Sir John Franklin
KCH FRGS RN
|Lieutenant Governor of Van Diemen's Land|
5 January 1837 – 21 August 1843
|Preceded by||Sir George Arthur|
|Succeeded by||Sir John Eardley-Wilmot|
16 April 1786|
Spilsby, Lincolnshire, England
11 June 1847 (aged 61)|
near King William Island, Victoria Strait (now in Nunavut, Canada)
Eleanor Anne Porden|
|Allegiance||United Kingdom/British Empire|
|Years of service||1800–1847|
(Promoted posthumously: 1852)
French Revolutionary Wars|
Rear-Admiral Sir John Franklin KCH FRGS (16 April 1786 – 11 June 1847) was an English Royal Navy officer and explorer of the Arctic. Franklin also served as Lieutenant-Governor of Van Diemen's Land (now Tasmania) from 1837 to 1843. He disappeared on his last expedition, attempting to chart and navigate a section of the Northwest Passage in the Canadian Arctic. The icebound ships were abandoned and the entire crew died of starvation, hypothermia, tuberculosis, lead poisoning, and scurvy.
- 1 Biography
- 2 Legacy
- 3 Works about John Franklin
- 4 See also
- 5 References
- 6 Sources
- 7 Further reading
- 8 External links
Franklin was born in Spilsby, Lincolnshire, on 16 April 1786, the ninth of twelve children born to Hannah Weekes and Willingham Franklin. His father was a merchant descended from a line of country gentlemen while his mother was the daughter of a farmer. One of his brothers later entered the legal profession and eventually became a judge in Madras; another joined the East India Company; while a sister, Sarah, was the mother of Emily Tennyson. Educated at King Edward VI Grammar School in Louth, he soon became interested in a career at sea. His father, who intended for Franklin to enter the church or become a businessman, was initially opposed but was reluctantly convinced to allow him to go on a trial voyage with a merchant ship when he was aged 12. His experience of seafaring only confirmed his interest in a career at sea, so in March 1800, Franklin's father secured him a Royal Navy appointment on HMS Polyphemus.
Commanded by a Captain Lawford, the Polyphemus carried 64 guns and, at the time of Franklin's appointment, was still at sea. He did not join the vessel until the autumn of 1800. Initially serving as a first class volunteer, Franklin soon saw action in the Battle of Copenhagen in which the Polyphemus participated as part of Horatio Nelson's squadron. An expedition to the coast of Australia aboard HMS Investigator, commanded by Captain Matthew Flinders, followed, with Franklin now a midshipman.
He was present at the Battle of Trafalgar in 1805 (aboard HMS Bellerophon), and at the Battle of New Orleans. He accompanied Captain Dance on the East India Company's ship the Earl Camden, frightening off Admiral Linois at the Battle of Pulo Aura in the South China Sea on 14 February 1804.
1819: Coppermine River
In 1819, Franklin was chosen to lead an expedition overland from Hudson Bay to chart the north coast of Canada eastwards from the mouth of the Coppermine River. On his 1819 expedition, Franklin fell into the Hayes River at Robinson Falls and was rescued by a member of his expedition about 90 metres (98 yd) downstream.
Between 1819 and 1822, he lost 11 of the 20 men in his party. Most died of starvation, but there were also at least one murder and suggestions of cannibalism. The survivors were forced to eat lichen and even attempted to eat their own leather boots. This gained Franklin the nickname of "the man who ate his boots".
1823: Marriage and third Arctic expedition
In 1823, after returning to England, Sir John Franklin married the poet Eleanor Anne Porden. Their daughter, Eleanor Isabella, was born the following year. Eleanor (senior) died of tuberculosis in 1825.
