Ferguson in December 2006
|Full name||Alexander Chapman Ferguson|
|Date of birth||31 December 1941|
|Place of birth||Glasgow, Scotland|
|Harmony Row Boys Club|
|1967||Scottish Football League XI||2||(1)|
|* Senior club appearances and goals counted for the domestic league only.
Sir Alexander Chapman Ferguson, CBE (born 31 December 1941) is a Scottish former football manager and player who managed Manchester United from 1986 to 2013. He is regarded by many players, managers and analysts to be one of the greatest and most successful managers of all time.
Ferguson played as a forward for several Scottish clubs, including Dunfermline Athletic and Rangers. While playing for Dunfermline, he was the top goalscorer in the Scottish league in the 1965–66 season. Towards the end of his playing career he also worked as a coach, then started his managerial career with East Stirlingshire and St Mirren. Ferguson then enjoyed a highly successful period as manager of Aberdeen, winning three Scottish league championships, four Scottish Cups and the UEFA Cup Winners' Cup in 1983. He briefly managed Scotland following the death of Jock Stein, taking the team to the 1986 World Cup.
Ferguson was appointed manager of Manchester United in November 1986. During his 26 years with Manchester United he won 38 trophies, including 13 Premier League titles, five FA Cups and two UEFA Champions League titles. He was knighted in the 1999 Queen's Birthday Honours list, for his services to the game. Ferguson is the longest serving manager of Manchester United, having overtaken Sir Matt Busby's record on 19 December 2010. He retired from management at the end of the 2012–13 season, having won the Premier League in his final season.
- 1 Early life
- 2 Playing career
- 3 Early managerial career
- 4 Aberdeen
- 5 Manchester United
- 5.1 Appointment and first years
- 5.2 The first league title
- 5.3 1993–95: Double win and loss
- 5.4 1995–98
- 5.5 1998–99: Treble success
- 5.6 1999–2002: Title hat-trick, retirement plan
- 5.7 2002–2006: Rebuilding and transition
- 5.8 Second European Champions League
- 5.9 Another two league titles and League Cups
- 5.10 Retirement
- 6 Controversies
- 7 Legacy
- 8 Personal life
- 9 Honours
- 10 Career statistics
- 11 See also
- 12 Notes
- 13 References
- 14 External links
Born to Alexander Beaton Ferguson, a plater's helper in the shipbuilding industry, and his wife, Elizabeth (née Hardie), Alex Chapman Ferguson was born at his grandmother's home on Shieldhall Road in Govan on 31 December 1941, but grew up in a tenement at 667 Govan Road (which has since been demolished), where he lived with his parents as well as his younger brother Martin.
Ferguson attended Broomloan Road Primary School and later Govan High School. He began his football career with Harmony Row Boys Club in Govan, before progressing to Drumchapel Amateurs, a youth club with a strong reputation for producing senior footballers.
Ferguson's playing career began as an amateur with Queen's Park, where he made his debut as a striker aged 16. He described his first match as a "nightmare", but scored Queen's Park's goal in a 2–1 defeat against Stranraer. Perhaps his most notable game for Queen's Park was the 7–1 defeat away to Queen of the South on Boxing Day 1959 when ex-England international Ivor Broadis scored four of the Queen of the South goals. Ferguson was the solitary Queen's Park goalscorer.
Despite scoring 20 goals in his 31 games for Queen's Park, he could not command a regular place in the side and moved to St Johnstone in 1960. Although he continued to score regularly at St Johnstone, he was still unable to command a regular place and regularly requested transfers. Ferguson was out of favour at the club and he even considered emigrating to Canada, however St Johnstone's failure to sign a forward led the manager to select Ferguson for a match against Rangers, in which he scored a hat-trick in a surprise victory. Dunfermline signed him the following summer (1964), and Ferguson became a full-time professional footballer.
The following season (1964–65), Dunfermline were strong challengers for the Scottish League and reached the Scottish Cup Final, but Ferguson was dropped for the final after a poor performance in a league game against St Johnstone. Dunfermline lost the final 3–2 to Celtic, then failed to win the League by one point. The 1965–66 season saw Ferguson notch up 45 goals in 51 games for Dunfermline. Along with Joe McBride of Celtic, he was the top goalscorer in the Scottish League with 31 goals.
He then joined Rangers for £65,000, then a record fee for a transfer between two Scottish clubs. He performed well in Europe during his two seasons with the club, scoring six goals in nine appearances in the Inter-Cities Fairs Cup including two against 1.FC Köln in the 1967–68 competition, and an important strike against Athletic Bilbao in the 1968–69 edition which helped Rangers into the semi-finals, but on both occasions they were knocked out by English opposition. He was blamed for a goal conceded in the 1969 Scottish Cup Final, in a match in which he was designated to mark Celtic captain, Billy McNeill, and was subsequently forced to play for the club's junior side instead of for the first team. According to his brother, Ferguson was so upset by the experience that he threw his losers' medal away. There have been claims that he suffered discrimination at Rangers after his marriage to a Catholic, Cathy Holding, but Ferguson himself makes it clear in his autobiography that Rangers knew of his wife's religion when he joined the club and that he left the club very reluctantly, due to the fall-out from his alleged cup final mistake.
The following October, Nottingham Forest wanted to sign Ferguson, but his wife was not keen on moving to England at that time so he went to Falkirk instead. He remained at Brockville for four years gaining more league appearances than he had elsewhere; in light of his experience he was promoted to player-coach, but when John Prentice became manager he removed Ferguson's coaching responsibilities. Ferguson's time at Falkirk was soured by this and he responded by requesting a transfer and moved to Ayr United, where he finished his playing career in 1974.
Early managerial career
In June 1974, Ferguson was appointed manager of East Stirlingshire, at the comparatively young age of 32. It was a part-time job that paid £40 per week, and the club did not have a single goalkeeper at the time. He gained a reputation as a disciplinarian, with club forward Bobby McCulley later saying he had "never been afraid of anyone before but Ferguson was a frightening bastard from the start."
The following October, Ferguson was invited to manage St Mirren. While they were below East Stirlingshire in the league, they were a bigger club and although Ferguson felt a degree of loyalty towards East Stirlingshire, he decided to join St Mirren after taking advice from Jock Stein.
Ferguson was manager of St Mirren from 1974 until 1978, producing a remarkable transformation of a team in the lower half of the old Second Division watched by crowds of just over 1,000, to First Division champions in 1977, discovering talent like Billy Stark, Tony Fitzpatrick, Lex Richardson, Frank McGarvey, Bobby Reid and Peter Weir while playing superb attacking football. The average age of the league winning team was 19 and the captain, Fitzpatrick, was 20.
St Mirren have the distinction of being the only club ever to sack Ferguson. He claimed wrongful dismissal against the club at an industrial tribunal but lost and was given no leave to appeal. According to a Billy Adams Sunday Herald article on 30 May 1999, the official version is that Ferguson was sacked for various breaches of contract including unauthorised payments to players. He was counter-accused of intimidating behaviour towards his office secretary because he wanted players to get some expenses tax free. He did not speak to her for six weeks, confiscated her keys and communicated only through a 17-year-old assistant. The tribunal concluded that Ferguson was "particularly petty" and "immature". It was claimed during the tribunal by St Mirren chairman, Willie Todd, that Ferguson had "no managerial ability".
On 31 May 2008, The Guardian published an interview with Todd (then aged 87), who had sacked Ferguson many years earlier. Todd explained that the fundamental reason for the dismissal was a breach of contract relating to Ferguson having agreed to join Aberdeen. Ferguson told journalist Jim Rodger of the Daily Mirror that he had asked at least one member of the squad to go to Aberdeen with him. He told the St Mirren staff he was leaving. Todd expressed regret over what happened but blamed Aberdeen for not approaching his club to discuss compensation.
Ferguson joined Aberdeen as manager in June 1978, replacing Billy McNeill who had only managed the club for one season before he was offered the chance to manage Celtic. Although Aberdeen were one of Scotland's major clubs they had won the league only once, in 1955 under Dave Halliday. The team had been playing well, however, and had not lost a league match since the previous December, having finished second in the league the previous season. Ferguson had now been a manager for four years, but was still not much older than some of the players and had trouble winning the respect of some of the older ones such as Joe Harper. The season did not go especially well, with Aberdeen reaching the semi-final of the Scottish Cup and the Scottish League Cup Final, but losing both matches and finishing fourth in the league.
Aberdeen lost the 1979–80 Scottish League Cup Final, this time to Dundee United after a replay. Ferguson took the blame for the defeat, saying he should have made changes to the team for the replay.
1980s and silverware
Aberdeen had started the 1979–80 season poorly but their form improved dramatically in the new year and they won the Scottish league that season with a 5–0 win on the final day. It was the first time in 15 years that the league had not been won by either Rangers or Celtic. Ferguson now felt that he had the respect of his players, later saying "That was the achievement which united us. I finally had the players believing in me".
He was still a strict disciplinarian, though, and his players nicknamed him "Furious Fergie". He fined one of his players, John Hewitt, for overtaking him on a public road, and kicked a tea urn at the players at half time after a poor first half. He was dissatisfied with the atmosphere at Aberdeen matches, and deliberately created a "siege mentality" by accusing the Scottish media of being biased towards the Glasgow clubs, to motivate the team. The team continued their success with a Scottish Cup win in 1982. Ferguson was offered the manager's job at Wolverhampton Wanderers but turned it down as he felt that Wolves were in trouble and "[his] ambitions at Aberdeen were not even half fulfilled".
European success and Scottish national side
Ferguson led Aberdeen to even greater success the following season, 1982–83. They had qualified for the European Cup Winners' Cup as a result of winning the Scottish Cup the previous season, and impressively knocked out Bayern Munich, who had beaten Tottenham Hotspur 4–1 in the previous round. According to Willie Miller, this gave them the confidence to believe that they could go on to win the competition, which they did, with a 2–1 victory over Real Madrid in the final on 11 May 1983. Aberdeen became only the third Scottish team to win a European trophy and Ferguson now felt that "he'd done something worthwhile with his life". This was followed up with victory in the European Super Cup in December 1983, when Hamburger SV, the reigning European Cup champions, were beaten 2–0 over two legs. Aberdeen had also performed well in the league that season, and retained the Scottish Cup with a 1–0 victory over Rangers, but Ferguson was not happy with his team's play in that match and upset the players by describing theirs as a "disgraceful performance" in a televised interview after the match, a statement he later retracted.
After a sub-standard start to the 1983–84 season, Aberdeen's form improved and the team won the Scottish league and retained the Scottish Cup. Ferguson was appointed an Officer of the Order of the British Empire (OBE) in the 1985 New Year Honours, and was offered the managers' jobs at Rangers and Arsenal during the season. Aberdeen retained their league title in the 1984–85 season, but had a disappointing season in 1985–86, finishing fourth in the league, although they did win both domestic cups. Ferguson had been appointed to the club's board of directors early in 1986, but that April he told Dick Donald, their chairman, that he intended to leave that summer.
Ferguson had been part of coaching staff for the Scottish national side during qualifying for the 1986 World Cup, but manager Jock Stein had collapsed and died on 10 September 1985 – at the end of the game in which Scotland qualified from their group for a play-off against Australia. Ferguson promptly agreed to take charge of the Scottish national side against the Australians and subsequently at the World Cup. To allow him to fulfil his international duties he appointed Archie Knox as his co-manager at Aberdeen. However, after Scotland failed to progress past the group stages of the World Cup, Ferguson stepped down as national team manager on 15 June 1986.
