Sit-in movement

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The sit-in movement, or student sit-in movement, was a wave of sit-ins that followed the Greensboro sit-ins on February 1, 1960 in North Carolina. The sit-in movement employed the tactic of nonviolent direct action and was a pivotal event during the Civil Rights Movement.

African-American college students attending Historically Black Colleges and Universities in the United States powered the sit-in movement across the country. Many students across the country followed by example, as sit-ins provided a powerful tool for students to use to attract attention. The students of Baltimore made use of this in 1960 where many used the efforts to desegregate department store restaurants, which proved to be successful lasting about three weeks. This was one small role Baltimore played in the civil rights movement of the 1960s. The city facilitated social movements across the country as it saw bus and taxi companies hiring African-Americans in 1951-1952.

Morgan State College students saw the success of the sit-ins in Greensboro, North Carolina, and wanted to utilize this tactic in the department store restaurants. There were massive amounts of support from the community for the students’ efforts, but more importantly, white involvement and support grew in favor of desegregation of department store restaurants.[1]

List of sit-ins[edit]

Precursors to sit-in movement[edit]

Start date Sit-in Location Ref. Note
August 21, 1939 Alexandria Library sit-in Alexandria, Virginia [2][3] [note 1]
1943 Chicago, Illinois [4] [note 2]
1953 Baltimore sit-ins Baltimore, Maryland
January 20, 1955 Baltimore sit-ins Baltimore, Maryland [5][6] [note 3]
June 23, 1957 Royal Ice Cream sit-in Durham, North Carolina [7] [note 4]
July 19, 1958 Dockum Drug Store sit-in Wichita, Kansas [8]
August 19, 1958 Oklahoma City sit-ins Oklahoma City, Oklahoma [9][8] [note 5]
1959 Miami sit-ins Miami, Florida

Beginning with Greensboro sit-ins[edit]

Student sit-in at Woolworth in Durham, North Carolina on February 10, 1960.
Start date Sit-in University or College students State Ref. Note
February 1, 1960 Greensboro sit-ins North Carolina A&T State University North Carolina [10][11]
February 8, 1960 Durham sit-ins North Carolina College [11]
Fayetteville sit-ins Fayetteville State Teachers College [11]
Winston-Salem sit-ins Winston-Salem Teachers College [11]
February 9, 1960 Charlotte sit-ins Johnson C. Smith University [11]
Concord sit-ins Barber–Scotia College [11]
Elizabeth City sit-ins Elizabeth City State Teachers College [11]
Henderson sit-ins [11]
High Point sit-ins [11]
February 10, 1960 Raleigh sit-ins Saint Augustine's College [11]
Shaw University
February 11, 1960 Hampton sit-ins Hampton University Virginia [11]
Portsmouth sit-ins [11]
February 12, 1960 Rock Hill sit-ins Clinton Junior College South Carolina [11]
Norfolk sit-ins Virginia [11][12][13]
February 13, 1960 Nashville sit-ins Fisk University Tennessee [11] [note 6]
Tallahassee sit-ins Florida A&M University Florida [11][14]
Florida State University
February 14, 1960 Sumter sit-ins Morris College South Carolina [11]
February 16, 1960 Salisbury sit-ins Livingstone College North Carolina [11]
February 17, 1960 Chapel Hill sit-ins [11]
February 18, 1960 Charleston sit-ins South Carolina [11]
Shelby sit-ins North Carolina [11]
February 19, 1960 Chattanooga sit-ins Tennessee [11][15]
February 20, 1960 Richmond sit-ins Virginia Union University Virginia [11][16] [note 7]
February 22, 1960 Baltimore sit-ins Coppin State Teachers College Maryland [11]
Frankfort sit-ins State Normal School for Colored Persons Kentucky [11]
February 25, 1960 Montgomery sit-ins Alabama State College Alabama [11] [note 8]
Orangeburg sit-ins Claflin College South Carolina [11]
February 26, 1960 Lexington sit-ins Kentucky [11]
Petersburg sit-ins Virginia State College Virginia [11]
Tuskegee sit-ins Tuskegee Institute Alabama [11]
February 27, 1960 Tampa sit-ins Florida [11]
March 2, 1960 Columbia sit-ins Allen University South Carolina [11]
Benedict College
Daytona Beach sit-ins Bethune–Cookman College Florida [11]
St. Petersburg sit-ins [11]
March 4, 1960 Houston sit-ins Texas Southern University Texas [11][17] [note 9]
Miami sit-ins Florida Memorial College Florida [11]
March 7, 1960 Knoxville sit-ins Knoxville College Tennessee [11][21][22]
March 8, 1960 New Orleans sit-ins Dillard University Louisiana [11]
Southern University
March 10, 1960 Little Rock sit-ins Arkansas Baptist College Arkansas [11]
March 11, 1960 Austin sit-ins Huston–Tillotson College Texas [11]
Galveston sit-ins [11]
March 12, 1960 Jacksonville sit-ins Edward Waters College Florida [11]
March 13, 1960 San Antonio sit-ins Texas [11]
March 15, 1960 Atlanta sit-ins Clark College Georgia [11][23] [note 10]
Morehouse College
Morris Brown College
Spelman College
Corpus Christi sit-ins Texas [11]
St. Augustine sit-ins Florida [11]
Statesville sit-ins North Carolina [11]
March 16, 1960 Savannah sit-ins Savannah State College Georgia [11]
March 17, 1960 New Bern sit-ins North Carolina [11]
March 19, 1960 Memphis sit-ins Owen Junior College Tennessee [11]
Wilmington sit-ins North Carolina [11]
Arlington sit-ins Virginia [11]
March 26, 1960 Lynchburg sit-ins Virginia [11]
March 28, 1960 Baton Rouge sit-ins Southern University Louisiana [11] [note 11]
New Orleans sit-ins Xavier University [11]
March 29, 1960 Marshall sit-ins Wiley College Texas [11][24]
March 31, 1960 Birmingham sit-ins Wenonah State Technical Institute Alabama [11]
Miles College
April 2, 1960 Danville sit-ins Virginia [11]
April 4, 1960 Darlington sit-ins South Carolina [11]
April 9, 1960 Augusta sit-ins Paine College Georgia [11]
April 12, 1960 Norfolk sit-ins Virginia State College (Norfolk Division) Virginia [11]
April 17, 1960 Biloxi sit-ins Mississippi [11]
April 23, 1960 Starkville sit-ins [11]
April 24, 1960 Charleston sit-ins Burke High School South Carolina [11][25] [note 12]
April 28, 1960 Dallas sit-ins Paul Quinn College Texas [11]
June 17, 1960 Baltimore sit-ins Maryland [11][26] [note 13]

