Sir Charles Nicholson, 2nd Baronet

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Sir Charles Nicholson, 2nd Baronet
Charles Archibald Nicholson.jpg
Painting of Charles Archibald Nicholson by Herbert Arnould Olivier
Born(1867-04-27)27 April 1867
London
Died
4 March 1949(1949-03-04) (aged 81)
NationalityBritish
OccupationArchitect

Sir Charles Archibald Nicholson, 2nd Baronet (27 April 1867 – 4 March 1949), was an English architect and designer who specialised in ecclesiastical buildings and war memorials. He carried out the refurbishments of several cathedrals, the design and build of over a dozen new churches, and the restoration of many existing, medieval parish churches.

Nicholson was born in Hadleigh, Essex to Sir Charles Nicholson, 1st Baronet, and his wife, Sarah Elizabeth Nicholson née Keightley. His younger brothers were stained-glass artist Archibald Keightley Nicholson and Sir Sydney Hugo Nicholson, organist at Westminster Abbey and founder of the Royal School of Church Music.[1]

Nicholson was married first to Evelyn Louise Olivier (1866–1927) and they had three children, a son, John, and two daughters. His second wife was Catherine Maud Warren, who survived him upon his death in 1947.

Early life[edit]

Nicholson was born in Hadleigh, Essex,[2] to Sir Charles Nicholson, 1st Baronet, and his wife, Sarah Elizabeth Nicholson née Keightley. His younger brothers were the stained-glass artist Archibald Keightley Nicholson and Sir Sydney Hugo Nicholson, organist at Westminster Abbey and the founder of the Royal School of Church Music.[1] Nicholson attended Rugby School and New College, Oxford, obtaining a third class in modern history in 1889. He took an interest in architecture and was apprenticed to the architect J. D. Sedding, under whom he learnt the Victorian Gothic style. He worked for a short time for Henry Wilson before founding his own practice in 1893. He won the Tite Prize in 1893 and was elected a fellow of the Royal Institute of British Architects in 1905.[1] Hubert Corlette later partnered him until 1916. From 1920 Nicholson worked with Theodore Rushton.[1]

Career[edit]

In addition to designing churches, Nicholson conducted the refurbishments of many medieval churches. In addition to his ecclesiastical commissions, he was also a prolific designer of public war memorials, including one at his former school in Rugby. Nicholson's Anglican cathedral work included a new east chapel in Norwich, the west front of St Anne's Cathedral, Belfast (where he was the cathedral's architect between 1924–48)[3] various additions to Chelmsford Cathedral, and the reconstruction of Portsmouth Cathedral. His internal restorations were carried out at Brecon, Carlisle, Exeter, Leicester, Lichfield, Lincoln, Llandaff, Manchester, Salisbury, Wakefield, Wells, and Winchester. His works abroad include the ministerial buildings for the Jamaican Government in Kingston.[1]

Nicholson's works include 42 new churches, nine new chapels, and work on nine cathedrals. Nicholson took on the alterations and restorations of many medieval churches, together with the designs of a large amount of church furnishings. The majority of his work was in England, but he also worked in Wales, Northern Ireland, Jamaica and South Africa. He was also an accomplished watercolourist who exhibited at the Royal Academy on 32 occasions.[1]

From 1890, Nicholson carried out a lot of restoration work to his local parish church, St Mary the Virgin in South Benfleet. He designed the reredos between 1890–91, completely restored the south aisle between 1924-5, and designed much of the building's furnishings and fittings. His gilded border, which he completed in 1935, incorporated previous paintings by his mother, Sarah. These were repainted in 1958. Barbara Nicholson, one of his daughters, painted the ciborium.[4]

Personal life[edit]

Nicholson succeeded to the baronetcy in 1903. He largely avoided publicity and preferred to conduct a quiet life with his family.

