers in 2005, 2006, 2007, 2008 and 2009.
  • Forbes also released the University of Cincinnati's 2006 "United States Drinking Water Quality Study Report", which had Sioux Falls ranked 3rd in Cleanest Drinking Water.
  • In 2009, CNN ranked Sioux Falls the 45th best place to live and launch a business out of a list of 100.[102]

Notable people[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b "City of Sioux Falls Mayor's Office". Retrieved 20 May 2010. 
  2. ^ a b "US Gazetteer files 2010". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved 2012-06-21. 
  3. ^ a b "American FactFinder". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved 2012-06-21. 
  4. ^ a b "Metropolitan and Micropolitan Statistical Areas". 2014 Population Estimates. United States Census Bureau, Population Division. May 22, 2015. Retrieved May 22, 2015. 
  5. ^ a b "Population Estimates". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved May 20, 2016. 
  6. ^ "Zip Code Lookup". USPS. Retrieved May 22, 2015. 
  7. ^ "US Board on Geographic Names". United States Geological Survey. 2007-10-25. Retrieved 2008-01-31. 
  8. ^ Ullrich, Jan F. (2014). New Lakota Dictionary (2nd ed.). Bloomington, Indiana: Lakota Language Consortium. ISBN 978-0-9761082-9-0. 
  9. ^ "Find a County". National Association of Counties. Retrieved 2011-06-07. 
  10. ^ "The 258 fastest growing U.S. cities". money.cnn.com. 2007-06-27. Retrieved 6 January 2011. 
  11. ^ "America's Fastest-Growing Cities 2010". businessweek.com. Retrieved 6 January 2011. 
  12. ^ http://www.viamediatv.com/market_Sioux%20Falls_SD.htm.  Missing or empty |title= (help)
  13. ^ "American Indian Services Inc.". Retrieved 2008-04-22. 
  14. ^ "History of Sioux Falls". City of Sioux Falls. Retrieved 2008-11-23. 
  15. ^ Angelfire.com, Retrieved on 2008-06-21
  16. ^ Sioux falls – FactMonster.com
  17. ^ Hetland, Cara. Sioux Falls 25 years after Citibank's arrival. [1], Minnesota Public Radio. 24 February 2006. (accessed 23 March 2007)
  18. ^ "US Gazetteer files: 2010, 2000, and 1990". United States Census Bureau. 2011-02-12. Retrieved 2011-04-23. 
  19. ^ "Estimates for the 100 Fastest Growing U.S. Counties in 2013: April 1, 2010 to July 1, 2013". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved July 2, 2014. 
  20. ^ "USDA Plant Hardiness Zone Map". United States Department of Agriculture – Agricultural Research Service. Retrieved 2013-07-18. 
  21. ^ a b "Average Weather for Sioux Falls, SD − Temperature and Precipitation". The Weather Channel. Retrieved 2010-05-14. 
  22. ^ "Station Name: SD SIOUX FALLS". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved 2013-03-10. 
  23. ^ "NOWData - NOAA Online Weather Data". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved 2013-02-18. 
  24. ^ "Climatological Normals of Sioux Falls". Hong Kong Observatory. Retrieved 2010-05-14. 
  25. ^ "2006 Action Plan Draft" (PDF). City of Sioux Falls. 2006. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2007-07-04. Retrieved 2007-03-20. 
  26. ^ "Sioux Falls Crime Statistics" (CSV). www.cityrating.com. Retrieved 2007-03-20. 
  27. ^ "2004 Presidential Election Data Graphs – South Dakota". www.uselectionatlas.org. Retrieved 2007-03-23. 
  28. ^ "2008 Presidential Election Data Graphs – South Dakota". www.uselectionatlas.org. Retrieved 2008-10-26. 
  29. ^ a b "Major Area Employers". Sioux Falls Development Foundation. Retrieved July 2, 2014. 
