William Chambers (architect)
|Sir William Chambers|
William Chambers, painted in 1764 by Frances Cotes
23 February 1723|
10 March 1796 (aged 73)|
Casino at Marino|
Dundas House (now the headquarters of the Royal Bank of Scotland)
Sir William Chambers RA (23 February 1723 – 10 March 1796) was a Scottish-Swedish architect, based in London. Among his best-known works are Somerset House, London, and the pagoda at Kew. Chambers was a founder member of the Royal Academy.
Returning to Europe, he studied architecture in Paris (with J. F. Blondel) and spent five years in Italy. Then, in 1755, he moved to London, where he established an architectural practice. Through a recommendation of the John Stuart, 3rd Earl of Bute in 1757 he was appointed architectural tutor to the Prince of Wales, later George III, and in 1766 also, along with Robert Adam, Architect to the King, (this being an unofficial title, rather than an actual salaried post with the Office of Works). He worked for Augusta, Dowager Princess of Wales making fanciful garden buildings at Kew, and in 1757 he published a book of Chinese designs which had a significant influence on contemporary taste. He developed his Chinese interests further with his Dissertation on Oriental Gardening (1772), a fanciful elaboration of contemporary English ideas about the naturalistic style of gardening in China.
His more serious and academic Treatise on Civil Architecture published in 1759 proved influential on builders; it went into several editions and was still being republished in 1826. It dealt with the use of the classical orders, and gave suggestions for decorative elements, rather than dealing with construction and planning; for its third edition it was retitled A Treatise on the Decorative Parts of Civil Architecture. It included ideas from the works of many 16th- and 17th-century Italian architects then still little known in Britain. His influence was also transmitted through a host of younger architects trained as pupils in his office, including Thomas Hardwick (1752–1825), who helped him build Somerset House and who wrote his biography.
He was the major rival of Adam in British Neoclassicism. Chambers was more international in outlook (his knighthood being originally a Swedish honour) and was influenced by continental neoclassicism (which he in turn influenced) when designing for British clients. A second visit to Paris in 1774 confirmed the French cast to his sober and conservative refined blend of Neoclassicism and Palladian conventions.
From around 1758 to the mid-1770s, Chambers concentrated on building houses for the nobility, beginning with one for Lord Bessborough at Roehampton. In 1766 Chambers was elected a foreign member of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences. From 1761 he held the unofficial post of Joint Architect to the King, he was then promoted to his first official post in the Office of Works and was from 1769–82 Comptroller of the King's Works, his final promotion put him in charge, from 1782 being Surveyor-General and Comptroller a post he kept until his death.
When a scheme to unite a number of government offices on the site of Somerset House in the Strand was projected, his position did not give him automatic authority over the construction; however when William Robinson, secretary to the board, who had been put in charge of the new building, died in 1775, Chambers became its architect. His initial plans for a great oval courtyard, connected to three smaller, narrow rectangular courts, were soon modified into a simpler rectalinear scheme.
On 10 December 1768 the Royal Academy was founded. Chambers played an important role in the events that led to the Academy's foundation, the Minutes of the General Assembly of the Royal Academy of 14 December 1768 record 'That some time towards the latter end of November 1768, Mr Chambers waited upon the King and informed him that many artists of reputation together with himself are very desirous of establishing a Society that should more effectively promote the Arts of Design'. He was appointed the Academy's first Treasurer.
- Designs of Chinese buildings, furniture, dresses, machines, and utensils : to which is annexed a description of their temples, houses, gardens, &c (London) 1757
- Desseins des edifices, meubles, habits, machines, et ustenciles des Chinois ; Auxquels est ajoutée une descr. de leurs temples, de leurs maisons, de leurs jardins, etc. (London) 1757
- A treatise on civil architecture in which the principles of that art are laid down and illustrated by a great number of plates accurately designed and elegantly engraved by the best hands (London) 1759
- Plans, Elevations, Sections and Perspective Views of the Gardens and Buildings at Kew in Surrey (London) 1763
- A dissertation on oriental gardening. (London) 1772
- Roehampton Villa (largely extant including interior ceilings), now called Parkstead House, for William Ponsonby, 2nd Earl of Bessborough. Also designed two garden temples (one to be re-erected by 2008), similar to those at the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
- Within Kew Gardens, some of his buildings are lost, those remaining being the ten-storey Pagoda, the Orangery, the Ruined Arch, the Temple of Bellona and the Temple of Aeolus.
- The Pagoda, in Pagoda Gardens, Blackheath, London is attributed to Chambers. A three-storey house built as a pavilion (c. 1775) for the Duke and Duchess of Buccleuch, it features a gabled Chinese-style roof with dramatic upturned corners. Caroline of Brunswick lived here after her separation from her husband, the Prince Regent, in 1799.
