Sir William Deane
|22nd Governor-General of Australia|
16 February 1996 – 29 June 2001
|Prime Minister||Paul Keating |
|Preceded by||Bill Hayden|
|Succeeded by||Peter Hollingworth|
|Justice of the High Court of Australia|
25 June 1982 – 11 November 1995
|Nominated by||Malcolm Fraser|
|Preceded by||Ninian Stephen|
|Succeeded by||Michael Kirby|
William Patrick Deane
4 January 1931
St Kilda, Victoria, Australia
|Alma mater||University of Sydney|
Deane received his undergraduate education at the University of Sydney, and later studied international law at The Hague Academy of International Law in the Netherlands. Prior to joining the judiciary, Deane worked for periods as a barrister and university lecturer. He was appointed to the Supreme Court of New South Wales in 1977, and later that year was also appointed to the Federal Court of Australia. Deane was elevated to the High Court in 1982, and during his tenure was generally considered to fall on the court's progressive side. He retired from the court in 1995, and the following year was appointed governor-general on the recommendation of Paul Keating. Deane had a low profile during his five-year term, facing no major constitutional issues, but did come to international notice by officially opening the 2000 Summer Olympics.
Deane was born on 4 January 1931 in Melbourne. He was the youngest of three children and only son born to Lillian Elizabeth (née Hussey) and Cornelius Aloysius Deane. His father grew up in a large Catholic family in Wahring, Victoria, and won the Military Cross during World War I. He later worked as a patent examiner. The family moved to Canberra in 1933, and Deane grew up in the suburb of Griffith. He attended St Christopher's Convent School in Manuka and later boarded in Sydney at St Joseph's College. He won an exhibition and Canberra scholarship to attend the University of Sydney, where he graduated Bachelor of Arts and Bachelor of Laws and "won numerous scholarships, exhibitions and prizes". He was a member of the staff of the Sydney Law Review and served on the Student's Representative Council and as secretary and vice-president of the Sydney University Law Society. He also trained with the University Air Squadron and attained a pilot's licence. In 1954 Deane won a Rotary Foundation Fellowship to undertake postgraduate studies in Europe. He was awarded a diploma from The Hague Academy of International Law in 1955.
After graduation, Deane worked in the federal Attorney-General's Department in Canberra and at the law firm Minter Simpson (later to become Minter Ellison). He was called to the Sydney Bar in 1957 and also lectured in law at university.
Deane joined the Democratic Labor Party (DLP) in the 1950s and served on the party's executive. He later recalled having "very strong views on the threat of communism" at the time. He subsequently became disillusioned by factional disputes and ceased to have any involvement in politics.
In 1977 Deane was appointed a Judge of the Supreme Court of New South Wales and, in the same year, he was appointed to the Federal Court of Australia and as President of the Australian Trade Practices Tribunal. In June 1982 he was appointed to the High Court of Australia, replacing Sir Ninian Stephen on his appointment as Governor-General. He received a knighthood in August 1982. On the court he formed part of the majority which recognised native title in the landmark Mabo case of 1992.
In August 1995, the Labor Prime Minister, Paul Keating, announced that the Elizabeth II, Queen of Australia had agreed to the appointment of Deane as Governor-General to succeed Bill Hayden. Deane retired from the High Court in November and was sworn in as Governor-General on 16 February 1996. Less than a month later the Liberal/National coalition led by John Howard defeated Keating's government in the 1996 Australian federal election.
Deane was Australia's first Catholic governor-general. He "represented the Catholic social justice position on just about every issue that came forward".
As governor-general, Deane received praise for his role in publicly mourning the victims of tragedies that took place during his term in office, including the Port Arthur massacre (1996), the Thredbo landslide (1997) the Swiss canyoning disaster (1999) and the Childers Palace Backpackers Hostel fire (2000). His speech in Switzerland titled "It is still winter at home" was especially well received. He also was asked to deliver the eulogies at the funerals of several prominent Australians, including Don Bradman, Nugget Coombs, Roma Mitchell, Mark Oliphant, and Mum Shirl.
Deane's term of office was due to expire on 31 December 2000, but was extended by six months to cover the Centenary of Federation celebrations. Upon leaving office in June 2001, he stated that his main regret as governor-general was that Australia did not achieve Reconciliation by the end of the 20th century as he had hoped. Howard stated he had "displayed an unfailing interest in the place of the disadvantaged within Australian society".