  30. ^ "Annual Estimates of the Resident Population for Incorporated Places: April 1, 2010 to July 1, 2015". Retrieved May 20, 2016. 
  31. ^ "U.S. Decennial Census". Census.gov. Retrieved May 29, 2013. 
  32. ^ Sioux Falls School District | Sioux Falls School District. Sf.k12.sd.us. Retrieved on 2013-08-25.
  33. ^ Jim Clark. "SculptureWalk Sioux Falls homepage". Retrieved 25 Nov 09.  Check date values in: |access-date= (help)
  34. ^ "Mayor's Awards for the Arts". Sioux Empire Arts Council. Retrieved 2008-04-22. 
  35. ^ http://sculpturewalksiouxfalls.com/about/
  36. ^ a b http://visitsiouxfalls.com/why-sioux-falls/so-much-to-see-in-sioux-falls/
  37. ^ http://www.argusleader.com/story/life/2015/01/24/whatever-happened-art-agees-dream-come-true/22269169/
  38. ^ https://www.washingtonpavilion.org/online/default.asp?doWork::WScontent::loadArticle=Load&BOparam::WScontent::loadArticle::article_id=150A970F-CCD6-4CC6-98DC-6061447A2AB3&menu_id=E8CADA75-EEF5-4335-90C6-53107DBCE58C
  39. ^ northern plains tribal arts
  40. ^ http://www.npiam.org
  41. ^ https://www.washingtonpavilion.org/online/default.asp?doWork::WScontent::loadArticle=Load&BOparam::WScontent::loadArticle::article_id=E4652B00-6C9C-4FD3-8450-CD317C6C441D
  42. ^ http://www.sf.k12.sd.us/our-district/student-support-services/indian-education
  43. ^ http://www.artscouncil.sd.gov/ta/jgroth.aspx
  44. ^ http://www.sf.k12.sd.us/schools/high-schools/washington/washington-high-school-history
  45. ^ https://www.facebook.com/SiouxFallsHorseBarnArtCenter/
  46. ^ a b https://www.poetryfoundation.org/poems-and-poets/poets/detail/allison-adelle-hedge-coke
  47. ^ YMCA of the USA. "YMCA National Writer's Voice". Retrieved 25 Nov 09.  Check date values in: |access-date= (help)
  48. ^ https://www.facebook.com/PavilionVAC/photos/a.432112608676.222468.40826783676/10155119134248677
  49. ^ https://books.google.com/books?isbn=1610972996
  50. ^ http://www.expeditionoklahoma.com/2014/06/good-earth-state-park-at-blood-run-.html
  51. ^ http://allisonhedgecoke.com/FINAL%20UCR%20-%20ALLISON%20ADELLE%20HEDGE%20COKE%20CV%202016%20w_%20media%20links.pdf
  52. ^ http://www.augie.edu/sites/default/.../dc_2012_program_4_25_12.pdf
  53. ^ http://allisonhedgecoke.com
  54. ^ http://www.lannan.org/bios/allison-hedge-coke/
  55. ^ a b c http://www.artscouncil.sd.gov/aisc/litcoke.aspx
  56. ^ https://pen.org/allison-hedge-coke?member
  57. ^ http://www.blackhillsradio.com/sdaae.ht
  58. ^ http://www.blackhillsradio.com/sdaae.htm
  59. ^ http://www.unomaha.edu/college-of-communication-fine-arts-and-media/writers-workshop/mfa-program/mfa-faculty/allison-adelle-hedge-coke.php
  60. ^ http://vcfa.edu/writing-publishing/news/allison-adelle-hedge-coke-joining-mfa-writing-publishing-faculty
  61. ^ http://www.booksamillion.com/p/Sioux-Falls-South-Dakota/Source-Wikipedia/9781156867013
  62. ^ https://www.siouxfalls.org/mayor/boards-commissions/.../2004-report