Related post-1960 sit-ins[edit]

Date Sit-in Location Ref. Note
January 31, 1961 Rock Hill sit-ins South Carolina [note 14]
1962 Sewanee, Tennessee [note 15]
May 28, 1963 Woolworth's sit-in Jackson, Mississippi [29][30] [note 16]
March 7, 1964 Audubon Regional Library sit-in Clinton, Louisiana [31] [note 17]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Five men participated in the sit-in organized by Samuel Wilbert Tucker.
  2. ^ Led by Congress of Racial Equality (CORE).
  3. ^ The sit-in was conducted at Read's Drug Store.
  4. ^ Participants include Douglas E. Moore.
  5. ^ Participants include Clara Luper.
  6. ^ Participants during the February 20, 17 include Patricia Stephens.
  7. ^ 34 students would participate and be arrested. They became known as the Richmond 34.
  8. ^ The sit-in targeted a state capitol cafeteria and was led by Bernard Lee accompanied by three dozen students.
  9. ^ Participants include Texas Southern University student and leader Holly Hogrobrooks. Also see Ku Klux Klan victim Felton Turner.[18][19][20]
  10. ^ Participants include Morehouse College student Charles Person.
  11. ^ Sit-in led to Garner v. Louisiana (1961) case.
  12. ^ Led by James Blake and occurred at the Kress store on King Street.
  13. ^ Sit-in led to Bell v. Maryland (1964) case that involved Robert M. Bell.[27]
  14. ^ Students from Friendship Junior College protested. A group of nine students known as the Friendship Nine would use the "jail no bail" tactic later duplicated by other protestors. The sit-in is regarded as the first to use the tactic, but Christopher W. Schmidt challenges this assertion. Patricia Stephens Due is sometimes credited as the first to use the tactic.[28]
  15. ^ Participants include Bruce W. Klunder.
  16. ^ Participants include Pearlena Lewis and Anne Moody.
  17. ^ Sit-in led to Brown v. Louisiana (1966) case.

