Sixteen Arhats

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The 16 Arhats, with various associated symbolic items; as depicted in a "gentle caricature" style Japanese painting, late 19th - early 20th century

The Sixteen Arhats (Japanese: 十六羅漢, Jūroku Rakan; Tibetan: གནས་བརྟན་བཅུ་དྲུག, "Neten Chudrug") are a group of legendary Arhats in Buddhism. The grouping of sixteen Arhats was brought to China, and later to Tibet, from India. In China, an expanded group of Eighteen Arhats became more popular, but worship of the sixteen Arhats continues to the present day in Japan and Tibet. In Japan sixteen Arhats are particularly popular in Zen Buddhism, where they are treated as examples of behaviour.[1] In Tibet, the sixteen Arhats, also known as sixteen sthaviras ('elders') are the subject of a liturgical practice associated with the festival of the Buddha's birth,[2] composed by the Kashmiri teacher Shakyahribhadra (1127-1225).[3] They are also well represented in Tibetan art.[4]

The sixteen Arhats are:

Sanskrit Chinese Japanese pronunciation Tibetan Tibetan pronunciation
Piṇḍola Bhāradvāja 賓度羅跋囉惰闍尊者 Bindorabaradaja sonja བྷ་ར་དྭ་ཛ་སོ་ཉོམ་ལེན Bharadodza Sönyom Le
Kanakavatsa 迦諾迦伐蹉尊者 Kanakabassa sonja གསེར་གྱི་བེའུ Sergyi Be'u
Kanaka Bhāradvāja/Kanaka 迦諾迦跋釐堕闍尊者 Kanakabarudaja sonja བྷ་ར་དྭ་ཛ་་གསེར་ཅན Baradadza Serchen/Serchen
Subinda/Abhedya 蘇頻陀尊者 Sobinda sonja མི་ཕྱེད་པ Michepa
Nakula/Bakula 諾距羅尊者 Nakora sonja བ་ཀུ་ལ Bakula
Śrībhadra/Bhadra 跋陀羅尊者 Badara sonja བཟང་པོ Pal Zangpo
Mahākālika/Kālika 迦哩迦尊者 Kalika sonja དུས་ལྡན Düden Chenpo
Vajriputra 伐闍羅弗多羅尊者 Bajarafutara sonja/Bajarahottara sonja རྡོ་རྗེ་མོའི་བུ Dorje Möbu
Gopaka/Jīvaka 戎博迦尊者 Jubaka sonja སྦྱེ་བྱེད་པ Bé Chépa
Panthaka 半託迦尊者 Hantaka sonja ལམ་བསྟན Lamchenten
Rāhula 囉怙羅尊者 Ragora sonja སྒྲ་གཅན་འཛིན Drachen Dzin
Nāgasena 那伽犀那尊者 Nagasaina sonja ཀླུ་སྡེ Lü Dé
Aṅgaja 因掲陀尊者 Ingada sonja ཡན་ལག་འབྱུང Yenlak Jung
Vanavāsin 伐那婆斯尊者 Banabashi sonja ནགས་ན་གནས Nagnanepa
Ajita 阿氏多尊者 Ajita sonja མ་ཕམ་པ Ma Phampa
Cūḍapanthaka/Kṣudrapanthaka 注荼半吒迦尊者 Chudahantaka sonja ལམ་ཕྲན་བསྟན Lamtren Ten

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