He was married twice: firstly, on 1 October 1895, to Evelyn Louise Nicholson née Olivier (1867–1927), daughter of the Reverend Henry Arnold Olivier, and sister of Sydney Haldane Olivier (1859–1943), and aunt of Laurence Olivier.[1] Born on the Isle of Wight,[5] Evelyn was a diarist and watercolour painter. During the voyages to and from Australia, Nicholson kept a diary in which she described the places, the people and the flora and fauna which she encountered. She and her husband made many watercolour sketches of the scenery along the way, including seascapes, landscapes and buildings.[6] Highlights of the trip were a visit to Sydney University and a coastal voyage from Sydney to Rockhampton, Queensland, and return. At the university they visited the Nicholson Museum, named after Sir Charles Nicholson, 1st Baronet.[6] The diary and the book of sketches were bequeathed to Sydney University in 1988 by her son, Sir John Nicholson, 3rd Baronet, together with the book of paintings.[7][8] The Nicholsons had a son, John Charles (b. 1904) and two daughters.

On 10 June 1931, four years after Evelyn's death, he married Catherine Maud Warren (1883–1962).[1]

Nicholson died on 4 March 1949 in Oxford and is buried in the Church of St Mary the Virgin, South Benfleet.[1] He is buried, alongside his first wife, in a stone memorial he designed for her, on the south side of the west tower. His second wife was buried there upon her death in 1962.[4]

Works[edit]

Nicholson's architectural works include:

Citations[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i Godfrey, W. H. Nicholson, Charles Archibald, second baronet, Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, Oxford University Press, 2004, 23 September 2004, retrieved 12 July 2018.
  2. ^ "Four Wont Way (Victoria House Corner)", Benfleet Community Archive, retrieved 12 July 2018.
  3. ^ a b "Architects". Belfast Cathedral.
  4. ^ a b Pevsner & Bettley 2007, pp. 689–690.
  5. ^ Isle of Wight BMD Birth Records. Retrieved 16 April 2020
  6. ^ a b "Diary of a Honeymoon Trip to Australia in 1897". Project Gutenberg Australia. April 2020. Retrieved 16 April 2020.
  7. ^ Diary of Evelyn Louise Nicholson. Retrieved 16 April 2020
  8. ^ "Evelyn Nicholson’s trip to Australia, 1897". University of Sydney Library. Retrieved 30 April 2019.
  9. ^ Pevsner & Cherry 1977, p. 365.
  10. ^ Pevsner, Nikolaus (1954). Essex. Buildings of England. Harmondsworth: Penguin Books. p. 325.
  11. ^ Pevsner & Hubbard 1971, p. 150.
  12. ^ Pevsner & Hubbard 1971, p. 122.
  13. ^ Pevsner 1958, pp. 419–420. sfn error: multiple targets (2×): CITEREFPevsner1958 (help)
  14. ^ Pevsner & Radcliffe 1967, p. 228.
  15. ^ Pevsner & Lloyd 1967, p. 706.
  16. ^ Pevsner & Harris 1964, p. 255.
  17. ^ Pevsner & Radcliffe 1967, p. 234.
  18. ^ Pevsner & Harris 1964, p. 211.
  19. ^ Pevsner & Harris 1964, p. 326.
  20. ^ Yorkshire Post and Leeds Intelligencer, Monday 07 April 1913 p.8 col.6: "New church at Rastrick"
  21. ^ Historic England listing, "Grade II* listed buildings, St Clement Church, Leigh-on-Sea. Retrieved 1 June 2020.
  22. ^ Pevsner & Lloyd 1967, p. 434.
  23. ^ Pevsner 1972, p. 281.
  24. ^ Verey 1970, p. 163.
  25. ^ Historic England. "Sotterley War Memorial (Grade II) (1391196)". National Heritage List for England. Retrieved 16 January 2021.
  26. ^ Pevsner & Lloyd 1967, p. 90.
  27. ^ Pevsner & Harris 1964, p. 254.
  28. ^ Sherwood & Pevsner 1974, p. 292.
  29. ^ Sherwood & Pevsner 1974, p. 298.
  30. ^ Pevsner & Radcliffe 1965, p. 245.
  31. ^ Pevsner & Wedgwood 1966, p. 389.
  32. ^ Pevsner & Williamson 1978, p. 266.
  33. ^ Pevsner & Radcliffe 1965, p. 333.
  34. ^ Pevsner & Lloyd 1967, p. 590–592.
  35. ^ Williams, Judith. (2011). Leigh-on-Sea : a history. Chichester: Phillimore. p. 93. ISBN 978-1-86077-659-5. OCLC 751861334.
  36. ^ Pevsner 1952, p. 288.
  37. ^ O'Brien et al. 2018, pp. 288–289.
  38. ^ Pevsner 1958, p. 265. sfn error: multiple targets (2×): CITEREFPevsner1958 (help)
  39. ^ Pevsner & Lloyd 1967, p. 443.
  40. ^ Pevsner & Radcliffe 1965, p. 115.
  41. ^ Pevsner & Radcliffe 1965, p. 96.
  42. ^ Pevsner & Lloyd 1967, p. 124.
  43. ^ a b Pevsner & Radcliffe 1965, p. 353.
  44. ^ Historic England. "St Boniface College at Warminster School (1036188)". National Heritage List for England. Retrieved 11 October 2020.
  45. ^ Pevsner 1960, p. 141.
  46. ^ Pevsner & Radcliffe 1967, p. 158.
  47. ^ Pevsner & Williamson 1983, p. 126.
  48. ^ Pevsner 1974, pp. 247–248.
  49. ^ Pevsner, Cherry & O'Brien 2005, pp. 208–209.
  50. ^ Pevsner & Radcliffe 1965, p. 185.
  51. ^ Pevsner 1966, p. 152.
  52. ^ Newman 1969, p. 184.
  53. ^ Pevsner 1958, p. 225. sfn error: multiple targets (2×): CITEREFPevsner1958 (help)
  54. ^ a b Pevsner & Lloyd 1967, p. 332.
  55. ^ Pevsner & Lloyd 1967, p. 243.
  56. ^ Pevsner 1962, p. 211.
  57. ^ Pevsner & Radcliffe 1965, p. 70.
  58. ^ Pevsner & Lloyd 1967, p. 218.
  59. ^ Pevsner 1974, p. 80.
  60. ^ Nairn, Pevsner & Cherry 1971, p. 446.
  61. ^ Pevsner & Radcliffe 1970, p. 43.
  62. ^ Pevsner & Radcliffe 1965, p. 80.
  63. ^ Newman 1969, p. 603.
  64. ^ Pevsner & Lloyd 1967, p. 193.
  65. ^ Pevsner & Radcliffe 1967, p. 450.
  66. ^ Pevsner & Radcliffe 1967, p. 451.
  67. ^ Pevsner & Radcliffe 1970, p. 51.
  68. ^ Pevsner & Lloyd 1967, p. 400.
  69. ^ Pevsner & Radcliffe 1967, p. 530.
  70. ^ Lloyd & Pevsner 2006, p. 265.
  71. ^ Pevsner 1974, p. 150.
  72. ^ Pevsner 1960, p. 153.
  73. ^ Pevsner & Harris 1964, p. 120.
  74. ^ Pevsner & Hubbard 1971, p. 266.
  75. ^ Pevsner 1974, p. 243.
  76. ^ Pevsner 1974, p. 268.
  77. ^ Pevsner & Cherry 1977, p. 366.
  78. ^ Pevsner & Radcliffe 1965, p. 287.
  79. ^ Newman & Pevsner 1972, p. 444.
  80. ^ Pevsner & Radcliffe 1965, p. 349.
  81. ^ Pevsner & Cherry 1975, p. 578.
  82. ^ Pevsner 1974, p. 322.
  83. ^ Historic England. "Burwash War Memorial (1376156)". National Heritage List for England. Retrieved 15 January 2020.
  84. ^ Historic England. "Havant War Memorial (1416419)". National Heritage List for England. Retrieved 11 October 2020.
  85. ^ Church History

References and further reading[edit]

External links[edit]

Media related to Sir Charles Nicholson, 2nd Baronet at Wikimedia Commons

Baronetage of the United Kingdom
Preceded by
Charles Nicholson
Baronet
(of Luddenham)
1903–1949
Succeeded by
John Charles Nicholson