In 1825, he left for his second Canadian and third Arctic expedition. The goal this time was the mouth of the Mackenzie River from which he would follow the coast westward and possibly meet Frederick William Beechey who would try to sail northeast from the Bering Strait. With him was John Richardson who would follow the coast east from the Mackenzie to the mouth of the Coppermine River. At the same time, William Edward Parry would try to sail west from the Atlantic. (Beechey reached Point Barrow and Parry became frozen in 900 miles east. At this time, the only known points on the north coast were a hundred or so miles east from the Bering Strait, the mouth of the Mackenzie, Franklin's stretch east of the Coppermine, and a bit of the Gulf of Boothia which had been seen briefly from land.) Supplies were better organized this time, in part because they were managed by Peter Warren Dease of the Hudson's Bay Company.
After reaching the Great Slave Lake using the standard HBC route, Franklin took a reconnaissance trip 1,000 miles down the Mackenzie and on 16 August 1825, became the second European to reach its mouth. He erected a flagpole with buried letters for Parry. He returned to winter at Fort Franklin on the Great Bear Lake. The following summer he went downriver and found the ocean frozen. He worked his way west for several hundred miles and gave up on 16 August 1826 at Return Reef when he was about 150 miles east of Beechey's Point Barrow. Reaching safety at Fort Franklin on 21 September, he left Fort Franklin on 20 February 1827 and spent the rest of the winter and spring at Fort Chipewyan, Alberta. He reached Liverpool on the first of September 1827. Richardson's eastward journey was more successful.
On 5 November 1828, he married Jane Griffin, a friend of his first wife and a seasoned traveller who proved indomitable in the course of their life together. On 29 April 1829, he was knighted by George IV and the same year awarded the first Gold Medal of the Société de Géographie of France. On 25 January 1836, he was made Knight Commander of the Royal Guelphic Order by King William IV. He was made a Knight of the Greek Order of the Redeemer as well.
1836: Lieutenant-Governor of Van Diemen's Land (Tasmania)
Franklin was appointed Lieutenant-Governor of Van Diemen's Land in 1836, but was removed from office in 1843.
He is remembered by a significant landmark in the centre of Hobart—a statue of him dominates the park known as Franklin Square, which was the site of the original Government House. On the plinth below the statue appears Tennyson's epitaph:
Not here! The white north hath thy bones and thou
Heroic sailor soul
Art passing on thine happier voyage now
Toward no earthly pole
His wife worked to set up a university, which was eventually established in 1890, and a museum, credited to the Royal Society of Tasmania in 1843 under the leadership of her husband. Lady Jane Franklin may have worked to have the Lieutenant-Governor's private botanical gardens, established in 1818, managed as a public resource. Lady Franklin also established a glyptotheque and surrounding lands to support it near Hobart; it was her intent to civilise the colony. The village of Franklin, on the Huon River, is named in his honour, as is the Franklin River on the West Coast of Tasmania, one of the better known Tasmanian rivers due to the Franklin Dam controversy.
1843: Visit to Victoria
Shortly after leaving his post as Governor of Tasmania Franklin revisited a cairn on Arthur's Seat, a small mountain just inside Port Phillip Bay, that he had visited as a midshipman with Captain Matthew Flinders in April 1802.
1845: Northwest Passage expedition
Exploration of the Arctic coastal mainland after Franklin's second Arctic expedition had left less than 500 kilometres (311 mi) of unexplored Arctic coastline. The British decided to send a well-equipped Arctic expedition to complete the charting of the Northwest Passage. After Sir James Ross declined an offer to command the expedition, an invitation was extended to Franklin, who accepted despite his age (59). A younger man, Captain James Fitzjames, was given command of HMS Erebus and Franklin was named the expedition commander. Captain Francis Rawdon Moira Crozier, who had commanded HMS Terror during the Ross 1841–44 Antarctic expedition, was appointed executive officer and commander of Terror. Franklin was given command on 7 February 1845, and received official instructions on 5 May 1845.