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Baltimore Sit-Ins". Nonviolent Datebase. 
  2. ^ Mitchell-Powell, Brenda (2017). "The 1939 Alexandria, Virginia, Public Library Sit-in Demonstration". In Kimball, Melanie A.; Wisser, Katherine M. Libraries - Traditions and Innovations: Papers from the Library History Seminar XIII. Walter de Gruyter GmbH & Co KG. pp. 70–99. ISBN 9783110448566. 
  3. ^ Smith, J. Douglas (2003). Managing White Supremacy: Race, Politics, and Citizenship in Jim Crow Virginia. University of North Carolina Press. pp. 259–270. ISBN 9780807862261. 
  4. ^ Shah, Aarushi H. (November 2012). "All of Africa Will Be Free Before We Can Get a Lousy Cup of Coffee: The Impact of the 1943 Lunch Counter Sit-Ins on the Civil Rights Movement". The History Teacher. 46 (1): 127–147. 
  5. ^ Gunts, Edward (February 8, 2011). "Read's Drugstore Flap Brings Baltimore Civil Rights History to Life". Baltimore Sun. Retrieved 26 December 2016. 
  6. ^ "Why the West Side Matters: Read's Drug Store and Baltimore's Civil Rights Heritage". Baltimore Heritage. January 7, 2011. Retrieved 26 December 2016. 
  7. ^ Greene, Christina (2006). Our Separate Ways: Women and the Black Freedom Movement in Durham, North Carolina. University of North Carolina Press. pp. 65–69. ISBN 9780807876374. 
  8. ^ a b Walters, Ronald (Spring 1996). "The Great Plains Sit In Movement, 1958-60". Great Plains Quarterly. 16: 85–94. 
  9. ^ Graves, Carl R. (Summer 1981). "The Right to Be Served: Oklahoma City's Lunch Counter Sit-ins, 1958-1964". Chronicles of Oklahoma. 59 (2): 152–155. 
  10. ^ Chafe, William Henry (1981). "The Sit-Ins Begin". Civilities and Civil Rights: Greensboro, North Carolina, and the Black Struggle for Freedom. Oxford University Press. pp. 71–101. ISBN 9780195029192. 
  11. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at au av aw ax ay az ba bb bc bd be bf bg bh bi bj bk bl bm bn "The Sit-in Movement". International Civil Rights Center & Museum. Retrieved 20 March 2016. 
  12. ^ "Hampton Roads Heritage Project". Norfolk Public Library. Retrieved 1 January 2017. 
  13. ^ Littlejohn, Jeffrey (2009). ""Sit Down Children, Sit Down": The Sit-In Movement in Norfolk, Virginia". In Alexander, William H.; Newby-Alexander, Cassandra L.; Ford, Charles H. Voices from within the Veil: African Americans and the Experience of Democracy. Cambridge Scholars Publishing. pp. 330–344. ISBN 9781443811767. 
  14. ^ White, Robert Melvin (1964). The Tallahassee Sit-ins and CORE, a Nonviolent Revolutionary Submovement (Ph.D.). Florida State University. OCLC 7563086. 
  15. ^ Harris, Jessie (2011). Unfamiliar Streets: The Chattanooga Sit-ins, the Local Press, and the Concern for Civilities (M.A. thesis). Virginia Commonwealth University. OCLC 727069042. 
  16. ^ Wallenstein, Peter (2013). "To Sit or Not to Sit: Scenes in Richmond from the Civil Rights Movement". Blue Laws and Black Codes: Conflict, Courts, and Change in Twentieth-Century Virginia. University of Virginia Press. pp. 114–141. ISBN 9780813924878. 
  17. ^ Jensen, F. Kenneth (1992). "The Houston Sit-In Movement of 1960-61". In Beeth, Howard; Wintz, Cary D. Black Dixie: Afro-Texan History and Culture in Houston. Texas A&M University Press. ISBN 9780890964941. 
  18. ^ Causey, Causey (February 3, 2016). "Houston Civil Rights Pioneer Holly Hogrobrooks Dies at 75". Chron.com. Houston Chronicle. Retrieved 15 December 2016. 
  19. ^ "Houston Student Movement". Retrieved 15 December 2016. 
  20. ^ Berman, David; Cole, Thomas R. (1998). The Strange Demise of Jim Crow: How Houston Desegregated Its Public Accommodations, 1959-1963 (Video recording). California Newsreel. OCLC 44721721. 
  21. ^ Fleming, Cynthia Griggs (Spring 1990). "White Lunch Counters and Black Consciousness: The Story of the Knoxville Sit-ins". Tennessee Historical Quarterly. 49 (1): 40–52. 
  22. ^ Zagumny, Lisa L. (Winter 2001). "Sit-Ins in Knoxville, Tennessee: A Case Study of Political Rhetoric". The Journal of Negro History. 86 (1): 45–54. doi:10.2307/1350178. JSTOR 1350178. 
  23. ^ Garrow, David J. (1989). Atlanta Georgia, 1960-1961: Sit Ins and Student Activism. Carlson Publishing. ISBN 9780926019058. 
  24. ^ Seals, Donald Jr. (January 2003). "The Wiley-Bishop Student Movement: A Case Study in the 1960 Civil Rights Sit-Ins". The Southwestern Historical Quarterly. 106 (3): 418–440. 
  25. ^ Baker, R. Scott (2006). Paradoxes of Desegregation: African American Struggles for Educational Equity in Charleston, South Carolina, 1926-1972. University of South Carolina Press. pp. 142–143. ISBN 9781570036323. 
  26. ^ "Recalling a 1960 Baltimore Sit-in". Politico. Associated Press. October 27, 2013. Retrieved 11 December 2016. 
  27. ^ Reynolds, William L. (2002). "Foreword: The Legal History of the Great Sit-in Case of Bell v. Maryland". Maryland Law Review. 61 (4): 761–794. 
  28. ^ Schmidt, Christopher W. (February 2015). "Divided by Law: The Sit-ins and the Role of the Courts in the Civil Rights Movement". Law and History Review. 33 (1): 93–149. doi:10.1017/S0738248014000509. 
  29. ^ Pettus, Emily Wagster (February 10, 2015). "Anne Moody, Sat Stoically at Violent Woolworth's Sit-in, Dies at 74". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 11 December 2016. 
  30. ^ O'Brien, M. J. (2013). We Shall Not Be Moved: The Jackson Woolworth's Sit-In and the Movement It Inspired. University Press of Mississippi. ISBN 9781617037443. 
  31. ^ Battles, David M. (2008). The History of Public Library Access for African Americans in the South: Or, Leaving Behind the Plow. Scarecrow Press. pp. 137–138. ISBN 9781461672937. 

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