Sipuleucel-T

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Sipuleucel-T
Clinical data
Trade namesProvenge
Other namesAPC8015
AHFS/Drugs.comMicromedex Detailed Consumer Information
MedlinePlusa611025
License data
Pregnancy
category
  • N/A (only approved in men, prostate cancer)
Routes of
administration
Intravenous
ATC code
Legal status
Legal status
Identifiers
CAS Number
DrugBank
ChemSpider
  • None
UNII
KEGG
ChEMBL
CompTox Dashboard (EPA)
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Sipuleucel-T, sold under the brand name Provenge, developed by Dendreon Pharmaceuticals, LLC, is a cell-based cancer immunotherapy for prostate cancer (CaP).[1][2][3] It is an autologous cellular immunotherapy.[1]

Medical uses[edit]

Sipuleucel-T is indicated for the treatment of metastatic, asymptomatic or minimally symptomatic, metastatic castrate-resistant hormone-refractory prostate cancer (HRPC). Other names for this stage are metastatic castrate-resistant (mCRPC) and androgen independent (AI) or (AIPC). This stage leads to mCRPC with lymph node involvement and distal (distant) tumors; this is the lethal stage of CaP. The prostate cancer staging designation is T4,N1,M1c.[4][5][6]

Treatment method[edit]

A course of treatment consists of three basic steps:

Premedication with acetaminophen and antihistamine is recommended to minimize side effects.[7]

Side effects[edit]

Common side effects include: bladder pain; bloating or swelling of the face, arms, hands, lower legs, or feet; bloody or cloudy urine; body aches or pain; chest pain; chills; confusion; cough; diarrhea; difficult, burning, or painful urination; difficulty with breathing; difficulty with speaking up to inability to speak; double vision; sleeplessness; and inability to move the arms, legs, or facial muscles.[8][9]

Society and culture[edit]

Legal status[edit]

Sipuleucel-T was approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) on April 29, 2010, to treat asymptomatic or minimally symptomatic metastatic HRPC.[10][11][12][13][1]

Shortly afterward, sipuleucel-T was added to the compendium of cancer treatments published by the National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN) as a "category 1" (highest recommendation) treatment for HRPC. The NCCN Compendium is used by Medicare and major health care insurance providers to decide whether a treatment should be reimbursed.[14][15]

Research[edit]

Clinical trials[edit]

Completed[edit]

Sipuleucel-T showed overall survival (OS) benefit to patients in three double-blind randomized phase III clinical trials, D9901,[5] D9902a,[16][17] and IMPACT.[4]

The IMPACT trial[4] served as the basis for FDA licensing. This trial enrolled 512 patients with asymptomatic or minimally symptomatic metastatic HRPC randomized in a 2:1 ratio. The median survival time for sipuleucel-T patients was 25.8 months comparing to 21.7 months for placebo-treated patients, an increase of 4.1 months.[18] 31.7% of treated patients survived for 36 months vs. 23.0% in the control arm.[19] Overall survival was statistically significant (P=0.032). The longer survival without tumor shrinkage or change in progression is surprising. This may suggest the effect of an unmeasured variable.[6] The trial was conducted pursuant to a FDA Special Protocol Assessment (SPA), a set of guidelines binding trial investigators to specific agreed-upon parameters with respect to trial design, procedures and endpoints; compliance ensured overall scientific integrity and accelerated FDA approval.[citation needed]

The D9901 trial[5] enrolled 127 patients with asymptomatic metastatic HRPC randomized in a 2:1 ratio. The median survival time for patients treated with sipuleucel-T was 25.9 months comparing to 21.4 months for placebo-treated patients. Overall survival was statistically significant (P=0.01).[citation needed]

The D9902a trial[16] was designed like the D9901 trial but enrolled 98 patients. The median survival time for patients treated with sipuleucel-T was 19.0 months comparing to 15.3 months for placebo-treated patients, but did not reach statistical significance.[citation needed]

Ongoing[edit]

As of August 2014, the PRO Treatment and Early Cancer Treatment (PROTECT) trial, a phase IIIB clinical trial started in 2001, was tracking subjects but no longer enrolling new subjects.[20] Its purpose is to test efficacy for patients whose CaP is still controlled by either suppression of testosterone by hormone treatment or by surgical castration. Such patients have usually failed primary treatment of either surgical removal of the prostate, (EBRT), internal radiation, BNCT or (HIFU) for curative intent. Such failure is called biochemical failure and is defined as a PSA reading of 2.0 ng/mL above nadir (the lowest reading taken post primary treatment).[21]