HMS Erebus and HMS Terror were sturdily built and were outfitted with recent inventions. These included steam engines from the London and Greenwich Railway that enabled the ships to make 4 knots (7.4 km/h) on their own power, a unique combined steam-based heating and distillation system for the comfort of the crew and to provide large quantities of fresh water for the engine's boilers, a mechanism that enabled the iron rudder and propeller to be drawn into iron wells to protect them from damage, ships' libraries of more than 1,000 books, and three years' worth of conventionally preserved or tinned preserved food supplies. Unfortunately, the latter was supplied from a cut-rate provisioner who was awarded the contract only a few months before the ships were to sail.
Though the provisioner's "patent process" was sound, the haste with which he had prepared thousands of cans of food led to sloppily-applied beads of solder on the cans' interior edges, allowing lead to leach into the food. Additionally, the water distillation system may have used lead piping and lead-soldered joints, which would have produced drinking water with a high lead content. Chosen by the Admiralty, most of the crew were Englishmen, many from the North of England with a small number of Irishmen and Scotsmen.
The Franklin Expedition set sail from Greenhithe, England, on 19 May 1845, with a crew of 24 officers and 110 men. The ships travelled north to Aberdeen and the Orkney Isles for supplies. From Scotland, the ships sailed to Greenland with HMS Rattler and a transport ship, Barretto Junior. After misjudging the location of Whitefish Bay, Disko Island, Greenland, the expedition backtracked and finally harboured in that far north outpost to prepare for the rest of their voyage. Five crew members were discharged and sent home on the Rattler and Barretto Junior, reducing the ships' final crew size to 129. The expedition was last seen by Europeans on 26 July 1845, when Captain Dannett of the whaler Prince of Wales encountered Terror and Erebus moored to an iceberg in Lancaster Sound.
It is now believed that the expedition wintered in 1845–46 on Beechey Island. Terror and Erebus became trapped in ice off King William Island in September 1846 and never sailed again. According to a note later found on that island, Franklin died there on 11 June 1847. To date, the exact location of his grave is unknown.
After two years and no word from the expedition, Franklin's wife urged the Admiralty to send a search party. Because the crew carried supplies for three years, the Admiralty waited another year before launching a search and offering a £20,000 reward for finding the expedition. The money and Franklin's fame led to many searches. At one point, ten British and two American ships, USS Advance and USS Rescue, headed for the Arctic. Eventually, more ships and men were lost looking for Franklin than in the expedition itself.
Ballads such as "Lady Franklin's Lament", commemorating Lady Franklin's search for her lost husband, became popular. In the summer of 1850, expeditions, including three from England as well as one from the United States, joined in the search. They converged off the east coast of Beechey Island, where the first relics of the Franklin expedition were found, including the gravesites of three Franklin Expedition crewmen.
In 1854, the Scottish explorer Dr. John Rae, while surveying the Boothia Peninsula for the Hudson's Bay Company, discovered the true fate of the Franklin party from talking to Inuit hunters. He was told both ships had become icebound, and the men had tried to reach safety on foot but had succumbed to cold, and some had resorted to cannibalism. Rae's report to the Admiralty was leaked to the press, which led to widespread revulsion in Victorian society, enraged Franklin's widow, and condemned Rae to ignominy. Lady Franklin's efforts to eulogise her husband, with support from The British Establishment, led to a further 25 searches over the next four decades, none of which would add any further information of note.
In the mid-1980s, Owen Beattie, a University of Alberta professor of anthropology, began a 10-year series of scientific studies known as the "1845–48 Franklin Expedition Forensic Anthropology Project". The studies showed that the Beechey Island crew had most likely died of pneumonia and perhaps tuberculosis. Toxicological reports indicated that lead poisoning was also a possible factor.