  63. ^ http://ksoo.com/sioux-falls-poetry-contest-set-in-stone/
  64. ^ http://sdhumanities.org/festival-of-books/presenters/detail/60/
  65. ^ http://www.southdacola.com/blog/category/chuck-luden/
  66. ^ http://www.sdrta.net/howardeunicehovland2014.pdf
  67. ^ http://www.southdakotamagazine.com/amaranth
  68. ^ http://www.augie.edu/sites/default/files/fall_2010_newsletter.pdf
  69. ^ https://www.linkedin.com/in/ronald-robinson-02839164
  70. ^ http://listen.sdpb.org/post/storycorps-art-huseboe-and-ron-robinson#stream/0
  71. ^ http://www.worldcat.org/title/from-the-lonely-cold-poems-by-nicole-allen-charles-luden-jason-freeman-suzanne-sunshower-steve-boint/oclc/489684493
  72. ^ https://www.amazon.com/dp/B00GZUD99S/ref=dp-kindle-redirect?_encoding=UTF8&btkr=1#nav-subnav
  73. ^ http://www.onbeing.org/blog/jason-freeman-from-my-limitations-to-achieving-the-extraordinary/8462
  74. ^ http://www.augie.edu/faculty-7
  75. ^ http://library.sd.gov/prog/sdbookbag/hicks_harvestofwords.pdf
  76. ^ http://www.sdpb.org/poetryoutloud/
  77. ^ https://www.arts.gov/art-works/2016/introducing-poetry-ourselves-winners
  78. ^ a b http://www.artssiouxfalls.org/wp-content/uploads/2016/03/Mayors-Award-for-the-Arts-History-of-Honorees.pdf
  79. ^ http://pointersridge.org/wordpress/who-we-are/
  80. ^ http://www.augie.edu/events/2010-02-11/axum-artwork-eyob-mergia
  81. ^ http://www.sfacf.org/featured-artists/
  82. ^ http://www.argusleader.com/story/life/2014/07/27/beyond-sculpturewalk-citys-art/13185063/
  83. ^ a b http://www.siouxfallsjazzfest.com/festival-info/about-jazzfest/
  84. ^ http://www.jazzfestsiouxfalls.com
  85. ^ http://sfjb.org/about-us/history-of-sfjb/
  86. ^ http://www.dtsf.com/events/details/downtown-riverfest2/2016-8-13
  87. ^ https://www.facebook.com/SiouxFallsArtistCommunity/
  88. ^ http://www.dtsf.com/events/details/ipso-gallery-presents-boonie/2015-6-5
  89. ^ http://dtsf.com/discover-downtown/arts-attractions/P10?
  90. ^ Great Plains Zoo & Delbridge Museum of Natural History (April 8, 2005). "Our History & Our Mission". Retrieved 25 Nov 09.  Check date values in: |access-date= (help)
  91. ^ "South Dakota 100 Corridor Preservation Project". South Dakota Department of Transportation. Retrieved 2010-05-10. 
  92. ^ "Sioux Falls Transit First to Deploy RouteMatch Software's Fixed Route CAD/AVL Solution". Market Wire. August 2007. Retrieved 2008-10-16. 
  93. ^ http://www.sfairport.com/
  94. ^ "2007 American Association All Star Game". aabfan.com. July 17, 2007. Retrieved 2008-10-16. 
  95. ^ Reusse, Patrick (March 6, 2015). "Sioux Falls sports scene benefits from Sanford". Minneapolis Star Tribune. Retrieved April 4, 2015. 
  96. ^ Sports KSFY (September 26, 2007). "SpitFire Suspend Operations". KSFY. Archived from the original on February 14, 2009. Retrieved 2008-10-16. 
  97. ^ "Die Partnerstädte der Landeshauptstadt Potsdam". www.potsdam.de (in German). Retrieved 24 June 2010. 