Around this time, Tottenham Hotspur offered Ferguson the chance to take over from Peter Shreeves as manager, but he rejected this offer and the job went to Luton Town's David Pleat instead. There was also an offer for Ferguson to replace Don Howe as Arsenal manager, but he rejected this offer as well, and fellow Scot George Graham took the post instead. That summer, there had been speculation that he would take over from Ron Atkinson at Manchester United, who had slumped to fourth in the English top flight after a ten-match winning start had made title glory seem inevitable.
It was not the first time that Ferguson had been linked with a move to England. In February 1982, Wolverhampton Wanderers had approached him about succeeding John Barnwell as manager as they were heading for relegation from the First Division. He rejected this offer, perhaps concerned about the club's financial stability, as they were more than £2 million in debt at the time and narrowly avoided going out of business. At the end of the 1984–85 season, it was reported that Ferguson was being considered for the Liverpool manager's job after the retirement of Joe Fagan was announced, but the job was quickly accepted by Liverpool striker Kenny Dalglish.
Although Ferguson remained at Aberdeen over the summer, he did eventually join Manchester United when Atkinson was sacked in November 1986.
Appointment and first years
Ferguson was appointed manager at Old Trafford on 6 November 1986. He was initially worried that many of the players, such as Norman Whiteside, Paul McGrath and Bryan Robson were drinking too much and was "depressed" by their level of fitness, but he managed to increase the players' discipline and United climbed up the table to finish the season in 11th place, having been 21st (second from bottom) when he took over.
His first game in charge was a 2–0 defeat at Oxford United on 8 November, followed seven days later by a goalless draw at newly promoted Norwich City, and then his first win (1–0 at home to Queens Park Rangers) on 22 November. Results steadily improved as the season went on, and by the time they recorded what would be their only away win of the league campaign at title challengers and deadly rivals Liverpool on Boxing Day, it was clear that United were on the road to recovery. 1987 began on a high note with a 4–1 victory over Newcastle United and United gradually pulled together in the second half of the season, with relatively occasional defeats on the way, and finished 11th in the final table. Ferguson's mother Elizabeth died of lung cancer, aged 64, three weeks after his appointment. Ferguson appointed Archie Knox, his assistant at Aberdeen, as his assistant at Manchester United in 1986.
In the 1987–88 season, Ferguson made several major signings, including Steve Bruce, Viv Anderson, Brian McClair and Jim Leighton. The new players made a great contribution to a United team who finished in second place, nine points behind Liverpool. Liverpool's points lead, however, had been in double digits for most of the season and while United had lost only five league games all season, they drew 12 games and there was clearly still some way to go before United could be a match for their north western rivals.
During the season, United played two friendly matches in Bermuda against the Bermuda national team and the Somerset Cricket Club. In the match against Somerset, both Ferguson himself and his assistant, Archie Knox, took to the field, with Knox even getting on the scoresheet. The match was Ferguson's only appearance for the Manchester United first team.
United were expected to do well when Mark Hughes returned to the club two years after leaving for Barcelona, but the 1988–89 season was a disappointment for them, finishing 11th in the league and losing 1–0 at home to Nottingham Forest in the FA Cup Sixth Round. They had begun the season slowly, going on a nine-match winless run throughout October and November (with one defeat and eight draws) before a run of generally good results took them to third place and the fringes of the title challenge by mid February. However, another run of disappointing results in the final quarter of the season saw them fall down to mid-table.
For the 1989–90 season, Ferguson further boosted his squad by paying large sums of money for midfielders Neil Webb, Mike Phelan and Paul Ince, as well as defender Gary Pallister and winger Danny Wallace. The season began well with a 4–1 win over defending champions Arsenal on the opening day, but United's league form quickly turned sour. In September, United suffered a humiliating 5–1 away defeat against fierce rivals Manchester City. Following this and an early season run of six defeats and two draws in eight games, a banner declaring, "Three years of excuses and it's still crap ... ta-ra Fergie." was displayed at Old Trafford, and many journalists and supporters called for Ferguson to be sacked. Ferguson later described December 1989 as "the darkest period [he had] ever suffered in the game", as United ended the decade just outside the relegation zone.
Ferguson, however, later revealed that the board of directors had assured him that they were not considering dismissing him. Although naturally disappointed with the lack of success in the league, they understood the reasons for the sub-standard results (namely the absence of several key players due to injury) and were pleased with the way that Ferguson had reorganised the club's coaching and scouting system.
Following a run of seven games without a win, Manchester United were drawn away to Nottingham Forest in the third round of the FA Cup. Forest were performing well that season and were in the process of winning the League Cup for the second season running, and it was expected that United would lose the match and Ferguson would consequently be sacked, but United won the game 1–0 due to a Mark Robins goal and eventually reached the final. This cup win is often cited as the match that saved Ferguson's Old Trafford career, even though it has since been stated that his job was never at risk. United went on to win the FA Cup, beating Crystal Palace 1–0 in the final replay after a 3–3 draw in the first match, giving Ferguson his first major trophy as Manchester United manager. United's defensive frailties in the first match were unilaterally blamed on goalkeeper Jim Leighton, forcing Ferguson to drop his former Aberdeen player and bring in Les Sealey.
The first league title
Although United's league form improved greatly in 1990–91, they were still inconsistent and finished sixth. There were some excellent performances that season, including a 6–2 demolition of Arsenal at Highbury, but results like an early 2–1 loss at newly promoted Sunderland, a 4–0 September hammering by Liverpool at Anfield, and a 2–0 home defeat by Everton in early March (the game where 17-year-old hot prospect Ryan Giggs made his senior debut) showed that United still had some way to go.
Even after the FA Cup final victory in the previous season, some still had doubts about Ferguson's ability to succeed where all the other managers since Matt Busby had failed – to win the league title. They were runners-up in the League Cup, losing 1–0 to Sheffield Wednesday. They also reached the final of the European Cup Winners' Cup, beating that season's Spanish champions Barcelona 2–1. After the match, Ferguson vowed that United would win the league the following season, and at long last he seemed to have won over the last of his sceptics after nearly five years in the job.
During the 1991 close season, Ferguson's assistant Archie Knox departed to Rangers to become assistant to Walter Smith, and Ferguson promoted youth team coach Brian Kidd to the role of assistant manager in Knox's place. He also made two major signings – goalkeeper Peter Schmeichel and defender Paul Parker – to bolster his side. There was much anticipation about the breakthrough of the young Ryan Giggs, who had played twice and scored once in the 1990–91 campaign, and the earlier emergence of another impressive young winger in the shape of Lee Sharpe, who despite their youth had made Ferguson feel able to resist plunging into the transfer market and buying a new player to take over from the disappointing Danny Wallace on the left wing. He had also added the Ukrainian Andrei Kanchelskis to the right wing, giving him a more attacking alternative to older midfielders Mike Phelan and Bryan Robson.
The 1991–92 season did not live up to Ferguson's expectations and, in Ferguson's words, "many in the media felt that [his] mistakes had contributed to the misery". United won the League Cup and UEFA Super Cup for the first time, but lost out on the league title to rivals Leeds United after leading the table for much of the season. A shortage of goals and being held to draws by teams they had been expected to beat in the second half of the campaign had proved to be the undoing of a United side who had performed so well in the first half of the season. Ferguson felt that his failure to secure the signing of Mick Harford from Luton Town had cost United the league, and that he needed "an extra dimension" to the team if they were to win the league the following season.
During the 1992 close season, Ferguson went on the hunt for a new striker. He first attempted to sign Alan Shearer from Southampton, but lost out to Blackburn Rovers. He also made at least one approach for the Sheffield Wednesday striker David Hirst, but manager Trevor Francis rejected all offers and the player stayed put. In the end, he paid £1 million for 23-year-old Cambridge United striker Dion Dublin – his only major signing of the summer.
After a slow start to the 1992–93 season (they were 10th of 22 at the beginning of November) it looked as though United would miss out on the league title (now the Premier League) yet again. However, after the purchase of French striker Eric Cantona from Leeds for £1.2 million, the future of Manchester United, and Ferguson's position as manager, began to look bright. Cantona formed a strong partnership with Mark Hughes and fired the club to the top of the table, ending United's 26-year wait for a League Championship, and also making them the first ever Premier League Champions. United had finished champions with a ten-point margin over runners-up Aston Villa, whose 1–0 defeat at Oldham Athletic on 2 May 1993 had given United the title. Ferguson was voted Manager of the Year by the League Managers' Association.
1993–95: Double win and loss
The 1993–94 season brought more success. Ferguson added Nottingham Forest's 22-year-old midfielder Roy Keane to the ranks for a British record fee of £3.75 million as a long term replacement for Bryan Robson, who was nearing the end of his career.
United led the 1993–94 Premier League table virtually from start to finish.
Ferguson was the very first winner of the Premier League Manager of the Month award, introduced for the start of the 1993–94 season, when he collected the accolade for August 1993.
Cantona was top scorer with 25 goals in all competitions despite being sent off twice in the space of five days in March 1994. United also reached the League Cup final but lost 3–1 to Aston Villa, managed by Ferguson's predecessor, Ron Atkinson. In the FA Cup final, Manchester United achieved an impressive 4–0 scoreline against Chelsea, winning Ferguson his second League and Cup Double, following his Scottish Premier Division and Scottish Cup titles with Aberdeen in 1984–85, though the League Cup final defeat meant that he had not yet achieved a repeat of the treble that he had achieved with Aberdeen in 1983.
Ferguson made only one close-season signing, paying Blackburn £1.2 million for David May. There were newspaper reports that Ferguson was also going to sign highly rated 21-year-old striker Chris Sutton from Norwich City, but the player headed for Blackburn instead.
1994–95 was a harder season for Ferguson. Cantona assaulted a Crystal Palace supporter in a game at Selhurst Park, and it seemed likely he would leave English football. An eight-month ban saw Cantona miss the final four months of the season. He also received a 14-day prison sentence for the offence but the sentence was quashed on appeal and replaced by a 120-hour community service order. On the brighter side, United paid a British record fee of £7 million for Newcastle United's prolific striker Andy Cole, with young winger Keith Gillespie heading to the north-east in exchange. The season also saw the breakthrough of young players Gary Neville, Nicky Butt and Paul Scholes, who provided excellent cover for the long periods that United were left without some of their more experienced stars.
However, the championship slipped out of Manchester United's grasp as they drew 1–1 with West Ham United on the final day of the season, when a win would have given them a third successive league title. United also lost the FA Cup final in a 1–0 defeat by Everton.
Ferguson was heavily criticised in the summer of 1995 when three of United's star players were allowed to leave and replacements were not bought. First Paul Ince moved to Internazionale of Italy for £7.5 million, long-serving striker Mark Hughes was suddenly sold to Chelsea in a £1.5 million deal, and Andrei Kanchelskis was sold to Everton.
Ferguson made an approach for Tottenham winger Darren Anderton, but the player signed a new contract with the North London club. He then made a bid to sign Dutchman Marc Overmars from Ajax (the European Cup winners), but the player suffered a serious knee injury and was ruled out for months. Media reports suggested that United were going to make an approach for Juventus and Italy forward Roberto Baggio, but the player remained in his homeland and signed for Milan instead.
Ferguson felt that United had a number of young players who were ready to play in the first team. The youngsters, who would be known as "Fergie's Fledglings", included Gary Neville, Phil Neville, David Beckham, Paul Scholes and Nicky Butt, who would all go on to be important members of the team. And so the 1995–96 season began without a major signing, at a time when the likes of Arsenal, Liverpool and Newcastle were making the headlines with big-money signings.