In 1997, more than 140 years after his report, Dr. Rae's account was finally vindicated; blade-cut marks on the bones of some of the crew found on King William Island strongly suggested that conditions had become so dire that some crew members resorted to cannibalism. Evidence suggestive of breakage and boiling of bones, characteristic of efforts to extract marrow, was subsequently identified. It appeared from these studies that a combination of bad weather, years locked in ice, poisoned food, botulism, starvation, and disease including scurvy, had killed everyone in the Franklin party. In October 2009, Robert Grenier (a Senior Marine Archaeologist at Parks Canada) outlined recent discoveries of sheet metal and copper which have been recovered from 19th-century Inuit hunting sites. Grenier firmly believes these pieces of metal once belonged to the Terror and formed the protective plating of the ship's hull.
A quote from the British newspaper The Guardian states the following:
After studying 19th-century Inuit oral testimony – which included eyewitness descriptions of starving, exhausted men staggering through the snow without condescending to ask local people how they survived in such a wilderness – [Grenier] believes the 19th-century official accounts that all the surviving expedition members abandoned their ice-locked ships are wrong. He believes both ships drifted southwards, with at least two crew remaining until the final destruction of their vessels. One broke up, but Inuit hunters arriving at their summer hunting grounds reported discovering another ship floating in fresh ice in a cove.
"They're not very strong on location or date," Grenier said. "They have all the space and time in the world, but what they reported seems quite clear."
The ship, probably the Terror, was very neat and orderly, but the Inuit descended into the darkness of the hull with their seal-oil lamps, where they found a tall dead man in an inner cabin. Grenier believes it was there they recovered the copper, which was more valuable than gold to them, and tools including shears from the ship's workshop with which to work it. Hauntingly, they also reported that one of the masts was on fire. Grenier wonders if what they saw was the funnel from the galley still smoking from a meal cooked that morning, before the last of Franklin's men disappeared from history.
For years after the loss of the Franklin party, the Victorian era media portrayed Franklin as a hero who led his men in the quest for the Northwest Passage. A statue of Franklin in his home town bears an inscription stating "Sir John Franklin — Discoverer of the North West Passage". Statues of Franklin outside the Athenaeum in London and in Tasmania bear similar inscriptions.
The mystery surrounding Franklin's last expedition was the subject of a 2006 episode of the Nova television series Arctic Passage and a 2006 documentary Franklin's Lost Expedition on Discovery HD Theater. The expedition has inspired many artistic works including a ballad, "Lady Franklin's Lament", a verse play by Canadian poet Gwendolyn MacEwen, a children's book, a short story and essays by Canadian author Margaret Atwood, and several novels. Canadian balladeer Stan Rogers's song "Northwest Passage" mentions Franklin:
Ah, for just one time I would take the Northwest Passage
To find the hand of Franklin reaching for the Beaufort Sea;
Tracing one warm line through a land so wild and savage
And make a Northwest Passage to the sea.
There is a neighbourhood in Winnipeg, Manitoba, which is named after Sir John Franklin in the southwest corner of the city. In Yellowknife, Northwest Territories, École Sir John Franklin High School (opened in 1958) is named after the explorer.
Franklin was commemorated by several geographic names, including two islands in Antarctica and Greenland, Franklin Sound north of Tasmania and Franklin Strait in Arctic Canada, whereas his wife has given name to Lady Franklinfjord in Svalbard.
The wintering site of Franklin's second Canadian expedition, in Deline, Northwest Territories, was designated a National Historic Site of Canada in 1996. The explorer was also remembered when one of Canada's Northwest Territories subdivisions was named the District of Franklin.
On 29 October 2009, a special service of thanksgiving was held in the chapel at the Royal Naval College, Greenwich, to accompany the rededication of the national monument to Sir John Franklin there. The service also included the solemn re-interment of the remains of Lieutenant Henry Thomas Dundas Le Vesconte, the only remains ever repatriated to England, entombed within the monument in 1873. The event brought together members of the international polar community and invited guests included polar travellers, photographers and authors and descendants of Franklin, Captain Francis Rawdon Moira Crozier and their men, and the families of those who went to search for them, including McClintock, Rear Admiral Sir John Ross and Vice Admiral Sir Robert McClure among many others.
