|Group:||Group I (dsDNA)|
Siphoviridae is a family of double-stranded DNA viruses in the order Caudovirales. Bacteria and archaea serve as natural hosts. There are currently 313 species in this family, divided among 47 genera. The characteristic structural features of this family are a nonenveloped head and noncontractile tail.
Viruses in Siphoviridae are non-enveloped, with icosahedral and head-tail geometries (morphotype B1) or a prolate capsid (morphotype B2), and T=7 symmetry. The diameter is around 60 nm. Members of this family are also characterized by their filamentous, cross-banded, noncontractile tails, usually with short terminal and subterminal fibers. Genomes are double stranded and linear, around 50kb in length, containing about 70 genes. The guanine/cytosine content is usually around 52%.
Viral replication is cytoplasmic. Entry into the host cell is achieved by adsorption into the host cell. Replication follows the replicative transposition model. DNA-templated transcription is the method of transcription. Translation takes place by -1 ribosomal frameshifting, and +1 ribosomal frameshifting. The virus exits the host cell by lysis, and holin/endolysin/spanin proteins. Bacteria and archaea serve as the natural host. Transmission routes are passive diffusion.
The organisation of genes in the genera L5likevirus, Lambdalikevirus, Phic3unalikevirus, and Psimunalikevirus and the proposed genera Sfi2likevirus, Sfi1likevirus, Sk1likevirus, and Tm4likevirus suggests that these may form a lambda supergroup (or subfamily).
- Genus Cba39unalikevirus; type species: Cellulophaga phage phi39:1
- Cellulophaga phage phi39:1
- Genus Cba46unalikevirus; type species: Cellulophaga phage phi46:1
- Cellulophaga phage phi46:1
- Genus Cba18unalikevirus; type species: Cellulophaga phage phi18:1
- Cellulophaga phage phi18:1
- Cellulophaga phage phi12:1
- Cellulophaga phage phi12:3
- Cellulophaga phage phi17:1
- Cellulophaga phage phi18:2
- Genus Cba10unalikevirus; type species: Cellulophaga phage phi10:1
- Cellulophaga phage phi10:1
- Cellulophaga phage phi19:1
- Genus Cba13unalikevirus; type species: Cellulophaga phage phi13:1
- Cellulophaga phage phi13:1
- Cellulophaga phage phi19:2
- Cellulophaga phage phiST
- Genus Jk06likevirus; type species: Escherichia phage Jk06
- Escherichia phage Eb49
- Escherichia phage Jk06
- Escherichia phage Rogue1
- Escherichia phage AHP24
- Escherichia phage AHS24
- Escherichia phage AHP42
- Escherichia phage AKS96
- Enterobacteria phage phiJLA23
- Enterobacteria phage phiKP26
- Genus Kp36likevirus; type species: Klebsiella phage KP36
- Enterobacter phage F20
- Klebsiella phage KP36
- Genus R1tlikevirus; type species: Lactococcus phage r1t
- Lactococcus phage r1t
- Genus Rtplikevirus; type species: Escherichia phage Rtp
- Escherichia phage Rtp
- Enterobacteria phage vB_EcoS_ACG-M12
- Genus Tlslikevirus; type species: Escherichia phage Tls
- Escherichia phage Tls
- Salmonella phage FSL SP-126
In addition to the above viruses, many members of Siphoviridae have been grouped into an unclassified group with no genus assignment. This group includes numerous phages known to infect Lactobacillus, Mycobacterium, Streptococcus, and other bacteria.
- Safferman, R.S.; Cannon, R.E.; Desjardins, P.R.; Gromov, B.V.; Haselkorn, R.; Sherman, L.A.; Shilo, M. "Classification and Nomenclature of Viruses of Cyanobacteria". Intervirology. 19 (2): 61–66. doi:10.1159/000149339.
- "Viral Zone". ExPASy. Retrieved 1 July 2015.
- ICTV. "Virus Taxonomy: 2014 Release". Retrieved 1 July 2015.
- Lood R, Mörgelin M, Holmberg A, Rasmussen M, Collin M (2008). "Inducible Siphoviruses in superficial and deep tissue isolates of Propionibacterium acnes". BMC Microbiol. 8: 139. doi:10.1186/1471-2180-8-139. PMC . PMID 18702830.
- Brüssow H, Desiere F (2001). "Comparative phage genomics and the evolution of Siphoviridae: insights from dairy phages". Mol Microbiol. 39 (2): 213–22. doi:10.1046/j.1365-2958.2001.02228.x.
- "The Dilemma of Phage Taxonomy Illustrated by Comparative Genomics of Sfi21-Like Siphoviridae in Lactic Acid Bacteria". Journal of Bacteriology. 184: 6026–6036. September 2014. doi:10.1128/JB.184.21.6026-6036.2002.
- Gutiérrez, D; Adriaenssens, EM; Martínez, B; Rodríguez, A; Lavigne, R; Kropinski, AM; García, P (11 Sep 2013). "Three proposed new bacteriophage genera of staphylococcal phages: "3alikevirus", "77likevirus" and "Phietalikevirus"". Archives of Virology. 159: 389–98. doi:10.1007/s00705-013-1833-1. PMID 24022640.
- Taxonomy Proposals Awaiting Ratification at ICTV
- Taxonomy Proposals Pending at ICTV
- Holmfeldt, K.; Solonenko, N.; Shah, M.; Corrier, K.; Riemann, L.; Verberkmoes, N. C.; Sullivan, M. B. (2013). "Twelve previously unknown phage genera are ubiquitous in global oceans". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 110 (31): 12798. doi:10.1073/pnas.1305956110.
- Niu, Y. D.; McAllister, T. A.; Nash, J. H. E.; Kropinski, A. M.; Stanford, K. (2014). "Four Escherichia coli O157:H7 Phages: A New Bacteriophage Genus and Taxonomic Classification of T1-Like Phages". PLoS ONE. 9 (6): e100426. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0100426.
- "unclassified Siphoviridae". NCBI Taxonomy.