A youthful United team lost 3–1 in their opening league game of the 1995–96 season, against Aston Villa. On Match of the Day, pundit Alan Hansen criticised their performance, ending his analysis with the words, "You can't win anything with kids." United won their next five matches and were boosted by the return of Cantona, who made his comeback against Liverpool in October 1995. For much of the season, the team trailed league leaders Newcastle and found themselves ten points behind by Christmas; this later was narrowed to seven points after defeating them on 27 December 1995. The gap increased to 12 points, but a series of wins, coupled with Newcastle dropping points, meant by late March, United moved to the top of the table. In a televised outburst after his team's win against Leeds, Newcastle manager Kevin Keegan responded angrily to Ferguson's comments: "We're still fighting for this title, and he's got to go to Middlesbrough ... I would love it if we beat them, love it." A win against Middlesbrough on the final day sealed the title for United and the team beat Liverpool by a goal to nil to win the 1996 FA Cup Final; this was their second double in three years. A week after the cup final, Ferguson agreed a four-year contract to remain at United.
United won their fourth league title in five seasons at the end of the 1996–97 campaign, made easier by the fact that their rivals were "not up to the job". Under Ferguson, the team made a better go in the Champions League and reached the semi-final stage for the first time in 28 years. United did not advance any further, after defeat by Borussia Dortmund of Germany. Norwegian signings Ole Gunnar Solskjær and Ronny Johnsen were the notable additions to the squad, with the former ending the season as the club's top goalscorer. In May 1997, Cantona informed Ferguson his decision to retire from football. The player "felt exploited by United's merchandising department" and questioned the ambition of the club, reasons which Ferguson understood. Striker Teddy Sheringham was signed as Cantona's replacement from Tottenham Hotspur, with Blackburn defender Henning Berg the other significant purchase that summer. In the close season, United appointed Keane as their new captain. Ferguson described him as "the best all-round player in the game" after the team's 1997 FA Charity Shield win and believed Keane had "all the right ingredients" to succeed from Cantona.
Defeat by Leeds United in September 1997 was the team's first league loss in seven months; Keane during the match injured himself and was subsequently ruled out for the rest of the season with ligament damage. Goalkeeper Peter Schmeichel was placed as captain in his absence. By November, United opened up a four-point lead in the league, which prompted talk of whether any team could catch them. After Arsenal's defeat of United in the same month, Ferguson acknowledged a one-horse race was "not good for the game" and admitted his opponents "... deserved to win on their second-half performance". The fallibilities of Liverpool, Chelsea and Blackburn as league challengers allowed United during the winter to extend their lead by 11 points, albeit with Arsenal having games-in-hand. This was enough for Manchester bookmaker Fred Done to pay out on punters who backed the champions retaining their title.
Arsenal collected maximum points, sealing the title with a win against Everton on 3 May 1998. Ferguson congratulated his opponent Arsène Wenger, who in his first full season at the club, later completed the double: "I think it's good for my young players to lose on this occasion. I wholeheartedly acknowledge what Arsenal achieved between Christmas and the end of the season." United straight after paid £10.75 million for PSV defender Jaap Stam, a new club record fee. Ferguson wanted to strengthen the squad's attacking options and identified Aston Villa's Dwight Yorke as his main target. Attempts to sign Yorke were rebuffed at first, before Ferguson persuaded Edwards to increase United's initial offer of £10 million. A£12.6 million deal was reached a week into the league campaign; Yorke signed minutes before the deadline to submit United's squad for the Champions League.
1998–99: Treble success
United opened the 1998–99 season with a 3–0 loss to Arsenal in the 1998 FA Charity Shield. The beating did not concern Ferguson, though he described his team's defeat by Arsenal in September 1998 as "a lot less tolerable". In December 1998, Kidd left his role as assistant to become the manager of Blackburn Rovers. Ferguson instructed Eric Harrison and Les Kershaw to find suitable replacements, "in terms of coaching ability and work ethic." Both recommended Steve McClaren, the assistant to Jim Smith at Derby County. McClaren was Ferguson's initial choice and appointed him in February 1999. His first game as assistant was United's 8–1 victory over Nottingham Forest.
Ferguson felt United's bid to regain the Premier League began indifferently because of their commitments to other competitions. He was willing to "pay for the progress" made in the Champions League; the team finished second in their Champions League "group of death", behind Bayern Munich and ahead of Barcelona. United's win against Liverpool in the FA Cup fourth round was a portent for the remainder of the season. A goal down after three minutes, the team equalised only until the 86th minute and scored the winning goal through Solskjær in stoppage time. On reflection, Ferguson said it was "a demonstration of the morale that was to be every bit as vital as rich skill in the five months that lay ahead of United".
In the final weeks of the league season, Arsenal emerged as a creditable challenger to United. Both clubs were also paired together in the semi-final of the FA Cup, decided by a replay as the original game finished goalless. Keane was sent off in the second half and United conceded a penalty late into the match with the score 1–1. Dennis Bergkamp's effort was saved by Peter Schmeichel. Ferguson hoped his team "could at least take it to a penalty shoot-out", but instead the match was settled in extra time: Giggs ran the length of the pitch and evaded several Arsenal players to score the winning goal. United went on to beat Newcastle United in the 1999 FA Cup Final and completed the double – a week earlier the team had defeated Tottenham Hotspur to regain the Premier League.
United's progression in the Champions League was promising compared to previous seasons. The team eliminated Inter Milan at the quarter-final stage and faced Juventus in the last four of the competition. A late goal scored by Giggs in the first leg earned the team a 1–1 draw, but in spite of conceding an away goal, Ferguson was adamant of United's chances of reaching the final: "... something tells me we are going to win. The nature of our club is that we torture ourselves so much that the only way to get relief is by winning over there." At the Stadio delle Alpi, striker Filippo Inzaghi scored twice to put Juventus 3–1 up on aggregate. Keane headed in a Beckham cross to halve the deficit just before half-time, but was later shown a yellow card for a foul on Edgar Davids, which prevented him from playing in the final. Yorke equalised, before Cole added a third to win the match outright. Keane's performance merited praise from Ferguson:
It was the most emphatic display of selflessness I have seen on a football field. Pounding over every blade of grass, competing if he would rather die of exhaustion than lose, he inspired all around him. I felt it was an honour to be associated with such a player.
Days after the FA Cup final, United travelled to Barcelona, the setting for the 1999 UEFA Champions League Final. Ferguson contemplated his team selection against Bayern Munich; suspensions to Scholes and Keane ruled both players out of the match. Beckham was positioned in centre midfield, while Giggs moved to the right wing and Blomqvist started on the left – changes the manager felt would prevent the opposition from playing narrow. United conceded in the first six minutes of the final, from a Mario Basler's free kick. Sheringham, who came on for Blomqvist, equalised from a corner in the first minute of additional time. McClaren told Ferguson to get the team organised for extra time, to which he replied, "Steve, this game isn't finished." Three minutes into added time, Solskjær scored the winner, which for United completed an unprecedented treble. Ferguson, interviewed moments after, said, "I can't believe it. I can't believe it. Football, bloody hell. But they never gave in and that's what won it." He and Schmeichel, the stand-in captain, jointly lifted the cup during the trophy presentation.
A crowd of over 500,000 people turned out on the streets of Manchester to greet the players, who paraded through the city in an open-top bus. As European champions, United were invited to play in the Intercontinental Cup. The club also entered the inaugural Club World Championship, which was held in Brazil. This brought about a potential fixture congestion so United accepted the FA's recommendation of withdrawing from the FA Cup, the first holders to do so. In later years, Ferguson elaborated on the club's decision: "We did it to help England's World Cup bid. That was the political situation. I regretted it because we got nothing but stick and terrible criticism for not being in the FA Cup when really, it wasn't our fault."
1999–2002: Title hat-trick, retirement plan
Schmeichel's decision to leave United after eight seasons prompted Ferguson to bring in replacements: Mark Bosnich from Aston Villa and Italian Massimo Taibi. The latter featured in four matches, the last of which a 5–0 defeat at Chelsea in October 1999; he was not selected again by Ferguson. United ended the 1999–2000 league season as champions, with just three defeats and a record points margin of 18. In December 1999, the club beat Palmeiras in Tokyo to win the Intercontinental Cup, but a month later exited at the group stage of the inaugural Club World Championship, although Ferguson insisted the tournament was "fantastic". United failed to retain the Champions League, as they lost in the quarter-final stage to eventual winners Real Madrid. Ferguson sought to strengthen his squad and signed Fabien Barthez from Monaco for £7.8 million. He also monitored the progress of Ruud van Nistelrooy, "a striker of the highest calibre". He met the player and his agent in Manchester to discuss formalities and was informed of Van Nistelrooy's troubled right knee. Ferguson was not agitated by this; he recalled from experience a similar niggle that did not stop his playing career. Van Nistelrooy, however, failed his medical, but Ferguson reassured him that "we might yet find a way out of the nightmare". The deal was resurrected in April 2001 for a British record transfer fee of £19 million.
In the 2000–01 season, United retained the league title for a third season, becoming only the fourth side in history to do so. The achievement was overshadowed by reports of a rift between the club's board and Ferguson. He told the club's television channel MUTV that he was prepared to sever all ties with the club, once his contract ended the following year: "The decision has been taken. I'm going to leave the club. I'm disappointed with what has happened because I was hoping something would be sorted out. It hasn't happened as I thought it would and that's all there is to it." Both parties eventually reached a compromise which pleased Ferguson: "I am delighted we've settled this. When you have been at the club as long as I have it gets in your blood." Ferguson's decision to retire came about because he perceived his chances of winning a second European Cup as "imponderable." Age was another factor: reaching 60 acted as a "psychological barrier ... It changed my sense of my own fitness, my health."
In May 2001, McClaren left to become Middlesbrough manager, with Jimmy Ryan being named assistant to Ferguson for the duration of the campaign. United once more broke their transfer record with the purchase of Juan Sebastián Verón from Lazio for a reported £28.1 million. In August 2001, Stam was transferred to Lazio for £16 million. The player reportedly moved because of claims in his autobiography Head to Head; Stam implied that Ferguson illegally contacted him about a move to Manchester United, before informing PSV. Ferguson said he sold the player because the club needed to cut back on its "massive wage bill". He replaced the defender with Laurent Blanc, a long sought-after target. In an interview with Alastair Campbell eight years after, Ferguson described his biggest mistake at the club was "letting go of Jaap Stam. No question".
The club endured a poor first half to the season and languished in ninth position after a home defeat by West Ham in December 2001. On the night of Christmas Day, Ferguson shelved his retirement plan. His family convinced him to remain in charge of United; Cathy bluntly listed her reasoning: "One, your health is good. Two, I'm not having you in the house. And three, you're too young anyway." Ferguson informed Watkins of his u-turn the following day and resumed work at once.
Once Ferguson publicised his decision to remain in February 2002, United's form improved. The team won 13 out of 15 matches, though finished third in the league behind Arsenal and Liverpool. United was unsuccessful in Europe, losing their Champions League semi-final on away goals to Bayer Leverkusen. Early exits from the League Cup and FA Cup meant they ended the season trophyless. Ferguson himself admitted that the decision to pre-announce his retirement had resulted in a negative effect on the players and on his ability to impose discipline.
2002–2006: Rebuilding and transition
In June 2002, Ferguson appointed Carlos Queiroz as his new assistant. The recommendation came from Andy Roxburgh, at a time when United began scouting for southern-hemisphere footballers and wanted a multilingual coach. Ferguson was so impressed with Queiroz after their first meeting, he offered him the job "right away". In July 2002, United paid £29.3 million for Leeds United defender Rio Ferdinand. The club broke the British transfer record once more, though this did not concern Ferguson: "We have the right to try and improve ourselves and there's nothing wrong with that."