- Somerset House in London, his most famous building, which absorbed most of his energies over a period of two decades (1776–1796)
- The gilded state coach that is still used at coronations.
- Hedsor House, Buckinghamshire, the seat of Lord Boston, equerry to George III.
- For James Caulfeild, 1st Earl of Charlemont, he designed Charlemont House and the Casino at Marino, as well as the chapel and public theatre in Trinity College, Dublin.
- He is also associated with Gothic additions to Milton Abbey in Dorset and the planning of the nearby rural village of Milton Abbas, sometimes considered the first planned settlement in England. This work was carried out in collaboration with landscape gardener Capability Brown in 1780 for Joseph Damer, the Earl of Dorchester, who wanted to relocate the existing village further away from his home at the Abbey.
- Wick House, Richmond Hill, commissioned in 1771 by painter Sir Joshua Reynolds.
- Kew Gardens, Kew, Surrey, various structures: House of Confucius (1749) demolished; Frederick, Prince of Wales, Mausoleum (unexecuted); Gallery of Antiquities (1757) demolished; Orangery (1757–61); Temple of Pan (1758) demolished; Temple of Arethusa (1758) demolished; Alhambra (1758) demolished; Garden Seat (1758) demolished; Porter's Lodge (1758) demolished; Stables (1758) demolished; Temple of Victory (1759) demolished; Ruined Arch (1759); Theatre of Augusta (1760) demolished; Temple of Bellona (1760); Menagerie (1760) demolished; Exotic Garden (1760) demolished; Mosque (1761) demolished; Temple of the Sun (1761) demolished; Pagoda (1761–62); Temple of Peace (1763) demolished; Temple of Aeolus (1763); Temple of Solitude (1763) demolished; Palladian Bridge (1763) demolished; Dairy (1773) demolished; and alterations to Kew House – demolished
- Leicester House, Leicester Square, alterations (1757) – demolished
- Carlton House, alterations, (1757–61), new porters lodge and remodelled entrance passage (c. 1761), later virtually rebuilt (1783–6) by Henry Holland – demolished
- Richmond House, Whitehall, gallery, greenhouse, gate to Privy Garden (1759–60) – demolished
- Parkstead House (formerly Manresa House and Bessborough House), Roehampton (1760)
- 47 Leicester Square, Sir Joshua Reynolds's house, new painting room and gallery (c. 1760-2) – demolished
- Pembroke House, Whitehall, internal decoration (1760) riding house (1773) – demolished
- Buckingham Palace (then Queen's House), addition of north & south wings, west and east libraries, the Octagon Library, interior decorations and riding house (1762–68) – none of this work survives
- Grantham House, Whitehall, alterations (1760s) – demolished
- 25 Grosvenor Square, internal alterations (1762) – demolished
- Richmond Palace, Richmond, various designs (1762, 1764, 1769, 1775) – none executed
- 45 Berkeley Square, internal decoration (1763–7)
- 13–22, 44–58 Berners Street (1764–70)
- Gower House, Whitehall, Chamber's largest town house (1765–74) – demolished
- German Lutheran Chapel, Savoy Palace, (1766) – demolished
- 20 Grosvenor Square, internal alterations (1767) – demolished
- Observatory, Richmond Gardens, for George III (1768)
- 6 Cheyne Walk, Chelsea (c. 1768)
- St James's Palace, internal decorations (late 1760s)
- 21 Arlington Street, Westminster (1769)
- Milton House, Park Lane, entrance gate and screen (1769–71) – demolished
- Bedford House, Bloomsbury, London, alterations and internal decorations (c. 1769 – c. 1772) – demolished
- 79 Piccadilly, alterations including addition of attic storey (1770–71) – demolished
- Errington House (later Warwick House), Cleveland Row (1770–71) – demolished
- House Knightsbridge (1770–72) – demolished
- Wick House, Richmond (1771–72)
- 3 St. James's Square, internal alterations (1771) – demolished
- The Earl and Countess of Mountrath's tomb, St John's Chapel, Westminster Abbey (1771)
- Melbourne House Piccadilly, (1771–76) converted to the Albany by Henry Holland (1803–4)
- Marlborough House, addition of attic and internal alterations including new chimney-piece in the state drawing room (1771–74)
- 14 Cecil Street, interior work (c. 1772)
- 62 Curzon Street (1773)
- 15 George Street, internal alterations and Doric porch (1774)
- 51 Grosvenor Street, alterations (1774–5)
