The term sister comes from Old Norse systir which itself derives from Proto-Germanic *swestēr, both of whom have the same meaning, i.e. sister. Some studies have found that sisters display more traits indicating jealousy around their siblings than their male counterparts, brothers. In some cultures, sisters are afforded a role of being under the protection by male siblings, especially older brothers from issues ranging from bullies or sexual advances by womanizers.
Various studies have shown that an older sister is likely to give a varied gender role to their younger siblings as well as being more likely to develop a close bond with their younger siblings. Older sisters are more likely to play with their younger siblings. Younger siblings display a more needy behavior when in close proximity to their older sister and are more likely to be tolerant of an older sisters bad behavior. Boys with only an older sister are more likely to display stereotypically male behavior, and such masculine boys increased their masculine behavior with the more sisters they have. The reverse is true for young boys with several sisters, as they tend to be feminine, however they outgrow this by the time they approach pubescence. Boys with older sisters were less likely to be delinquent or have Emotional and behavioral disorders. A younger sister is less likely to be scolded by older siblings than a younger brother. The most common recreational activity between older brother/younger sister pairs was art drawing. Some studies also found a correlation between having an older sister and constructive discussions about safe sexual practises.
Fictional works about sisters
- Hanging Up
- Hannah and Her Sisters
- Hope & Faith
- In Her Shoes
- Sisters (TV series)
- What I Like About You
- Volling, B. L.; McElwain, N.L.; Miller, A.L. (2002). "Emotion Regulation in Context: The Jealousy Complex between Young Siblings and its Relations with Child and Family Characteristics". Child Development 73 (2): 581–600.
- Handbook of Cultural Psychiatry - Page 67, Wen-Shing Tseng - 2001
- Gender - Page 53, Leanne Franklin - 2012
- Play from Birth to Twelve: Contexts, Perspectives, and Meanings, , Doris Bergen 2015
- Sisters and Brothers - Page 78, Judy Dunn - 1985
- The Corsini Encyclopedia of Psychology and Behavioral Science, Volume 4, Charles B. Nemeroff, 2002 p 1524
- Gender Development - Page 300,Lynn S. Liben - 2009
- Gender Development, Sheri A. Berenbaum, 2013
- Advances in Child Development and Behavior, Volume 26, p 161, 1996
- He & she: how children develop their sex role identity, Wendy Schempp Matthews - 1979 p 162
- Handbook of Adolescent Psychology, Contextual Influences on Adolescent Development, Laurence Steinberg, PhD - 2009 p 61
- The dictionary definition of sister at Wiktionary