Deane officially opened the 2000 Summer Olympics, giving a brief speech in front of a crowd of 110,000 people at the Sydney Olympic Stadium. Prime Minister John Howard had originally planned to open the games himself, with the agreement of the organising committee and the International Olympic Committee (IOC). However, in November 1999 he changed his mind and advised the IOC that Deane would be opening the games. Howard said this was due to "a concern that my opening the Olympic Games would become a party political issue [...] I think in the long run it'll be better for the Olympic Games for the Governor-General to open them because we will be removing that one area of political controversy". Members of the opposition Labor Party had advocated that the Queen be asked to perform the honours, arguing that it was hypocritical for Howard to support the retention of the monarchy at the 1999 republic referendum but not call upon the Queen to represent Australia.
As of 2014[update] Deane acted as Patron or co-Patron of a large number of charitable organisations working for the disadvantaged, including Matthew Talbot Homeless Services, Father Chris Riley's Youth off the Streets, the Starlight Foundation and the Australian Indigenous Education Foundation. He was also a Patron of Reconciliation Australia and of the Australian Indigenous Doctors Association.
The A.C.T. Government appointed him as Patron of the National Capital's 2013 Centenary Celebrations.
Deane was appointed a Knight Commander of the Order of the British Empire (KBE) on 10 August 1982, a few weeks after being appointed to the High Court. On Australia Day 1988, he was made a Companion of the Order of Australia (AC). He is also a Knight Commander with Star of the Papal Order of St. Gregory the Great and a Knight of the Venerable Order of St. John.
Deane married solicitor Helen Russell on 6 January 1965. The couple had one son and one daughter. He was described in 2002 as "a devout Catholic who regularly attends Mass at St Christopher's, Canberra".
- "DEANE, Cornelius Aloysius". East Melbourne Historical Society. Retrieved 17 May 2020.
- "Sir William Deane's childhood home in Mr Fluffy demolition". The Canberra Times. 11 November 2014. Retrieved 17 May 2020.
- "Rotary Scholarship Won By Canberra Student". The Canberra Times. 24 February 1954.
- "Biography - Sir William Deane and Lady Deane". The Governor-General of the Commonwealth of Australia. Retrieved 17 May 2020.
- Abjorensen, Norman (23 August 1995). "Governor-general-designate gently sets right the image the papers gave him". The Canberra Times.
- It's an Honour: KBE
- Racism. No Way.: Fact Sheets: The Honourable Sir William Deane AC KBE
- "Hollingworth Agonistes I (transcript)". Radio National. 27 February 2002. Retrieved 4 June 2018.
- McGrath, Catherine (28 June 2001). "Sir William Deane's last day". ABC News. Retrieved 17 May 2020.
- "Our yearning for a voice above politics". The Sydney Morning Herald. 2 June 2003. Retrieved 17 May 2020.
- "When the right words matter". The Age. 11 November 2006. Retrieved 17 May 2020.
- "Where is the Governor-General? And does it matter?". The New Daily. 28 April 2020. Retrieved 17 May 2020.
- "A hard act to follow". The Sydney Morning Herald. 26 October 2002. Retrieved 17 May 2020.
- Carmody, Rebecca (28 June 2001). "Sir William Deane stands down as Governor-General". ABC News. Retrieved 17 May 2020.
- PM agrees to allow GG to open the Olympics, Australian Broadcasting Corporation, 11 November 1999
- Howard explains Olympics backflip, Australian Broadcasting Corporation, 11 November 1999
- It's an Honour: AC
- "2001 Sir William Deane AC KBE". sydneypeacefoundation.org. Sydney Peace Foundation. 2001. Retrieved 31 December 2014.
- Roberts, Heather (2011). "A mirror to the man – reflecting on Justice William Deane: a private man in public office" (PDF). Adelaide Law Review. 32 (1).
- Stephens, Tony (2002). Sir William Deane: The Things That Matter. Hodder. ISBN 9780733615283.
- Governor General of Australia – Official biography of Sir William Deane and Lady Deane, published by Government House, Canberra.
- A Mirror to the People, documentary film on the Office of Governor-General of Australia (1999), featuring Deane, Zelman Cowen and Ninian Stephen.
- High Court biography Retrieved 20 August 2014.