The gala was directed by the Rev Jeremy Frost and polar historian Dr Huw Lewis-Jones and was organized by Polarworld and the High Commission of Canada to the United Kingdom. It was a celebration of the contributions made by the United Kingdom in the charting of the Canadian North, which honoured the loss of life in the pursuit of geographical discovery. It also marked the 150th anniversary of Francis Leopold McClintock's voyage aboard the yacht Fox, returning to London with news of the tragedy. The Navy was represented by Admiral Nick Wilkinson, prayers were led by the Bishop of Woolwich and among the readings were eloquent tributes from Duncan Wilson, chief executive of the Greenwich Foundation and H.E. James Wright, the Canadian High Commissioner.
At a private drinks reception in the Painted Hall which followed this Arctic service, Chief Marine Archaeologist for Parks Canada Robert Grenier spoke of his ongoing search for the missing expedition ships. The following day a group of polar authors went to London's Kensal Green Cemetery to pay their respects to the Arctic explorers buried there. After some difficulty, McClure's gravestone was located. It is hoped that his memorial, in particular, may be conserved in the future. Many other veterans of the searches for Franklin are buried there, including Admiral Sir Horatio Thomas Austin, Admiral Sir George Back, Admiral Sir Edward Augustus Inglefield, Admiral Bedford Pim, and Admiral Sir John Ross.
Franklin's redoubtable wife Jane Griffin, Lady Franklin, is also interred at Kensal Green in the vault, and commemorated on a marble cross dedicated to her niece Sophia Cracroft.
On 12 September 2016, it was announced that the Arctic Research Foundation expedition had found the wreck of HMS Terror south of King William Island in Terror Bay and in "pristine" condition. This is many miles south of the last known location of the Terror. Archaeologists believe the Terror must have been crewed and sailed to its new location, as the anchor was used and it has sailed through a maze of islands and channels to be there, which must have required human steering.
Works about John Franklin
- "Franklin Saga Deaths: A Mystery Solved?". National Geographic Magazine. Vol. 178 no. 3. September 1990.
- Beardsley, Martyn. Deadly Wintre: The Life of Sir John Franklin.
- Beattie, Owen, and Geiger, John (1989). Frozen in Time: Unlocking the Secrets of the Franklin Expedition. Saskatoon: Western Producer Prairie Books. ISBN 0-88833-303-X.
- Beattie, Owen and Geiger, John (2004). Frozen In Time: The Fate of the Franklin Expedition (Revised edition)
- Berton, Pierre The Arctic Grail.
- Coleman, E. C. (2006). The Royal Navy in Polar Exploration, Franklin to Scott.
- Cookman, Scott (2001). Ice Blink: The Tragic Fate of Sir John Franklin's Lost Polar Expedition. ISBN 0-471-40420-9
- Hutchinson, Gillian (2009) "Searching for Franklin and the Northwest Passage". ISBN 978-0-948065-84-2.
- Davis, Richard C. (1995) "Sir John Franklin's Journals and Correspondence: The First Arctic Land Expedition, 1819–1822". The Champlain Society  ISBN 0-9693425-4-3
- Davis, Richard C. (1998) "Sir John Franklin's Journals and Correspondence: The Second Arctic Land Expedition, 1825–1827". The Champlain Society  ISBN 0-9693425-9-4
- Joel, C. R. (2011) A Tale of Ambition and Unrealised Hope: John Montagu and Sir John Franklin. ISBN 978-1-921509-82-7
- Owen Beatle and John Geiger (1992) "Buried in ice: The mystery of a lost arctic expedition" ISBN 0-590-43849-2
- Lambert, Andrew (2009) Franklin: Tragic Hero of Polar Navigation. ISBN 978-0-571-23160-7.
- McGoogan, Ken Fatal Passage.