- Somerset House, Chambers' magnum opus (1776–96), the building was unfinished at Chambers' death and continued in (1829–31) under Robert Smirke who added the east wing
England outside London
- Goodwood House, Sussex, South wing of house & stables (1757–60)
- Wilton House, Wiltshire, Triumphal Arch, Casina, Rock Bridge, Library, Tennis Court (1757–74)
- Duntish Court, Dorset, new house (c. 1760–64)
- Poston Court, Herefordshire, Casino (1760)
- Newby Park, (now Baldersby Park), Yorkshire, alterations to the house, Pheasantry and Menagerie (c. 1760)
- Peper Harow House, Surrey (1760–65)
- Osterley Park, Middlesex, north front and gallery (1761) the rest of the house by Robert Adam
- Beechwood, Hertfordshire, Dining Room (1761)
- The Hyde, near Ingatestone, Essex, hall and staircase (1761)
- The Hoo, Hertfordshire, alterations and interior decoration, bridge, temple, gateway, stables, boat house & gate piers (c. 1762)
- Temple of Romulus and Remus, Coleby Hall, Coleby, North Kesteven, Lincolnshire (1762)
- Styche Hall, Shropshire new house and stables (1762–66)
- Walcot House, Shropshire, remodelling (1764–7)
- Teddington Grove, Middlesex, new house, greenhouse and temple (c. 1765)
- Whitton Place, Middlesex, Mausoleum, redecoration of house, Roman Bathhouse, Greenhouse, Temple of Aesculapius (1765–90)
- Completion of John Vardy's house for Andrew Drummond (Vardy had died), Stanmore, Middlesex, (1765–70)
- Houghton House, Houghton Conquest, Bedfordshire, restoration and alterations (1765) now a ruin
- Kirkleatham Hall, Kirkleatham, Yorkshire, the gallery (c. 1765)
- Woodstock Town Hall, Woodstock, Oxfordshire (1766)
- Blenheim Palace, Oxfordshire, Internal decorations, furniture, gateway to kitchen garden, Blagdon Bridge, Temple of Diana, Temple of Flora, Flower Garden, erection of Bernini Obelisk (1766–1775)
- Monument to Wriothesley Russell, 2nd Duke of Bedford, St. Michael's Church Chenies (1766)
- Wrest Park, Bedfordshire, Chinese Pavilion attributed (c. 1766)
- Ansley Hall, Ansley, Warwickshire Chinese temple (1767)
- Barton Hall, Norfolk, Library (1767)
- Terling Place, Essex, work of unknown nature (1767–8)
- Woburn Abbey, Bedfordshire, south wing, including Eating Room and Library and Basin Bridge (1767–72)
- Cobham Hall, Kent, new rooms in south wing including the library, raising of attic (c. 1767–70)
- Southill House, Southill, Bedfordshire, alterations (c. 1768) the house was later rebuilt by Henry Holland
- Ampthill Park, Ampthill, Bedfordshire, addition of wings and redecoration of the interiors (1768–72)
- Milton Abbey, new house, porter's lodge and west front of Abbey church, uniquely for Chambers all in Gothic revival style
- New House, Woodstock, Oxfordshire (c. 1769)
- Danson House, Kent, internal alterations including new chimney-pieces, the Temple and 'Palladio Bridge' (late 1760s–1770)
- Tottenham House, Wiltshire, work of unknown character (1770–76)
- Milton Hall, Cambridgeshire, alterations and interior decoration and garden temples (1770–76)
- Trinity House Chapel, Kingston upon Hull, Yorkshire (1772)
- Amesbury Hall, Amesbury, Wiltshire, Chinese temple (1772)
- Theatre Royal, Liverpool, Lancashire (1772) demolished
- Milton Abbas, estate village for Milton Abbey (1773)
- Newburgh Priory, Coxwold, Yorkshire, alterations (1774)
- Hedsor House, Buckinghamshire (1778)
- Casino at Marino, Marino, Dublin (1758–76). Garden pavilion for 1st Earl of Charlemont. Open to the public.
- Marino House, Marino, Dublin. (1758–75) Alterations and additions to existing country house for 1st Earl of Charlemont. Demolished.
- Marino House, Marino, Dublin. Dragon gates. Relocated from original position.
- Castletown House, (1760) County Kildare, internal alterations of long gallery and other rooms and gate piers for Thomas Connolly.
- Slane Castle, County Meath, work of unknown nature (1760s)
- Charlemont House, Rutland (now Parnell) Square, Dublin (1762–75) for 1st Earl of Charlemont. City house. Adapted for use as City Art Gallery. Porch added by others. Rear section demolished.
- Headford, County Meath, (1765) Unexecuted design for country house with 13 bay garden front.
- Town Hall, Main Street, Strabane, County Tyrone. Design for steeple.