  98. ^ Hawkins, Yvonne. "Viewpoint: We shouldn't treat accolades as ho-hum news" Siouxfallsbusinessjournal.com
  99. ^ "How Angry Is Your City?". Health:MetroGrades. Men's Health. Retrieved 24 November 2009. 
  100. ^ "3rd Annual Allstate America's Best Drivers Report". Archived from the original on June 16, 2007. 
  101. ^ David Broughton and Bill King (August 20, 2007). "Rounding out the top 10 markets". Street & Smith's Sports Group. Retrieved 24 Nov 09.  Check date values in: |access-date= (help)
  102. ^ Peter McDougall (July 2, 2008). "100 best places to live and launch". CNNMoney.com. Retrieved 2009-03-10. 
  103. ^ "Profile of James Abourezk". 
  104. ^ "Shayna Baszler". sherdog.com. Retrieved 23 September 2013. 
  105. ^ http://www.jwpepper.com/10281737.item#.UkDShdYo6Uk
  106. ^ "Chris Browne". WorldNow and KSFY. Retrieved 24 September 2013. 
  107. ^ "Benny Castillo". KELOLAND TV. Retrieved 24 September 2013. 
  108. ^ "Dallas Clark". Scripps TV Station Group. Retrieved 24 September 2013. 
  109. ^ "Donn Clendenon". BASEBALL REFERENCE. COM. Retrieved 24 September 2013. 
  110. ^ "William Dougherty". .kdlt.com. Retrieved 24 September 2013. 
  111. ^ http://www.argusleader.com/story/news/2014/10/03/state-poetry-society-searching-new-poet-laureate/16655829/
  112. ^ "Joe Foss". by Acepilots.com. Retrieved 24 September 2013. 
  113. ^ "Michael E. Fossum". .jsc.nasa.gov. Retrieved 24 September 2013. 
  114. ^ "Paul Gordon". hawkeyesports.com. Retrieved 24 September 2013. 
  115. ^ "Neil Graff". pro-football-reference.com. Retrieved 24 September 2013. 
  116. ^ "Donald A. Haggar". South Dakota Legislature,. Retrieved 24 September 2013. 
  117. ^ "Mary Hart". sdhalloffame.com. Retrieved 24 September 2013. 
  118. ^ http://www.loc.gov/poetry/prize-fellow/bynner.html?loclr=eape
  119. ^ "Alexis LeVan". Future Productions, LLC. Retrieved 24 September 2013. 
  120. ^ "Mike Martz". California Community College Athletic Association. Retrieved 24 September 2013. 
  121. ^ "Pat O'Brien". CBS Interactive. Retrieved 24 September 2013. 
  122. ^ "David Soul". Notable Names Data Base. Retrieved 24 September 2013. 
  123. ^ "Joan Tabor". Ancestry.com. Retrieved 24 September 2013. 
  124. ^ "About John Thune". 
  125. ^ "Shane Van Boening". AZBilliards.com EPPA inc. Retrieved 24 September 2013. 
  126. ^ "Jerry verDorn". American Media, Inc. Retrieved 24 September 2013. 

Further reading[edit]

  • Olson, Gary D. "Norwegian Immigrants in Early Sioux Falls: A Demographic Profile", Norwegian-American Studies, 36 (2011), pp 45–84.
  • Olson, Gary D. "A Dakota Boomtown: Sioux Falls, 1877–1880", Great Plains Quarterly (2004) 24#1 pp 17–30
  • Oyos, Lynwood E. (2014). Reveille for Sioux Falls: A World War II Army Air Forces Technical School Changes a South Dakota City. The Center for Western Studies, Augustana College. ISBN 9780931170973.  The author is Professor Emeritus of History at Augustana College.
  • Tingley, Ralph and Tingley, Kathleen. Mission in Sioux Falls: The First Baptist Church, 1875–1975 (1975)
  • History of Southeastern Dakota: Its Settlement and Growth (1881)

External links[edit]