- McGoogan, Ken Lady Franklin's Revenge.
- Mirsky, Jeannette (1970). To the Arctic!: The Story of Northern Exploration from Earliest Times. ISBN 0-226-53179-1.
- Murray, David. (2004). The Arctic Fox: Francis Leopold McClintock, Discoverer of the fate of Franklin. Cork: The Collins Press, ISBN 1-55002-523-6.
- NOVA – Arctic Passage Part 1 – Prisoners of the Ice (TV documentary). See also program transcript.
- Payton, Brian (2009) The Ice Passage ISBN 978-0-385-66532-2
- Potter, Russell A. (2016) Finding Franklin: The Untold Story of a 165-Year Search. Montreal: McGill-Queen's University Press. ISBN 0773547843
- Poulsom, Neville W. & Myres, J. A. L. (2000). British polar exploration and research : a historical and medallic record with biographies, 1818–1999. London: Savannah.
- Sutton, Ann, and Myron Sutton. Journey into Ice; John Franklin and the Northwest Passage,. Chicago: Rand McNally, 1965.
- Stefánsson, Vilhjálmur (1938). Unsolved Mysteries of the Arctic.
- Woodman, David C. Unraveling the Franklin Mystery: Inuit Testimony.
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- The Frozen Deep, unpublished 1856 play and 1874 novella by Wilkie Collins.
- The Adventures of Captain Hatteras, Jules Verne, 1864.
- Heart of Darkness, Joseph Conrad, 1902.
- The Discovery of Slowness, Sten Nadolny, Novel, 1983.
- Solomon Gursky Was Here, Mordecai Richler, 1989.
- "John Franklin's Story," Claudia Vurnakes, short story, 1990.
- The Broken Lands, Robert Edric, Novel, 1992.
- The Rifles, William T. Vollmann, Novel, 1994.
- The Voyage of the Narwhal, Andrea Barrett, Novel, 1998.
- The Ice Child, Elizabeth McGregor, Novel, 2001.
- The Terror, Dan Simmons, Horror novel, 2007.
- Arctic Drift, Clive Cussler, Novel, 2008.
- Du Bon Usage des Étoiles (English translation, On the Proper Use of Stars), Dominique Fortier, Novel, 2008.
- Wanting, Richard Flanagan, Novel, 2008.
- The Surfacing, Comac James, Novel, 2014.
- Graves of Ice, John Wilson, Young Adult Novel, 2014.
- "Lady Franklin's Lament", traditional ballad
- Franklin's bones are mentioned in John Spearn's "The Crimson Maple Leaf"
- "Lord Franklin", a traditional ballad sung by Martin Carthy on his "Second Album" (1966) with Dave Swarbrick, Pentangle on their 1973 album, "Cruel Sister (Pentangle album)", Folkdove in 1975, and in 1995 by Kevin Burke and Mícheál Ó Domhnaill
- "Northwest Passage", Stan Rogers, a modern ballad explicitly citing Franklin and others, is a staple of Canadian political discourse
- The band Nightnoise included a track called The Erebus and the Terror in their 1987 album Something of Time.
- O'Byrne, William Richard (1849). " Franklin, John (a)". A Naval Biographical Dictionary. John Murray. Wikisource.
- Mathinna (Tasmanian)
- Lamb 1956, p. 13.
- Traill 1896, p. 3.
- Lamb 1956, p. 14.
- Lamb 1956, p. 15.
- Lamb 1956, pp. 15–16.
- Lamb 1956, p. 16.
- Traill 1896, p. 8.
- Lamb 1956, p. 17.
- Lamb 1956, p. 18.
- Holland, Clive (1988). "Franklin, Sir John". In Halpenny, Francess G. Dictionary of Canadian Biography. VII (1836–1850) (online ed.). University of Toronto Press.
- "Great Canadian Rivers: The Hayes". TV Ontario. Great Canadian Rivers. 2001-10-29. Retrieved 2013-12-14.