- Leinster House, Dublin, redecoration of first floor apartments on garden front (1767)
- Hunting lodge, Roxborough Castle, Moy, County Tyrone. (1768). Two unexecuted designs for Lord Charlemont.
- City Hall, Parliament Street, Dublin, (1768–1769). Unsuccessful competition entry.
- Rathfarnham Castle, County Dublin, refaced 16th-century castle, provided with Georgian windows, straight roof parapets with urns and Georgian interiors (1770–71) for Henry, 4th. Viscount Loftus, Later 1st. Earl of Ely.
- Lucan House, Lucan, County Dublin, (1773–75) for Agmondisham Vesey. Now Italian Embassy.
- Trinity College, Dublin, East range. (1775). Not built.
- Trinity College, Dublin, College Exam Hall. (1775) In use as exam hall and theatre.
- Trinity College, Dublin, Collegiate chapel (c. 1775–1797). In use as chapel.
- Dunmore Pineapple, Falkirk, attributed (1761)
- Duddingston House, Duddingston, house, stables and temple (1763–68)
- 26 St Andrew Square, Edinburgh (1769)
- Dundas House, (now The Royal Bank of Scotland), St Andrew Square, Edinburgh (1771–74)
Gallery of architectural works
- William Chambers Biography
- page 11, Sir William Chambers Architect to George III, John Harris and Michael Snodin, 1996, Yale University Press ISBN 0-300-06940-5
- page 11, Sir William Chambers Architect to George III, John Harris and Michael Snodin, 1996, Yale University Press ISBN 0-300-06940-5
- page 59, The Architect King: George III and the Culture of the Enlightenment, David Watkin, 2004, Royal Collection Publications
- page 15, The Architect King: George III and the Culture of the Enlightenment, David Watkin, 2004, Royal Collection Publications
- Summerson 1970, p.416
- Summerson 1970, p.416
- Chapter 8, The Office of Works 1761–96, Sir William Chambers Knight of the Polar Star, John Harris, 1970, A. Zwemmer Ltd
- Summerson 1970, p.416
- Chapter 11, The Royal Academy, Sir William Chambers Knight of the Polar Star, John Harris, 1970, A. Zwemmer Ltd
- “Anecdotes of the Late Sir William Chambers, from the European Magazine,” The Annual Register, or a View of the History, Politicks and Literature of the Year (1796):366.
- Parkstead House Archived 5 May 2009 at the Wayback Machine.
- Kew Gardens web site Archived 8 July 2009 at the Wayback Machine.
- Historic Register of Parks and Gardens Archived 26 February 2012 at the Wayback Machine.
- pages 196–256, Sir William Chambers Knight of the Polar Star, John Harris, 1970, A. Zwemmer Ltd
- Summerson, John (1970). Architecture in Britain, 1530 to 1830. Pelican History of Art. Harmondsworth: Penguin Books.
- Michael Snodin (Ed.), Sir William Chambers, V&A Publishing ISBN 1851771824
- Amherst, Alicia (2006) . A History of Gardening in England (3rd ed.). Whitefish, Montana: Kessinger Publishing.
- Blomfield, Sir F. Reginald; Thomas, Inigo, Illustrator (1972) . The Formal Garden in England, 3rd ed. New York: McMillan and Co.
- Clifford, Derek (1967). A History of Garden Design (2nd ed.). New York: Praeger.
- Gothein, Marie-Luise Schröeter (1863–1931); Wright, Walter P. (1864–1940); Archer-Hind, Laura; Alden Hopkins Collection (1928) . History of Garden Art. 2. London & Toronto, New York: J. M. Dent; 1928 Dutton. ISBN 978-3-424-00935-4. 945 pages Publisher: Hacker Art Books; Facsimile edition (June 1972) ISBN 0878170081; ISBN 978-0878170081.
- Gothein, Marie. Geschichte der Gartenkunst. München: Diederichs, 1988 ISBN 978-3-424-00935-4.
- Hadfield, Miles (1960). Gardening in Britain. Newton, Mass: C. T. Branford.
- Hussey, Christopher (1967). English Gardens and Landscapes, 1700–1750. Country Life.
- Hyams, Edward S.; Smith, Edwin, photos (1964). The English Garden. New York: H.N. Abrams.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Sir William Chambers.|
|Wikisource has the text of the 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica article Chambers, William.|
- Works by William Chambers at Project Gutenberg
- Works by or about William Chambers at Internet Archive
- A Dissertation on Oriental Gardening (London, 1772)
- Sir William Chambers architectural drawings, circa 1769–1796. Held by the Department of Drawings & Archives, Avery Architectural & Fine Arts Library, Columbia University.
| Comptroller of the King's Works
| Surveyor-General and Comptroller