Census results conflate some speakers with Hindi.
Sirmauri, or Himachali, is a pair of Western Pahari languages of northern India, Dharthi (Giriwari) and Giripari. Although considered dialects, intelligibility between them is difficult, and not much better than with neighboring languages. Since Kashmiri, Punjabi, Urdu and Hindi are spoken in a region that has witnessed significant ethnic and identity conflict, all have been exposed to the dialect-versus-language question. Each of these languages possesses a central standard on which its literature is based, and from which there are multiple dialectal variations. At various times, Gujri, Dogri and Himachali have been claimed to be dialects of Punjabi Language. Similarly, some Western Pahari languages (such as Rambani) have been claimed to be dialects of Kashmiri.
- Sirmauri at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
- Nordhoff, Sebastian; Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2013). "Sirmauri". Glottolog. Leipzig: Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology.
- Masica, Colin P. (1993). The Indo-Aryan Languages. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-29944-6.
- Itagi, N. H. (1994). Spatial Aspects of Language. Central Institute of Indian Languages. p. 70. ISBN 81-7342-009-2.