- Franklin, John. Narrative of a Journey to the Shores of the Polar Sea. II (3rd ed.). London: John Murray. p. 279 – via Gutenberg.org.
- "Grande Médaille d'Or des Explorations" [Great Gold Medal of Exploration and Journeys of Discovery] (in French). Société de géographie.
- "Address". The Hobart Town Courier (Tas: 1827–1839). May 26, 1837. p. 3 – via NLA Australian Newspapers.
- Serle, Percival (1949). "Franklin, John (1786–1847)". Dictionary of Australian Biography. Angus and Robertson – via Project Gutenberg Australia.
- Kathleen, Fitzpatrick (1966). "Franklin, Sir John (1786–1847)". Australian Dictionary of Biography. 1. Canberra: Australian National University.
- McLear, Colin (2006). A Dreamtime of Dromana: A History of Dromana Through the Eyes of a Pioneering Family. Dromana and District Historical Society. p. 22. ISBN 978-0-9757127-6-4.
- Gibson, F.R.G.S., William (June 1937). "Sir John Franklin's Last Voyage: A brief history of the Franklin expedition and the outline of the researches which established the facts of its tragic outcome". The Beaver: 48.
- Battersby, William (September 2008). "Identification of the Probable Source of the Lead Poisoning Observed in Members of the Franklin Expedition" (PDF). Journal of the Hakluyt Society.
- M'Clintock, Francis L. (1859). The Voyage of the 'Fox' in the Arctic Seas. A Narrative of the Discovery of the Fate of Sir John Franklin and His Companions. London: John Murray.
- "No. 21375". The London Gazette. 2 November 1852. p. 2867.
- McGoogan, Ken (2002). Fatal Passage: The True Story of John Rae, the Arctic Hero Time Forgot. Toronto: HarperCollins. ISBN 978-0-0063-8659-9.
- Amy, Roger; Bhatnagar, Rakesh; Damkjar, Eric; Beattie, Owen (15 July 1986). "The last Franklin Expedition: report of a postmortem examination of a crew member" (PDF). Canadian Medical Association Journal. 135 (2): 115–117. PMC . PMID 3521821.
- Notman, Derek N.H.; Anderson, Lawrence; Beattie, Owen B.; Roger, Amy (August 1987). "Arctic Paleoradiology: Portable Radiographic Examination of Two Frozen Sailors from the Franklin Expedition (1845–48)". American Journal of Roentgenology. 149: 347–350. doi:10.2214/ajr.149.2.347. PMID 3300222. Archived from the original on 2002-09-21.
- Kowall, Walter; Beattie, Owen B.; Baadsgaard, Halfdan (25 January 1990). "Did solder kill Franklin's men?". Nature. 343 (6256): 319–320. Bibcode:1990Natur.343..319K. doi:10.1038/343319b0.
- Kowall, W.A.; Krahn, P.M.; Beattie, O.B. (1989). "Lead Levels in Human Tissues from the Franklin Forensic Project". International Journal Environmental Analytical Chemistry. 35 (2): 119–126. doi:10.1080/03067318908028385.
- Keenleyside, Anne; Bertulli, Margaret; Fricke, Henry C. (March 1997). "The Final Days of the Franklin Expedition: New Skeletal Evidence" (PDF). Arctic. The Arctic Institute of North America. 50 (1): 36–46. doi:10.14430/arctic1089.
- Kennedy, Dominic (July 29, 2015). "Sailors sucked the marrow out of their shipmates". The Times.
- Mays, S; Beattie, O (4 August 2015). "Evidence for End-stage Cannibalism on Sir John Franklin's Last Expedition to the Arctic, 1845". International Journal of Osteoarchaeology. 26 (5): 778–786. doi:10.1002/oa.2479.
- Kennedy, Maev (28 October 2009). "Copper clue may solve mystery of doomed Victorian Arctic expedition". The Guardian.