As of August 2014, a clinical trial administering sipuleucel-T in conjunction with ipilimumab (Yervoy) was tracking subjects but no longer enrolling new subjects; the trial evaluates the clinical safety and anti-cancer effects (quantified in PSA, radiographic and T cell response) of the combination therapy in patients with advanced prostate cancer.[22]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d "Provenge- sipuleucel-t injection". DailyMed. Retrieved 22 July 2021.
  2. ^ Plosker GL (January 2011). "Sipuleucel-T: in metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer". Drugs. 71 (1): 101–8. doi:10.2165/11206840-000000000-00000. PMID 21175243.
  3. ^ Immunostimulatory composition
  4. ^ a b c d Kantoff PW, Higano CS, Shore ND, Berger ER, Small EJ, Penson DF, et al. (July 2010). "Sipuleucel-T immunotherapy for castration-resistant prostate cancer". The New England Journal of Medicine. 363 (5): 411–22. doi:10.1056/NEJMoa1001294. PMID 20818862.
  5. ^ a b c d Small EJ, Schellhammer PF, Higano CS, Redfern CH, Nemunaitis JJ, Valone FH, et al. (July 2006). "Placebo-controlled phase III trial of immunologic therapy with sipuleucel-T (APC8015) in patients with metastatic, asymptomatic hormone refractory prostate cancer". Journal of Clinical Oncology. 24 (19): 3089–94. doi:10.1200/JCO.2005.04.5252. PMID 16809734.
  6. ^ a b Longo DL (July 2010). "New therapies for castration-resistant prostate cancer". The New England Journal of Medicine. 363 (5): 479–81. doi:10.1056/NEJMe1006300. PMID 20818868.
  7. ^ Kantoff PW, Higano CS, Shore ND, Berger ER, Small EJ, Penson DF, et al. (July 2010). "Sipuleucel-T immunotherapy for castration-resistant prostate cancer". The New England Journal of Medicine. 363 (5): 411–22. doi:10.1056/NEJMoa1001294. PMID 20818862.
  8. ^ "Sipuleucel-T (Intravenous Route) - Side Effects". Mayo Clinic. Retrieved 22 April 2015.
  9. ^ "Package Insert and Patient Information - Provenge (PDF - 157KB)" (PDF). U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Retrieved 22 April 2015.
  10. ^ Richwine L (29 April 2010). "U.S. FDA OKs Dendreon's prostate cancer vaccine". Reuters. Retrieved 30 April 2010.
  11. ^ "Approval Letter - Provenge". Food and Drug Administration. 29 April 2010.
  12. ^ "Provenge (sipuleucel-T)". U.S. Food and Drug Administration. 22 July 2017. Retrieved 1 April 2020.
  13. ^ "Provenge (sipuleucel-T)". U.S. Food and Drug Administration. 14 July 2017. Archived from the original on 22 July 2017. Retrieved 1 April 2020.CS1 maint: unfit URL (link)
  14. ^ "NCCN Guidelines and NCCN Compendium Updated". Retrieved 8 January 2011.
  15. ^ "NCCN Drugs & Biologics Compendium".
  16. ^ a b Higano C, Burch P, Small E, Schellhammer P, Lemon R, Verjee S, Hershberg R (October 2005). Immunotherapy (APC8015) for androgen independent prostate cancer (AIPC): final progression and survival data from a second Phase 3 trial. 13th European Cancer Conference. Paris.
  17. ^ Mason K (2 November 2005). "New treatment options for patients with prostate cancer". ECCO-the European CanCer Organisation.
  18. ^ Lacroix M (2014). Targeted Therapies in Cancer. Hauppauge, NY: Nova Sciences Publishers. ISBN 978-1-63321-687-7.
  19. ^ Kantoff PW, Higano CS, Shore ND, Berger ER, Small EJ, Penson DF, et al. (July 2010). "Sipuleucel-T immunotherapy for castration-resistant prostate cancer". The New England Journal of Medicine. 363 (5): 411–22. doi:10.1056/NEJMoa1001294. PMID 20818862.
  20. ^ "NCT00779402: Provenge for the Treatment of Hormone Sensitive Prostate Cancer". ClinicalTrials.gov. US National Institutes of Health. 29 June 2017.
  21. ^ Roach M, Hanks G, Thames H, Schellhammer P, Shipley WU, Sokol GH, Sandler H (July 2006). "Defining biochemical failure following radiotherapy with or without hormonal therapy in men with clinically localized prostate cancer: recommendations of the RTOG-ASTRO Phoenix Consensus Conference". International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics. 65 (4): 965–74. doi:10.1016/j.ijrobp.2006.04.029. PMID 16798415.
  22. ^ "Sipuleucel-T and ipilimumab clinical trials". ClinicalTrials.gov. US National Institutes of Health. 23 August 2017.

Public Domain This article incorporates public domain material from the U.S. National Cancer Institute document: "Dictionary of Cancer Terms".

Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]

  • "Sipuleucel-T". Drug Information Portal. U.S. National Library of Medicine.