The 2002–03 season began rather poorly for United; the club made its worst start to a league campaign in 13 years. In a column for The Daily Telegraph, Hansen said Ferguson "will recognise this difficult start to the season for what it is: the greatest challenge of his career". Ferguson's response was typically bullish:
I don't get paid to panic. We have had plenty of stuttering starts. My greatest challenge is not what's happening at the moment. My greatest challenge was knocking Liverpool right off their fucking perch. And you can print that.
Several players were sent away for surgery in this period, a "minor gamble" Ferguson took in the hope they would return energised. Defeats, such as the one to Manchester City at Maine Road in November 2002, forced United to change their playing style. The team "moved the ball forward more and quicker rather than concentrating on possession ratios," and the coaching staff tried accommodating Diego Forlán with Ruud van Nistelrooy, before settling with Paul Scholes. United's league form improved as the season went on despite defeat by Liverpool in the 2003 Football League Cup Final and they overhauled Arsenal to win the Premier League for an eighth time in May 2003. The team was eliminated in the Champions League quarter-final to Real Madrid over two legs; Ferguson described the second match, a 4–3 win at Old Trafford as "epic".
After a season at United, Queiroz left to manage Real Madrid in June 2003. Ferguson anticipated his deputy would return – "Three months later, he was wanting to quit Madrid," and for that reason did not appoint a replacement. In the summer, David Beckham also moved to Real Madrid, while Juan Sebastián Verón joined Chelsea. United in the meantime rebuilt their team: Tim Howard replaced Barthez in goal and Kléberson, Eric Djemba-Djemba and Cristiano Ronaldo came in to bolster the squad. Ronaldinho might have also joined "had he not said yes, then no, to our offer". Ferguson admitted the signings the club made did not work out in hindsight: "We rushed down the path of buying in proven players – who we thought would match our standards right away."
In December 2003, Rio Ferdinand was banned from playing football for eight months after he failed to present himself at a drugs test. Ferguson in his autobiography ten years later blamed the drug testers, who "...didn't do their job. They didn't go looking for Rio". The absence of Ferdinand hampered United's defence of the Premier League in the 2003–04 season; the team finished third behind Arsenal's "Invincibles" and Chelsea. In Europe, they experienced defeat at the hands of eventual winners Porto. Ferguson felt it was possible "not because of the performance of the players but because of the referee", who disallowed a legitimate Scholes goal that would have been enough to progress. United ended the campaign as FA Cup winners, beating Millwall 3–0 in the 2004 final.
At the beginning of the 2004–05 season, teenage striker Wayne Rooney (the world's most expensive teenager at more than £20 million) and Argentine defender Gabriel Heinze joined United while Cristiano Ronaldo continued where he had left off the previous season by putting in more match-winning performances. But the lack of a striker after Ruud van Nistelrooy spent most of the season injured saw the club finish third for the third time in four seasons. In the 2004–05 FA Cup, they lost on penalties to Arsenal. A second round exit from the European Cup at the hands of Milan and a semi-final exit from the League Cup at the hands of eventual winners Chelsea (who also clinched the Premier League title) meant that 2004–05 was a rare instance of a trophyless season for United. During the season, Ferguson managed his 1,000th game in charge of United in a 2–1 home win against Lyon.
Ferguson's preparations for the 2005–06 season were disrupted by a high-profile dispute with major shareholder John Magnier, over the ownership of the racehorse Rock of Gibraltar. When Magnier and business partner J. P. McManus agreed to sell their shares to American business tycoon Malcolm Glazer, it cleared the way for Glazer to acquire full control of the club. This sparked violent protests from United fans, and disrupted Ferguson's plans to strengthen the team in the transfer market. In spite of this, United looked to solve their goalkeeping and midfield problems. For this, they signed the Dutch goalkeeper Edwin van der Sar from Fulham and Korean star Park Ji-sung from PSV.
The season was one of transition. On 18 November, Roy Keane officially left the club, his contract ended by mutual consent. United failed to qualify for the knock-out phase of the UEFA Champions' League. In the January transfer window, Serbian defender Nemanja Vidić and French full-back Patrice Evra were signed, and the side finished in second place in the league, behind runaway leaders Chelsea. Winning the League Cup was a consolation prize for lack of success elsewhere. Ruud van Nistelrooy's future at Old Trafford seemed to be in doubt after not starting in the League Cup final, and he departed at the end of the season.
Before the start of the new season, Ferguson received much criticism, particular in the guise of an article in The Guardian titled "Shredding his legacy at every turn".
Second European Champions League
In 2006, Michael Carrick was signed to take Roy Keane's place in the team for a fee that eventually rose to £18 million. United started the season well, and for the first time ever won their first four Premier League games, United's best start since 1985. They set the early pace in the Premier League and never relinquished top spot from the tenth match of the 38-game season. The January 2006 signings had a huge impact on United's performances – Patrice Evra and Nemanja Vidić came in to form a solid back line along with already existing players Rio Ferdinand and skipper Gary Neville. The signing of Carrick, which was questioned and criticised by a large portion of the media, brought stability and further creativity in the United midfield, forming an effective partnership with Paul Scholes. Park Ji-sung and Ryan Giggs both underlined their value to the first team squad by adding significant pace and incisiveness in attack with Wayne Rooney and Cristiano Ronaldo.
Ferguson celebrated the 20th anniversary of his appointment as manager of Manchester United on 6 November 2006. Tributes also came from Ferguson's players, both past and present, as well as his old foe, Arsène Wenger, his old captain, Roy Keane, and current players. The party was spoiled the following day when United endured a single-goal defeat at the hands of Southend United in the fourth round of the League Cup. On 1 December, however, it was announced that Manchester United had signed 35-year-old Henrik Larsson on loan, a player that Ferguson had admired for many years, and attempted to capture previously. On 23 December 2006, Cristiano Ronaldo scored the club's 2,000th goal under the helm of Ferguson in a match against Aston Villa.
Manchester United subsequently won their ninth Premier League title but were denied a unique fourth double by Chelsea's Didier Drogba scoring a late goal in the FA Cup final at Wembley Stadium. In the Champions League, the club reached the semi-finals, recording a 7–1 home win over Roma in the quarter-final second leg, but lost at the San Siro to Milan 3–0 in the second leg of the semi-final after being 3–2 up from the first leg.
For the 2007–08 season, Ferguson made notable signings to reinforce United's first team. Long-term target Owen Hargreaves joined from Bayern Munich, young Portuguese winger Nani and Brazilian playmaker Anderson joined soon after, while the last summer signing was West Ham and Argentina striker Carlos Tevez after a complex and protracted transfer saga.
United suffered their worst start to a season under Ferguson, drawing their first two league games before suffering a 1–0 defeat by local rivals Manchester City. United, however, recovered and began a tight race with Arsenal for the title. After a good run of form, Ferguson claimed that throughout his time at Manchester United, this was the best squad he had managed to assemble thus far.
On 16 February 2008, United beat Arsenal 4–0 in an FA Cup Fifth Round match at Old Trafford, but were knocked out by eventual winners Portsmouth in the quarter-final on 8 March, losing 1–0 at home. United having had a penalty claim turned down, Ferguson alleged after the game that Keith Hackett, general manager of the Professional Game Match Officials Board, was "not doing his job properly". Ferguson was subsequently charged by The FA with improper conduct, which he decided to contest. This was the second charge Ferguson faced in the season, following his complaints against the referee after United lost 1–0 at Bolton Wanderers – a charge he decided not to contest.
On 11 May 2008, Ferguson led Manchester United to a tenth Premier League title, exactly 25 years to the day after he led Aberdeen to European glory against Real Madrid in the European Cup Winners' Cup. Nearest rivals Chelsea – level on points going into the final round of matches, but with an inferior goal difference – could only draw 1–1 at home to Bolton, finishing two points adrift of the champions. United's title win was sealed with a 2–0 win over Wigan Athletic, managed by former United captain Steve Bruce.
On 21 May 2008, Ferguson won his second European Cup with Manchester United as they beat Chelsea 6–5 on penalties in the Luzhniki Stadium in Moscow, following a 1–1 draw after extra time in the first ever all-English UEFA Champions League Final. A penalty miss from Cristiano Ronaldo meant that John Terry's spot-kick would have given the trophy to Chelsea if successfully converted, but Terry blew his chance of glory and in the end it was Edwin van der Sar's blocking of a Nicolas Anelka penalty which gave the trophy to Manchester United for the second time under Ferguson and for the third time overall.
Another two league titles and League Cups
Although the team had a slow start to the 2008–09 season, United won the Premier League with a game to spare, making Ferguson the first manager in the history of English football to win the Premier League three times consecutively, on two separate occasions. Ferguson had now won 11 league titles at Manchester United, and the 2008–09 season title success put them level with Liverpool as league champions on a record 18 occasions in total. They also won the League Cup on penalties after a goalless Wembley draw with Tottenham.
In 2009–10, Ferguson added another League Cup to his honours list as United defeated Aston Villa 2–1 in the Wembley final on 28 February 2010. However, his dreams of a third European Cup were ended a few weeks later when United were edged out of the competition in the quarter-finals by Bayern Munich on away goals. And their hopes of a record 19th league title were ended on the last day of the season when Chelsea beat them to the Premier League title, crushing Wigan Athletic 8–0 and rendering United's 4–0 win over Stoke City meaningless.
He ended the season by winning his 12th and Manchester United's 19th league title and thus overtaking Liverpool's record of 18. Manchester United faced Barcelona again on 28 May 2011 in the 2011 Champions League final, their third in four years, but United lost 3–1. Analyst Alan Hansen stated that he believed Ferguson was "the key component" in United's success that season, so key in fact that "[he] would have claimed the crown with any of the other top sides had he been in charge of them". With Edwin van der Sar, Gary Neville and Paul Scholes all retiring in 2011, Ferguson spent big by signing defender Phil Jones from Blackburn and winger Ashley Young from Aston Villa for around £17 million each, and goalkeeper David de Gea from Atlético Madrid for around £19 million.
On 2 September 2012, Ferguson managed his 1,000th league game with United against Southampton. United won the game 3–2 thanks to a hat-trick from Robin van Persie. Two weeks later, he won his 100th game in the Champions League with a 1–0 win over Galatasaray at Old Trafford.
On 8 May 2013, Ferguson announced that he was to retire as manager at the end of the football season, but would remain at the club as a director and club ambassador. The Guardian announced it was the "end of an era", while UEFA president Michel Platini said that Ferguson was "a true visionary". Prime Minister of the United Kingdom David Cameron described Ferguson as a "remarkable man in British football". Former Manchester United players Paul Ince and Bryan Robson agreed that Ferguson would be "a hard act to follow". Manchester United co-chairman Joel Glazer said, "His determination to succeed and dedication to the club have been truly remarkable." Ferguson revealed that he had in fact decided that he was going to retire back in December 2012 and that it had been very difficult not to reveal his plans. Ferguson's decision to retire saw United shares fall 5% on the New York Stock Exchange.
On 9 May 2013, Manchester United announced Everton manager David Moyes would replace Ferguson as the club manager from 1 July, having signed a six-year contract. In Ferguson's final match in charge, Manchester United drew 5–5 at West Bromwich Albion, a hat-trick from Romelu Lukaku, later a United player, denying Ferguson a final victory.
In January 2014, Ferguson was appointed as the UEFA Coaching Ambassador, and said it was "an honour and a privilege" to be given the role. In April 2014, it was announced that Ferguson would be taking up a "long-term teaching position" at Harvard University, where he would be lecturing on a new course titled "The Business of Entertainment, Media and Sports". This came six months after he revealed his blueprint for success was included in the Harvard Business Review in a series of interviews with Anita Elberse. His third book, Leading: Learning from Life and My Years at Manchester United, was published in collaboration with billionaire venture capitalist, author and former journalist Michael Moritz in August 2015.