- "Northwest Passage" song and lyrics by Stan Rogers". Northwest Passage 2012 dot com. Retrieved 2016-06-17.
- History of Adelaide Through Street Names, historysouthaustralia.net
- "Franklin 1985-2002". Marine National Facility.
- Franklin rose
- Déline Fishery / Franklin's Fort National Historic Site of Canada. Canadian Register of Historic Places. Retrieved 4 October 2013.
- Déline Fishery / Franklin's Fort National Historic Site of Canada. Directory of Federal Heritage Designations. Parks Canada.
- This jurisdiction was abolished when the Northwest Territories were divided in 1999. See Wikipedia article: District of Franklin.
- Lewis-Jones, Huw. "'Nelsons of Discovery': Notes on the Franklin Monument in Greenwich" (PDF). pp. 77–105.
- Harper, Kenn (November 19, 2009). "Taissumanni, Nov. 20: Re-dedication of the Franklin Monument". Nunatsiaq News.
- Potter, Russell (November 6, 2009). "A Night of Polar Stars". Visions of the North.
- Potter, Russell (July 30, 2010). "Thoughts on McClure and HMS Investigator". Visions of the North.
- "Sir John Franklin: Fabled Arctic ship found". BBC Online. 9 September 2014.
- Watson, Paul (March 4, 2015). "Navy divers, marine archeologists will study Franklin's ship in winter mission". Toronto Star.
- "Ship found in Arctic 168 years after doomed Northwest Passage attempt". The Guardian. September 12, 2016.
- Wrecks of HMS Erebus and HMS Terror National Historic Site of Canada. Canadian Register of Historic Places. Retrieved 29 October 2013.
- Wrecks of HMS Erebus and HMS Terror National Historic Site of Canada. Directory of Federal Heritage Designations. Parks Canada.
- Macfarlane, Robert (18 December 2003). "Read it on the autobahn". London Review of Books. Retrieved 11 July 2015.
- Harper, Stephen (17 August 2006). The Call of the North (Speech). Yellowknife, Northwest Territories. Archived from the original on 16 February 2013.
'Ladies and gentlemen, I'd like to end by leaving you with a line from Stan Rogers' unofficial Canadian anthem – Northwest Passage.
- Gudgeon, Chris; Mcintosh, Andrew (March 4, 2015) [August 29, 2013]. "Stan Rogers". The Canadian Encyclopedia (online ed.). Historica Canada.
- Lamb, G. F. (1956). Franklin: Happy Voyager. London: Ernest Benn. OCLC 250937261.
- Traill, H. D. (1896). The Life of Sir John Franklin, R.N. London: John Murray. OCLC 316480873.
- Alexander, Alison (editor) (2005)The Companion to Tasmanian History. Centre for Tasmanian Historical Studies, University of Tasmania, Hobart. ISBN 1-86295-223-X.
- Robson, L.L. (1983) A history of Tasmania. Volume 1. Van Diemen's Land from the earliest times to 1855. Melbourne, Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-554364-5
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to John Franklin.|
|Wikisource has original text related to this article:|
- Franklin and the North-West Passage Original reports from The Times
- Journals and Correspondence of Sir John Franklin
- NOVA's companion website for Arctic Passage
- The Fate of Franklin (Russell Potter)
- The Life and Times of Sir John Franklin
- List of artefacts recovered from the Franklin Expedition
- Paper from the Universary of Calgary about the discovery of skeletal remains in 1992
- Ottawa plans search for Franklin ships, Toronto Star, 14 August 2008.
- Search for Franklin from Frozen Ocean: Search for the North-west Passage
- Franklin and Francis Dunn Llanelli's lost Arctic Explorer
- Works by John Franklin at Project Gutenberg
- Works by or about John Franklin at Internet Archive
Sir George Arthur
| Lieutenant Governor of Van Diemen's Land
Sir John Eardley-Wilmot