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Siwe-Palar-Khuppak was the Sukkalmah (ruler) of Elam from around 1778 to 1745 B.C.E.[1]

Around 1767 B.C.E, Siwe-Palar-Khuppak formed a coalition with Zimri-Lim of Mari and Hammurabi of Babylon. He led this coalition against Eshnunna, conquering it and imposed direct rule from his sukkal Kudu-zulush in Susa.[2] This coalition turned against him as he attempted to expand his power into Babylon. Hammurabi, allied with Zimri-Lim, expelled the Elamite's forces from Eshnunna[2] One of his generals was Kunnam of Elam who appears in many letters found at Mari.

In a clay tablet, Siwe-Palar-Khuppak refers to himself as "Governor of Elam" and "Enlarger of the Empire". It is speculated that the tablet was made after Siwe-Palar-Khuppak's defeat by Hammurabi's coalition, and that the title "Enlarger of the Empire" refers to conquests made to west in modern Iran to offset his defeat.[1] This hypothesis is supported by the fact that a twelfth-century document lists Siwe-Palar-Khuppak as one of Elam's great men.


  1. ^ a b Edwards, I.E.S.; Gadd, C.J.; Hammond, N.G.L.; Sollberger, E. (1973). The Cambridge Ancient History (3rd ed.). Cambridge: University of Cambridge. pp. 263–265. ISBN 0521082307.
  2. ^ a b Van de Mieroop, Marc (2005). King Hammurabi of Babylon. Malden, Ma: Blackwell Publishing. pp. 16–30. ISBN 1-4051-2660-4.