Gordon Strachan was a key player for Ferguson at Aberdeen, but their relationship broke down when Strachan signed an agreement with German club 1. FC Köln without telling Ferguson. Ferguson said that he believed although "there was a cunning streak in Strachan, I had never imagined that he could pull such a stroke on me". Strachan did not sign for Köln, but instead moved to Manchester United in the summer of 1984. Strachan liked the move because he felt that Ron Atkinson treated him as an adult, unlike Ferguson. Strachan was still with the club when Ferguson was appointed manager in November 1986. Ferguson thought that Strachan did not play for United with the same confidence he had in Scotland and subsequently sold him to Leeds United in 1989. Strachan enjoyed significant success with Leeds as a veteran player, helping them win the 1991–92 English league championship in a title race with Ferguson's United.
Their relationship continued to be frosty as Strachan moved into management himself. In his 1999 autobiography, Ferguson stated that Strachan "could not be trusted an inch – I would not want to expose my back to him in a hurry". Strachan's reaction to the attack, in his own autobiography, My Life in Football, was one of being "surprised and disappointed", although he suspected that Ferguson had helped to relegate Strachan's Coventry City in 2001 by fielding a weakened Manchester United team in a match against Derby County. By 2006 they appeared to have "declared something of a truce", ahead of Champions League matches between United and Strachan's Celtic.
In 2003, Ferguson was involved in a dressing room argument with United player David Beckham. Ferguson allegedly kicked a football boot in frustration, which hit the player in the face and caused a minor injury to Beckham.
Champions League draw fixing
On 5 April 2003, Ferguson claimed that the Champions League draw was fixed in favour of Spanish and Italian teams. UEFA charged Ferguson for bringing the game into disrepute with his comments, and on 1 May that year he was fined 10,000 Swiss francs (£4,600).
Rock of Gibraltar
In 2003, Ferguson launched legal action against the then major United shareholder John Magnier over stud rights for race horse Rock of Gibraltar. Magnier counter-sued Ferguson by filing a "Motion to Comply" requiring Ferguson to substantiate his claim for half of Rock of Gibraltar's stud fees. The legal issues were further compounded by the request for "99 Questions" to be answered over Ferguson's transfer dealings, including those of Jaap Stam, Juan Sebastián Verón, Tim Howard, David Bellion, Cristiano Ronaldo and Kléberson. The case was eventually settled out of Court.
Ferguson refused to give interviews to the BBC after a documentary called Fergie and Son was shown on BBC Three on 27 May 2004. According to an article in The Independent newspaper, the documentary had "portrayed his agent son, Jason, as somebody who exploited his father's influence and position to his own ends in the transfer market". The same newspaper article made it clear that "Ferguson Jnr" was never found guilty of any wrongdoing, and it quoted Ferguson Senior as follows: "They [the BBC] did a story about my son that was whole lot of nonsense. It all [sic] made-up stuff and 'brown paper bags' and all that kind of carry-on. It was a horrible attack on my son's honour and he should never have been accused of that." Subsequent interviews on BBC programmes such as Match of the Day were done by his assistant Carlos Queiroz, and later Mike Phelan.
Under new Premiership rules intended for the 2010–11 season, Ferguson was required to end his BBC boycott. However, he refused to end his boycott and Manchester United confirmed the club would pay the resulting fines. On 25 August 2011, Ferguson met with BBC director general Mark Thompson and BBC North director Peter Salmon; the result of the meeting was that Ferguson agreed to end his seven-year boycott.
Recalling of loan players
Following the sacking of his son Darren by Preston North End, Ferguson immediately recalled loaned players Ritchie De Laet, Joshua King and Matty James from Preston under its new managerial system. He later explained that it was the players' own request not to return to Preston after the change of manager. Stoke City manager Tony Pulis followed soon after in recalling two former Manchester United players from Preston as well, stating the need for the players to supplement his team's intensive schedule. Preston were relegated at the end of the season.
Ferguson has received numerous punishments for abusing and publicly criticising match officials when he has perceived them to be at fault:
- 20 October 2003 – Two-match touchline ban and fined £10,000 after using abusive and/or insulting words towards fourth official Jeff Winter.
- 14 December 2007 – Two-match touchline ban and fined £5,000 after using abusive and/or insulting words towards Mark Clattenburg.
- 18 November 2008 – Two-match touchline ban and fined £10,000 after confronting Mike Dean after a game.
- 12 November 2009 – Four-match touchline ban (two suspended) and fined £20,000 for comments made about the fitness of Alan Wiley.
- 16 March 2011 – Five-match touchline ban (three plus the two suspended for the above offence) and fined £30,000 for comments made questioning the performance and fairness of Martin Atkinson.
It has also been suggested that Ferguson's intimidation of referees results in so-called "Fergie Time": that is, unusually generous injury time being added in matches where Manchester United are behind. The phrase is at least as old as 2004, and a statistical analysis by The Times suggests that this comment might be valid, though the article points out that other footballing criteria may explain the correlation between extra added time and United being behind. Analysis by Opta Sports of Premier League matches played between 2010 and 2012 found on average that 79 seconds more time was played in matches where Manchester United were losing. This was a greater figure than for other top clubs, although most of these clubs seem to benefit from a "Fergie Time" effect, particularly in their home matches.
Many of Ferguson's former players have gone on to become football managers themselves, including Tony Fitzpatrick, Alex McLeish, Gordon Strachan, Mark McGhee, Willie Miller, Neale Cooper, Bryan Gunn, Eric Black, Billy Stark, Bryan Robson, Steve Bruce, Mark Hughes, Roy Keane, Paul Ince, Chris Casper, Darren Ferguson, Ole Gunnar Solskjær, Henning Berg and Gary Neville.
The phrase "squeaky-bum time" coined by Ferguson in reference to the tense final stages of a league competition has been included in the Collins English Dictionary and the Oxford English Dictionary.
A bronze statue of Ferguson, designed by Scottish sculptor Philip Jackson, was unveiled outside Old Trafford on 23 November 2012. On 14 October 2013, Ferguson attended a ceremony where a road near Old Trafford was renamed from Water's Reach to Sir Alex Ferguson Way.
Ferguson lives in Wilmslow, Cheshire with his wife, Cathy Ferguson (née Holding). They married in 1966 and have three sons: Mark (born 1968); and twins Darren (born 1972), who was also a professional footballer and is currently manager of Doncaster Rovers; and Jason, who runs an events management company.
In 1998, Ferguson was named in a list of the biggest private financial donors to the Labour Party. He is a self-described socialist. In January 2011 Graham Stringer, a Labour MP in Manchester and Manchester United supporter, called for Ferguson to be made a life peer. If this happened, it would make Ferguson the first current or former footballer or football manager to sit in the House of Lords. Stringer and fellow Manchester Labour MP Paul Goggins repeated this call after Ferguson announced his retirement in May 2013.
During the 2014 Scottish independence referendum, Ferguson was a vocal supporter and funder of the Better Together campaign that supported Scotland remaining a part of the United Kingdom. He criticised the Scottish National Party, and its leader Alex Salmond, for their decision to exclude Scots living outside Scotland, but within the rest of the United Kingdom, from voting in the referendum. He also objected to the self-imposed rule by the Yes Scotland group against accepting donations from people living outside Scotland of more than £500, which they urged the No campaign to also adopt.
- St Johnstone
- Scottish Football League Division 2 (2nd tier) (1): 1962–63
- Scottish Football League Division 2 (2nd tier) (1): 1969–70
Ferguson was made an Inaugural Inductee of the English Football Hall of Fame in 2002 in recognition of his impact on the English game as a manager. In 2003, Ferguson became an inaugural recipient of the FA Coaching Diploma, awarded to all coaches who had at least ten years' experience of being a manager or head coach. He is the Vice-President of the National Football Museum, based in Manchester, and a member of the Executive Committee of the League Managers Association. On 5 November 2011, the Old Trafford North Stand was officially renamed the Sir Alex Ferguson Stand in honour of his 25 years as manager of Manchester United.
In addition to being the only manager to win the top league honours, and the 'Double', north and south of the England–Scotland border (winning the Premier League with Manchester United, and the Scottish Premier Division with Aberdeen), he is also the last manager to win the Scottish league championship with a non Old Firm team, achieving this in the 1984–85 season with Aberdeen. He is also the only manager in English football to have managed to finish in the top three league places in 20 consecutive seasons, since the 1991–92 season (with a total of 22 consecutive seasons).
Ferguson is the joint-most decorated manager in European football competitions with seven honours, a record he shares with Giovanni Trapattoni and Carlo Ancelotti. Ferguson won the top division title in England a record 13 times, more than twice as many times as the next most successful manager. He is also the first manager in the history of the English league to win three consecutive league titles, which he did twice.[self-published source] Ferguson won 10 manager of the year awards, 27 manager of the month awards and managed the most games in the UEFA Champions League (190). In 2017, Ferguson was named among the 10 most influential coaches since the foundation of UEFA in 1954.
- St Mirren
- Scottish Premier Division (3): 1979–80, 1983–84, 1984–85
- Scottish Cup (4): 1981–82, 1982–83, 1983–84, 1985–86
- Scottish League Cup (1): 1985–86
- Drybrough Cup (1): 1980
- UEFA Cup Winners' Cup (1): 1982–83
- UEFA Super Cup (1): 1983
- Manchester United
- Premier League (13): 1992–93, 1993–94, 1995–96, 1996–97, 1998–99, 1999–2000, 2000–01, 2002–03, 2006–07, 2007–08, 2008–09, 2010–11, 2012–13
- FA Cup (5): 1989–90, 1993–94, 1995–96, 1998–99, 2003–04
- League Cup (4): 1991–92, 2005–06, 2008–09, 2009–10
- FA Charity/Community Shield (10): 1990 (shared), 1993, 1994, 1996, 1997, 2003, 2007, 2008, 2010, 2011
- UEFA Champions League (2): 1998–99, 2007–08
- UEFA Cup Winners' Cup (1): 1990–91
- UEFA Super Cup (1): 1991
- Intercontinental Cup (1): 1999
- FIFA Club World Cup (1): 2008
- LMA Manager of the Decade (1): 1990s
- LMA Manager of the Year (4): 1998–99, 2007–08, 2010–11, 2012–13
- LMA Special Merit Award (2): 2009, 2011
- Premier League Manager of the Season (11): 1993–94, 1995–96, 1996–97, 1998–99, 1999–2000, 2002–03, 2006–07, 2007–08, 2008–09, 2010–11, 2012–13
- Premier League Manager of the Month (27): August 1993, October 1994, February 1996, March 1996, February 1997, October 1997, January 1999, April 1999, August 1999, March 2000, April 2000, February 2001, April 2003, December 2003, February 2005, March 2006, August 2006, October 2006, February 2007, January 2008, March 2008, January 2009, April 2009, September 2009, January 2011, August 2011, October 2012
- UEFA Manager of the Year (1): 1998–99
- UEFA Team of the Year (2): 2007, 2008
- Onze d'Or Coach of the Year (3): 1999, 2007, 2008
- European Coach of the Year—Alf Ramsey Award: 2008
- IFFHS World's Best Club Coach (2): 1999, 2008
- IFFHS World's Best Coach of the 21st Century (1): 2012
- World Soccer Magazine World Manager of the Year (4): 1993, 1999, 2007, 2008
- World Soccer Magazine Greatest Manager of All Time: 2013
- Laureus World Sports Award for Team of the Year (1): 2000
- BBC Sports Personality of the Year Coach Award (1): 1999
- BBC Sports Personality Team of the Year Award (1): 1999
- BBC Sports Personality of the Year Lifetime Achievement Award (1): 2001
- BBC Sports Personality Diamond Award (1): 2013
- English Football Hall of Fame (Manager) : 2002
- Scottish Football Hall of Fame: 2004
- European Hall of Fame (Manager): 2008
- FIFA Presidential Award: 2011
- Premier League 10 Seasons Awards (1992–93 – 2001–02)
- Manager of the Decade
- Most Coaching Appearances (392 games)
- Premier League 20 Seasons Awards (1992–93 – 2011–12)
- Best Manager
- FWA Tribute Award: 1996
- PFA Merit Award: 2007
- Premier League Merit Award: 2012–13
- Mussabini Medal: 1999
- Northwest Football Awards: 2013
- Manager of the Year
Orders and special awards
- Officer of the Order of the British Empire (OBE): 1985
- Commander of the Order of the British Empire (CBE): 1995
- Knight Bachelor (Kt.): 1999
- Freedom of the City of Aberdeen: 1999
- Freedom of the City of Glasgow: 1999
- Freedom of the City of Manchester: 2000
- Freedom of the Borough of Trafford: 2013
As a player
As a manager
|East Stirlingshire||June 1974||October 1974||17||9||2||6||52.9|||
|St Mirren||October 1974||May 1978||169||74||41||54||43.8|||
|Aberdeen||June 1978||6 November 1986||459||272||105||82||59.3|||
|Scotland||1 October 1985||30 June 1986||10||3||4||3||30.0|||
|Manchester United||6 November 1986||19 May 2013||1,500||895||338||267||59.7|||
- "Sir Alexander Chapman Ferguson". mufcinfo.com. Retrieved 12 July 2011.
- McColl, Brian; Gorman, Douglas; Campbell, George. "FORGOTTEN GLORIES – British Amateur Internationals 1901–1974" (PDF). p. 318. Retrieved 16 July 2017.
- Bell, Stephen; Zlotkowski, Andre (6 June 2008). "Scotland XI Tour of Asia and Oceania 1967". Rec.Sport.Soccer Statistics Foundation. Retrieved 5 March 2011.
- "Alex Ferguson". London Hearts Supporters' Club. Retrieved 5 December 2011.
- Russell Hoye; Aaron Smith; Matthew Nicholson; Hans Westerbeek; Bob Stewart (2009). Sport Management, Volume 1, Second Edition: Principles and applications. Elsevier. p. 168. ISBN 0-7506-8755-X.
- Hunter, James (24 December 2010). "Steve Bruce: Sir Alex is the best manager ever". Newcastle Chronicle. Retrieved 18 October 2015.
- Hayward, Paul (5 November 2011). "Sir Alex Ferguson's adaptability has made him the greatest of all time". The Guardian. Retrieved 9 November 2015.
- Macintosh, Iain (9 August 2013). "Greatest Managers, No. 1: Ferguson". www.espnfc.us. Retrieved 9 November 2015.
- "Sir Alex Ferguson to retire as Manchester United manager". BBC Sport. BBC. 8 May 2013. Retrieved 8 May 2013.
- "Sir Alex's crowning glory". BBC News. 20 July 1999. Retrieved 6 November 2012.
- Barratt, Nick (5 May 2007). "Family detective". The Telegraph. London. Retrieved 30 October 2009.
- Barratt, Nick (5 November 2010). "Alex Ferguson profile". Soccer-Magazine.com. Archived from the original on 16 June 2011. Retrieved 12 July 2011.
- "Glasgow Caledonian University, Research Collections, Archives". TheGlasgowStory.com. 2009. Archived from the original on 3 July 2011. Retrieved 12 July 2011.
- "Sir Alex Ferguson tribute to Drumchapel Amateurs' legend". Evening Times. Glasgow. Retrieved 19 January 2018.
- "Ferguson, Alexander Chapman". QPFC.com – A Historical Queen's Park FC Website. Retrieved 12 February 2018.
- Crick, p. 33
- "Details of Queen of the South 7 v 1 Queens Park including Ferguson's recollection in the Ivor Broadis career profile". Qosfc.com. Retrieved 4 October 2013.
- "Ferguson reveals earlier Canada emigration plans". ESPN Soccernet. 4 February 2010. Archived from the original on 6 February 2010. Retrieved 4 February 2010.
- "Scotland – List of Topscorers". Rec.Sport.Soccer Statistics Foundation. 12 June 2009. Retrieved 30 October 2009.
- "Sir Alex Ferguson looks for feat of escapology to beat Athletic Bilbao". The Guardian. 14 March 2012. Retrieved 23 February 2018.
- Crick, p. 82
- Crick, p. 83
- Crick, p. 86
- Reid, Harry (2005). The Final Whistle?. Birlinn. p. 223. ISBN 1-84158-362-6.
- Ferguson, pp. 106–7
- Crick, p. 85
- Crick, p. 108–9
- Lowe, Sid; Scott, Matt; Taylor, Daniel; Brodkin, Jon (23 November 2004). "A leader of men is what he does best". The Guardian. UK. Retrieved 9 March 2007.
- Crick, p. 117
- Adams, Billy (30 May 1999). "Sunday Herald St Mirren article". The Sunday Herald. Archived from the original on 7 January 2008. Retrieved 9 November 2007.
- "Sir Alex lifts the lid". 4 May 2004. Archived from the original on 6 April 2005. Retrieved 9 November 2007.
- Campbell, Nicky (12 January 2006). "Guardian bullying article". The Guardian. London. Retrieved 11 November 2007.
- "31.05.1978: Alex Ferguson is fired by St Mirren". The Guardian. UK. 31 May 2008. Retrieved 29 December 2008.
- Reid, Harry (11 April 1983). "The goal that Alex Ferguson has been chasing all his life". Glasgow Herald. p. 9. Retrieved 8 January 2014.
- Crick, p. 159
- Crick, p. 171
- Crick, p. 174
- Crick, p. 175
- Crick, p. 179
- Crick, p. 180
- Crick, p. 191
- Crick, p. 195
- Crick, p. 196
- Reynolds, Jim (3 March 1983). "Magnificent Dons eclipse German stars". The Herald. Google News Archive. Retrieved 10 September 2014.
- Reynolds, Jim (17 March 1983). "Aberdeen emerge as the best of British". The Herald. Google News Archive. Retrieved 10 September 2014.
- Lacey, David (21 October 1982). "Tottenham run on reserve". The Guardian. p. 22.
- Lacey, David (4 November 1982). "Spurs lost in Munich fog". The Guardian. p. 26.
- Crick, p. 201
- Reynolds, Jim (12 May 1983). "Dons the Real European masters". The Herald. Google News Archive. Retrieved 10 September 2014.
- Crick, p. 203
- Reynolds, Jim (23 November 1983). "Aberdeen are set for superstardom". The Herald. Google News Archive. Retrieved 10 September 2014.
- Reynolds, Jim (21 December 1983). "Aberdeen's super heroes take the glory". The Herald. Google News Archive. Retrieved 10 September 2014.
- Reynolds, Jim (23 May 1983). "Don't put the blame on Russell – Greig". The Herald. Google News Archive. Retrieved 10 September 2014.
- Crick, p. 204
- "No. 49969". The London Gazette (Supplement). 31 December 1984. p. 9.
- "Lewis heads sporting honours". BBC News. 12 December 1999. Retrieved 18 June 2007.
- Murray, Ewan (10 May 2011). "Sir Alex Ferguson rejected 1986 chance to become Arsenal manager". The Guardian. Retrieved 4 October 2013.
- Ley, John (10 May 2011). "Manchester United Sir Alex Ferguson turned down the opportunity to manage Arsenal". The Telegraph. Retrieved 25 June 2014.
- Reynolds, Jim (2 February 2001). "Why I didn't go to Rangers:Sir Alex Ferguson on Advocaat's successor, the Scotland job, and the Old Firm in the Premiership". The Herald. Retrieved 25 June 2014.
- "Fergie Steps Down". Evening Times. 16 June 1986. Retrieved 10 June 2011.
- "Ferguson 'almost became Arsenal boss'". BBC News. 10 June 2009. Archived from the original on 13 June 2009. Retrieved 10 June 2009.
- Davies, Gareth (15 May 2009). "Top 10 Fergie decisions: Saying 'No' to Spurs and Arsenal". The Sun. UK. Retrieved 25 February 2011.
- "Tributes to former Wolves chief Harry Marshall". Express & Star. 30 September 2010. Retrieved 8 May 2011.
- "Manchester United Tour of Bermuda 1987". footysphere.com. Retrieved 23 July 2016.
- "Arise Sir Alex?". BBC News. 27 May 1999. Retrieved 3 December 2005.
- "Sir Alex Ferguson's 20 years at Manchester United". BBC Sport. 6 November 2006. Retrieved 11 August 2011.
- Ornstein, David (22 May 2009). "Ferguson hungry for more success". BBC News. Retrieved 11 August 2011.
- Ferguson, Alex; Peter Fitton (1993). Just Champion!. Manchester United Football Club plc. p. 27. ISBN 0-9520509-1-9.
- Bevan, Chris (4 November 2006). "How Robins saved Ferguson's job". BBC News 4 November 2006. Retrieved 8 August 2008.
- "20 years and Fergie's won it all!". Manchester Evening News. 6 November 2006. Archived from the original on 5 December 2012. Retrieved 8 August 2009.
- Jones, Ken (8 May 1997). "Recalling the pressure Ferguson was under, the probability is that a 1–0 victory at Forest in the third round of the FA Cup saved him". The Independent. UK. Retrieved 8 August 2009.
- Ferguson, p. 302
- Ferguson, p. 311
- Ferguson, p. 320
- "The highs and lows of Roy Keane's career". The Guardian. London. 23 April 2009. Retrieved 13 July 2011.
- Pike, Keith (21 August 1995). "Ferguson watches seeds of doubt grow". The Times. London. p. 23.
- Hansen, Alan (2 November 2011). "Sir Alex Ferguson 25 years: 'You can't win anything with kids'". BBC Sport. Retrieved 9 May 2013.
- "Three Premier League managers whom Fergie made flip – and one rival who bit back". The Guardian. London. 10 January 2009. Retrieved 9 May 2013.
- Maddock, David (17 May 1996). "Ferguson accepts four-year contract". The Times. London. p. 48.
- White, Jim (23 April 1997). "Amazing how other teams keep letting United win". The Guardian. London. p. 30.
- Lacey, David (20 March 1997). "United take a stroll into semi-finals". The Guardian. London. p. 26.
- Lacey, David (24 April 1997). "Ricken wrecks United's dream". The Guardian. London. p. 28.
- Barclay, pp. 301–2
- Ball, Peter (28 June 1997). "Sheringham handed Cantona's crown". The Times. London. p. 52.
- Maddock, David (12 August 1997). "Berg signs up to improve United's case for defence". The Times. London. p. 44.
- Kempson, Russell (4 August 1997). "Captain Keane takes over the helm". The Times. London. p. 23.
- Shaw, Phil (29 September 1997). "United fail Leeds' intelligence test". The Independent. London. Retrieved 29 July 2009.
- Ridley, Ian (9 November 1997). "All red and all conquering". The Independent on Sunday. London. Retrieved 28 May 2012.
- Lacey, David (10 November 1997). "Platt stalls United's march". The Guardian. London. p. 19.
- Moore, Glenn (2 March 1998). "Now United can focus on Europe". The Independent. London. Retrieved 29 July 2009.
- Moore, Glenn (3 March 1998). "Ferguson set to call on United's artisan aspect". The Independent. London. Retrieved 3 August 2009.
- Hughes, Rob (18 May 1998). "Wenger leading English game towards exit from insularity". The Times. London. p. 31.
- Maddock, David (6 May 1998). "Stam's arrival relieves the gloom for United". The Times. London. p. 41.
- "Yorke on the brink of move to Old Trafford". The Times. London. 24 July 1998. p. 44.
- Wood, Stephen; Kempson, Russell (21 August 1998). "United smash record for Yorke". The Times. London. p. 48.
- Lacey, David (10 August 1998). "Wenger's all-stars write an epitaph to United". The Guardian. London. p. 21.
- Stewart, Colin (8 February 1999). "Atkinson left eightsome reeling after United rout". The Scotsman. Edinburgh. p. 31.
- "United pull off Cup smash-and-grab". BBC News. BBC. 24 January 1999. Retrieved 4 January 2014.
- Holt, Oliver (7 August 1999). "'The celebrations begun by that goal will never stop". The Times. London. pp. 36–37.
- Holt, Oliver (15 April 1999). "Giggs wonder goal is final thrill". The Times. London. p. 52.
- Holt, Oliver (8 April 1999). "Giggs throws United a lifeline". The Times. London. p. 52.
- Holt, Oliver (22 April 1999). "Heroic United have final word". The Times. London. p. 56.
- "Manchester United; Half-Million Fans Greet Winning Club". The New York Times. 28 May 1999. Retrieved 5 January 2014.
- "United pull out of FA Cup". BBC News. British Broadcasting Corporation. 30 August 1999. Retrieved 8 August 2013.
- "Sir Alex Ferguson: Manchester United's 1999 FA Cup withdrawal was a mistake". The Daily Telegraph. London. 3 December 2009. Retrieved 16 May 2011.
- Shaw, Phil (15 May 2000). "United fall short of elusive century". The Independent. London. p. A2.
- "Man Utd crowned world champions". BBC. 30 November 1999. Retrieved 10 April 2014.
- "Man Utd's world title bid demolished". BBC. 8 January 2000. Retrieved 10 April 2014.
- "Fortune fails to save Man Utd". BBC. 11 January 2000. Retrieved 10 April 2014.
- "No regrets for Ferguson". BBC. Retrieved 10 April 2014.
- "Man Utd 2 Real Madrid 3". The Guardian. 19 April 2000. Retrieved 10 April 2014.
- "Man Utd wrecked by Real". BBC. 19 April 2000. Retrieved 10 April 2014.
- "Man Utd confirm Barthez signing". BBC Sport. 31 May 2000. Retrieved 9 May 2013.
- Ferguson, Alex (25 July 2000). "How a phone call killed Van Nistelrooy deal". The Times. London. p. 30.
- "Man Utd clinch Van Nistelrooy deal". BBC Sport. 23 April 2001. Retrieved 9 May 2013.
- Taylor, Daniel (21 May 2001). "After the United fallout, Ferguson faces up to job and a half". The Guardian. London. Retrieved 9 May 2013.
- Kay, Oliver (19 May 2001). "Ferguson cuts Manchester United links". The Times. London. p. 1.
- Gaunt, Ken (14 July 2001). "Ferguson is reunited with Old Trafford board". The Herald. Glasgow. Retrieved 9 May 2013.
- "McClaren moves into the Riverside". The Telegraph. 12 July 2001. Retrieved 10 April 2014.
- Kay, Oliver (28 May 2001). "Cantona returns to nurture club's youth". The Times. London. p. 25.
- "Ferguson is reunited with Old Trafford board". The Daily Telegraph. London. 12 July 2001. Retrieved 9 May 2013.
- "Ferguson writes off Stam for £16.4m". The Telegraph. 26 August 2001. Retrieved 10 April 2014.
- "Stam's United dream dies". BBC Sport. 26 August 2001. Retrieved 9 May 2013.
- "Stam move 'down to cash'". BBC Sport. 2 September 2001. Retrieved 9 May 2013.
- Wilson, Steve (19 March 2009). "Manchester United manager Sir Alex Ferguson doesn't rate Rafa Benitez". The Daily Telegraph. London. Retrieved 9 May 2013.
- Williams, Richard (10 December 2001). "United undone by Ferguson's failing". The Guardian. London. Retrieved 9 May 2013.
- "Draw puts Man Utd out". BBC. 30 April 2002. Retrieved 10 April 2014.
- "Sir Alex Ferguson: 'The notion of a retirement age is anathema to me'". The Guardian. London. 7 May 2013. Retrieved 8 May 2013.
- Kay, Oliver (7 June 2002). "United import help for Ferguson in quest to regain title". The Times. London. p. 56.
- "Man Utd seal Rio deal". BBC Sport. BBC. 22 July 2002. Retrieved 6 January 2014.
- Nurse, Howard (4 May 2003). "Ferguson's best yet". BBC Sport. BBC. Retrieved 6 January 2014.
- Hansen, Alan (16 September 2002). "Ferguson faces greatest challenge of his career". The Daily Telegraph. London. Retrieved 6 January 2014.
- Walker, Michael (28 September 2002). "Ferguson takes the poison and insists United will prosper". The Guardian. London. Retrieved 6 January 2014.
- Fletcher, Paul (4 May 2003). "Ten weeks that turned the title". BBC Sport. BBC. Retrieved 6 January 2014.
- "Queiroz joins Real". BBC Sport. BBC. 25 June 2003. Retrieved 6 January 2014.
- "Ferdinand banned for eight months". BBC Sport. BBC. 19 December 2003. Retrieved 6 January 2014.
- McCarra, Kevin (24 May 2004). "United triumph by taking the job seriously". The Guardian. London. Retrieved 24 May 2004.
- "Man Utd 2 – 1 Lyon". The Guardian. 23 November 2004. Retrieved 22 March 2014.
- "Man Utd 2–1 Lyon". BBC. 23 November 2004. Retrieved 22 March 2014.
- "Fans rage at Glazer takeover move". BBC. 13 May 2005. Retrieved 8 May 2013.
- McNulty, Phil (28 July 2006). "Ferguson's Ruud dilemma". BBC. Retrieved 10 April 2014.
- Smyth, Rob (31 July 2006). "Shredding his legacy at every turn". The Guardian. Retrieved 8 August 2014.
- Taylor, Daniel (11 September 2006). "Giggs and sloppy Spurs get United believing again". The Guardian. London. Retrieved 10 April 2014.
- "Man Utd 1–0 Tottenham". BBC. 9 September 2006. Retrieved 10 April 2014.
- "Saviour Robins: Fergie just cannot let go". ESPN Soccernet, 4 November 2006. Retrieved 11 January 2007.
- "Wenger: Managers should emulate Ferguson". ESPN Soccernet, 4 November 2006. Retrieved 11 January 2007.
- "Southend 1–0 Man Utd". 7 November 2006. Retrieved 25 June 2014.
- "Man Utd capture Larsson on loan". BBC Sport. 1 December 2006. Archived from the original on 25 January 2007. Retrieved 11 January 2007.
- James, Stuart (24 December 2006). "Cristiano's stockings full of gifts for United". The Guardian. Retrieved 25 June 2006.
- McKenzie, Andrew (19 May 2007). "FA Cup final – Chelsea 1–0 Man Utd". BBC. Retrieved 25 June 2006.
- McCarra, Kevin (11 April 2007). "Seven wonders of sublime United dazzle and destroy helpless Roma". The Guardian. London. Retrieved 10 April 2014.
- Cheese, Caroline (2 May 2007). "AC Milan 3–0 Man Utd (Agg: 5–3)". BBC. Retrieved 10 April 2014.
- "Hargreaves completes Man Utd move". BBC. 1 July 2007. Retrieved 10 April 2014.
- "Nani & Anderson seal Man Utd move". BBC. 2 July 2007. Retrieved 10 April 2014.
- "Tevez completes Man Utd transfer". BBC. 10 August 2007. Retrieved 10 April 2014.
- Bevan, Chris (19 August 2007). "Man City 1–0 Man Utd". BBC. Retrieved 25 June 2014.
- Taylor, Daniel (20 August 2007). "Geovanni's lucky strike punishes prodigal United". The Guardian. Retrieved 25 June 2014.
- Whittell, Ian (12 November 2007). "This is the best squad I've ever had". BBC. Retrieved 10 April 2014.
- "Man Utd 4–0 Arsenal". BBC. 16 February 2008. Retrieved 25 June 2014.
- McNulty, Phil (8 March 2008). "Man Utd 0–1 Portsmouth". BBC. Retrieved 25 June 2014.
- Bandini, Paolo (9 March 2008). "FA will review Ferguson's criticisms of Atkinson and Hackett". The Guardian. Retrieved 25 June 2014.
- "Ferguson furious after Cup exit". BBC. 8 March 2008. Retrieved 25 June 2014.
- McCarra, Kevin (12 May 2008). "Ronaldo makes Wigan suffer as champions mix business with pleasure". The Guardian. Retrieved 25 June 2014.
- McNulty, Phil (11 May 2008). "Wigan 0–2 Man Utd". BBC. Retrieved 25 June 2014.
- Winter, Henry (22 May 2008). "Manchester United join Europe's greats after Moscow win". The Telegraph. Retrieved 25 June 2014.
- McNulty, Phil (22 May 2008). "Man Utd earn dramatic Euro glory". BBC. Retrieved 25 June 2014.
- Schwirtz, Michael (22 May 2008). "Manchester United Wins Champions League Final". The New York Times. Retrieved 25 June 2014.
- Smith, Alan (22 May 2008). "Tears for John Terry and Chelsea after cruel ending". The Telegraph. Retrieved 25 June 2014.
- Stevenson, Jonathan; Cheese, Caroline (16 May 2009). "How the Premier League was won". BBC. Retrieved 10 April 2014.
- Wilson, Paul (16 May 2009). "United retain Premier League crown after goalless finale at Old Trafford". The Guardian. London. Retrieved 10 April 2014.
- "Ferguson hungry for four in a row". BBC. 16 May 2009. Retrieved 10 April 2014.
- Wallace, Sam (2 March 2009). "United march on as Spurs fail test of nerve". The Independent. London. Retrieved 10 April 2014.
- McCarra, Kevin (27 May 2009). "Manchester United fold without a fight as Barcelona claim Champions League". The Guardian. London. Retrieved 10 April 2014.
- Winter, Henry (27 May 2009). "Manchester United 0 Barcelona 2". The Daily Telegraph. London. Retrieved 10 April 2014.
- McNulty, Phil (28 February 2010). "Aston Villa 1–2 Man Utd". BBC. Retrieved 10 April 2014.
- Hansen, Alan (23 June 2011). "Sir Alex Ferguson must rebuild Manchester United despite 19th title". BBC Sport. Retrieved 27 June 2011.
- "Man Utd midfielder Paul Scholes retires aged 36". BBC Sport. 31 May 2011. Archived from the original on 15 July 2011. Retrieved 27 June 2011.
- "Manchester United secure deal for Blackburn's Phil Jones". BBC Sport. 13 June 2011. Archived from the original on 24 June 2011. Retrieved 27 June 2011.
- "Ashley Young joins Man Utd from Aston Villa". BBC Sport. 23 June 2011. Archived from the original on 24 June 2011. Retrieved 27 June 2011.
- "Manchester United confirm signing of David de Gea". BBC Sport. 29 June 2011. Archived from the original on 28 July 2011. Retrieved 18 July 2011.
- "Sir Alex Ferguson to retire this summer, Manchester United confirm". Sky Sports. 8 May 2013. Retrieved 8 May 2013.
- Ronay, Barney (8 May 2013). "End of an era as Alex Ferguson calls time at Manchester United". The Guardian. Retrieved 8 May 2013.
- Coerts, Stefan. "Platini: Ferguson a true visionary". Yahoo!. Retrieved 8 May 2013.
- "Alex Ferguson retires: David Cameron pays tribute to the Manchester United manager". The Daily Telegraph. 8 May 2013. Retrieved 8 May 2013.
- "Sir Alex Ferguson resigns: Football greats pay tribute". The Daily Telegraph. 8 May 2013. Retrieved 8 May 2013.
- "Sir Alex Ferguson to retire". Fox Sports. 8 May 2013. Retrieved 8 May 2013.
- "Man United boss Sir Alex Ferguson's Old Trafford farewell". BBC Sport. 12 May 2013. Retrieved 13 May 2013.
- "Sir Alex Ferguson retires: Man Utd shares fall in New York". BBC News. 8 May 2013. Retrieved 8 May 2013.
- "David Moyes: Manchester United appoint Everton boss". BBC Sport. British Broadcasting Corporation. 9 May 2013. Retrieved 9 May 2013.
- "Manchester United confirm appointment of David Moyes on a six-year contract". Sky Sports. BSkyB. 9 May 2013. Retrieved 9 May 2013.
- Jackson, Jamie (9 May 2013). "David Moyes quits as Everton manager to take over at Manchester United". guardian.co.uk. Guardian News and Media. Retrieved 9 May 2013.
- "West Brom 5–5 Manchester United". BBC Sport. 19 May 2013. Retrieved 27 January 2018.
- "My Autobiography is a football book, not just a news tornado". Daily Telegraph. 22 October 2013. Retrieved 22 October 2013.
- "Alex Ferguson book launch: transcript from the press conference". Daily Telegraph. 22 October 2013. Retrieved 23 October 2013.
- Ziegler, Martyn (24 January 2014). "Former Manchester United manager Sir Alex Ferguson becomes Uefa coaching ambassador". The Independent. Retrieved 16 August 2014.
- "Sir Alex Ferguson appointed as Uefa's coaching ambassador". The Guardian. 24 January 2014. Retrieved 16 August 2014.
- "Sir Alex Ferguson takes up position as UEFA's coaching ambassador". Sky Sports. 24 January 2014. Retrieved 16 August 2014.
- "Sir Alex Ferguson to take up 'long-term teaching position' at Harvard". The Guardian. 4 April 2014. Retrieved 4 April 2014.
- "Manchester United legend Sir Alex Ferguson gives blueprint for success". The Guardian. 10 September 2013. Retrieved 4 April 2014.
- Ogden, Mark (10 September 2013). "Sir Alex Ferguson reveals his blueprint for managing Manchester United". The Telegraph. Retrieved 4 April 2014.
- Ferguson, Alex (August 2015). Leading: Learning from Life and My Years at Manchester United.
- Austin, Simon (12 September 2006). "Fergie v Strachan". BBC Sport. BBC. Retrieved 18 October 2015.
- "Strachan keen to end Fergie rift". BBC Sport. BBC. 30 July 2006. Retrieved 18 October 2015.
- Fudge, Simon. "Strachan: No Fergie feud". Sky Sports. BSkyB. Retrieved 18 October 2015.
- "Sir Alex Ferguson factfile". Manchester Evening News. 6 November 2006. Retrieved 14 December 2009.
- "Sir Alex Ferguson takes His case to Court". Racing and Sports. 20 November 2003. Retrieved 14 December 2009.
- Harris, Nick (3 February 2004). "Magnier's legal action damages hopes of a deal". The Independent. UK. Archived from the original on 22 January 2010. Retrieved 14 December 2009.
- Campbell, Denis (1 February 2004). "United won't answer the 99 questions". The Guardian. UK. Archived from the original on 23 January 2010. Retrieved 14 December 2009.
- "BBC THREE investigation raises new questions for Manchester United". BBC Press office. 25 May 2004. Retrieved 8 December 2013.
- Harris, Nick (6 September 2007). "Ferguson will never talk to The BBC again". The Independent. UK. Retrieved 14 December 2009.
- White, Duncan (14 November 2009). "Sir Alex Ferguson will be forced to speak to the BBC under new Premier League rules". The Daily Telegraph. London. Archived from the original on 18 November 2009. Retrieved 14 December 2009.
- Laughlin, Andrew (16 September 2010). "BBC to give up Ferguson boycott battle". Digital Spy. Digitals Spy. Archived from the original on 11 June 2011. Retrieved 12 July 2011.
- "Ferguson explains Preston loan recalls". Manchester Evening News. 7 January 2011. Retrieved 8 May 2011.
- Wallace, Sam (1 January 2011). "Preston fear the Ferguson effect as Stoke recall pair". The Independent. UK. Retrieved 8 May 2011.
- "Sir Alex Ferguson Factfile". Manchester Evening News. 6 November 2006. Archived from the original on 3 September 2012. Retrieved 14 December 2009.
- "Ferguson banned for two matches". The BBC. 14 December 2007. Retrieved 14 December 2009.
- Ducker, James (19 November 2008). "Sir Alex Ferguson banned and fined £10,000". The Times. UK. Retrieved 14 December 2009.
- "Sir Alex Ferguson banned for two games and fined after Alan Wiley jibe". The Guardian. UK. 12 November 2009. Archived from the original on 15 November 2009. Retrieved 14 December 2009.
- "Ferguson suspended and fined". London: The Football Association. 16 March 2011. Retrieved 16 March 2011.
- Wallace, Sam (30 August 2004). "Wiley's time-keeping hands United lifeline". The Daily Telegraph. UK. Retrieved 21 February 2010.
- Gray, Sadie (24 October 2009). "It's a fact! Fergie time does exist in the Premier League". The Times. UK. Retrieved 21 February 2010.
- Pritchard, Charlotte (23 November 2012). "Fergie time: Does it really exist?". BBC News. British Broadcasting Corporation. Retrieved 23 November 2012.
- "Gary Neville can succeed at Valencia - Sir Alex Ferguson". BBC Sport. BBC. 2 December 2015. Retrieved 2 December 2015.
- "'Asbo' and 'chav' make dictionary". BBC News. BBC. 8 June 2005.
- Smyth, Rob (23 March 2012). "Sir Alex Ferguson learns from mistakes to master mind games with smile". The Guardian. Guardian News and Media.
- "Sir Alex statue date confirmed". Manchester United F.C. 6 November 2012. Retrieved 6 November 2012.
- "Sir Alex Ferguson pride as Manchester United unveil statue". BBC Sport. 23 November 2012. Retrieved 23 November 2012.
- "Sir Alex Ferguson has Trafford road named in his honour". The Guardian. 14 October 2013. Retrieved 9 January 2014.
- "'Sir Alex Ferguson Way': Former Manchester United manager attends street renaming ceremony". The Independent. 14 October 2013. Retrieved 9 January 2014.
- Keegan, Mike (20 April 2011). "Home defeat for Sir Alex Ferguson as wife bans football from their house". Manchester Evening News. Retrieved 12 July 2011.
- "UK Politics | 'Luvvies' for Labour". BBC News. 30 August 1998. Retrieved 30 October 2009.
- "The socialist international". The Economist. 11 May 2013. Retrieved 9 May 2013.
- Ogden, Mark (6 June 2007). "Ferguson provides food for thought". The Daily Telegraph. London. Retrieved 9 May 2013.
- "Good lord! Could United boss Alex Ferguson be made a top toff?". Manchester Evening News. 27 January 2011. Archived from the original on 3 December 2013. Retrieved 9 May 2013.
- "MPs call for Sir Alex Ferguson to be made a Lord". Manchester Evening News. 9 May 2013. Retrieved 9 May 2013.
- "Sir Alex Ferguson honoured | News & Events | Manchester Metropolitan University". Mmu.ac.uk. 14 July 2009. Retrieved 4 October 2013.
- "News". Sci-eng.mmu.ac.uk. Archived from the original on 4 October 2013. Retrieved 4 October 2013.
- Barnes, Eddie (16 December 2012). "Alex Salmond 'silencing' Scots, says Sir Alex Ferguson". The Scotsman. Johnston Publishing. Retrieved 26 August 2013.
- Magowan, Alistair (23 June 2008). "What is a Uefa Pro Licence?". BBC Sport. BBC. Retrieved 29 May 2011.
- "National Football Museum; Honorary Presidents & Trustees". National Football Museum. Archived from the original on 6 June 2011. Retrieved 12 July 2011.
- "League Managers Association 2011–12" (PDF). League Managers Association. 2011. p. 12. Archived from the original (PDF) on 26 January 2012. Retrieved 12 July 2011.
- "Man Utd rename Old Trafford stand in Ferguson's honour". BBC News. BBC. 5 November 2011. Retrieved 5 November 2011.
- Yarden, Paul (2015). "Top Flight Winning Managers 1888-89 to 2014-15". www.myfootballfacts.com. Retrieved 9 November 2015.
- Mackie, James (2010). Fergie's Proteges. Xlibris Corporation. p. 2. ISBN 978-1-4535-6730-2.
- "Sir Alex Ferguson". National Football Museum. Retrieved 16 October 2015.
- Lynch, Kevin (8 May 2013). "Sir Alex Ferguson retires: Manchester United manager's record-breaking legacy". Guinness World Records. Retrieved 8 October 2015.
- "Coaching greats in profile". UEFA.com: The official website for European football. 13 January 2017. Retrieved 17 January 2017.
- "Sir Alex Ferguson Trophies". Manchester United F.C. Retrieved 7 July 2011.
- "Alex Ferguson". Post War English & Scottish Football League A - Z Player's Transfer Database. Retrieved 19 January 2018.
- Fitbastats.com - Alex Ferguson, Rangers
- Rothmans Football Yearbook 1970–71, p. 724, 740–741. Queen Anne Press, London.
- Rothmans Football Yearbook 1971–72, p. 563, 537. Queen Anne Press, London.
- Rothmans Football Yearbook 1972–73, p. 648–649, 683–684, 688. Queen Anne Press, London.
- Rothmans Football Yearbook 1973–74, p. 572–573, 626–628. Queen Anne Press, London.
- Rothmans Football Yearbook 1974–75, p. 570–571, 642–644. Queen Anne Press, London.
- Bartram, Steve; Bostock, Adam (20 October 2010). "Boss greets landmark game". Manchester United F.C. Retrieved 30 March 2017.
- Inwood, Benji (4 November 2011). "Timeline: Sir Alex Ferguson's 25 years at Manchester United". The Guardian. London. Retrieved 30 March 2017.
- "History archives: Managers: Alex Ferguson". Scottish Football Association. Retrieved 30 March 2017.
- "Managers: Alex Ferguson". Soccerbase. Centurycomm. Retrieved 30 March 2017.
- Ferguson, Alex (2013). My Autobiography. Hodder & Stoughton Ltd. ISBN 0-340-91939-6.
- Barclay, Patrick (2010). Football – Bloody Hell!: The Biography of Alex Ferguson. Vintage. ISBN 0-224-08305-8.
- Crick, Michael (2003). The Boss: The Many Sides of Alex Ferguson. Pocket Books. ISBN 0-7434-2991-5.
- Ferguson, Alex (2000). Managing My Life: The Autobiography. Coronet Books. ISBN 0-340-72856-6.
- Sir Alex Ferguson's Manchester United Managerial Record at mufcinfo.com
- Alex Ferguson management career statistics at Soccerbase
- English Football Hall of Fame profile
- Sir Alex Ferguson's managerial stats according to the official Manchester United statistics website
- Scottish Football Hall of Fame profile
- Aberdeen Manager profile at AFC Heritage Trust