Sixth United States Army
|Country||United States of America|
|Branch||United States Army|
|Garrison/HQ||Fort Sam Houston, Texas|
|Motto(s)||Born of War|
|Engagements||World War II|
Albert C. Wedemeyer
Robert M. Cannon
David E. Grange Jr.
William Hardin Harrison
|Distinctive unit insignia|
|Sixth Army's Shoulder Sleeve Insignia 1927-1945|
Saw limited use in WW2
|Sixth Army's Shoulder Sleeve Insignia during WW2 until the 1950s|
Sixth Army is a theater army of the United States Army. The Army service component command of United States Southern Command, its area of responsibility includes 31 countries and 15 areas of special sovereignty in Central and South America and the Caribbean. It is headquartered at Fort Sam Houston.
The Sixth Army saw extensive service in the South Pacific during World War II, including in New Britain, New Guinea, and the Philippines. Postwar it served stateside training army forces until its inactivation during force reduction in 1995. The army was reactivated in 2007.
The Sixth United States Army was activated in January 1943, commanded by Lieutenant General Walter Krueger. Under the code name Alamo Force, it assumed control of the majority of US Army units involved in Operation Cartwheel, the campaign to isolate and neutralize the Japanese base at Rabaul in New Britain. Following the completion of Cartwheel, Sixth Army joined Australian Army and other US forces on the north coast of New Guinea. Similar in conception to the island hopping operations of the central Pacific, the object of the attacks was to land, establish a garrison and airfield which could support the next strike, and then move on.
In September 1944, Sixth Army was relieved from operations in New Guinea by the Eighth United States Army. On 20 October 1944, X Corps and XXIV Corps, under Sixth Army, invaded Leyte in the Philippines. By December, Leyte was secured, and the Sixth Army was relieved again by Eighth Army to prepare for the invasion of Luzon. As a prelude to that invasion, the island of Mindoro was invaded by the Western Visayan Task Force comprising the 19th and 503rd Regimental Combat Teams. Sixth Army took part in the Invasion of Lingayen Gulf on 9 January 1945 with the subordinate units of I and XIV Corps. Sixth Army units fought south until they met up those of Eighth Army advancing from around Manila. Sixth Army then continued to clear the north of Luzon until the end of the war. Sixth Army was to have provided the ground forces for the first phase of the invasion of Japan, but the surrender changed that.
Occupation duty then followed for a short while until Sixth Army returned to the United States, headquartered at the Presidio of San Francisco. Sixth Army then took responsibility for training of Army forces from part of the continental United States, until it was inactivated as part of force reductions in June 1995.
In 2007 it was decided that US Army South would be redesignated as US Army South (Sixth Army) under the Army modularization program. It is garrisoned at the Old Brooke Army Medical Center building at Fort Sam Houston.
Organization of the army after reformation is as follows:
- United States Army South Headquarters and Headquarters Battalion, Fort Sam Houston, Texas
- 470th Military Intelligence Brigade, Fort Sam Houston, Texas
- 56th Signal Battalion, Fort Sam Houston, Texas
- Army Forces, Honduras (Joint Task Force Bravo), Soto Cano Air Base, Honduras
- Geospatial Planning Cell, 512th Engineer Detachment, Fort Sam Houston, Texas
- 377th Theater Sustainment Command, New Orleans, Louisiana
- 807th Deployment Support Medical Command, Fort Douglas, Utah
- 525th Military Police Battalion, Guantanamo Bay, Cuba
- 1st Battalion, 228th Aviation Regiment, Soto Cano Air Base, Honduras
- GEN Walter Krueger (16 February 1943 – 28 January 1946)
- Inactive (29 January 1946 – 28 February 1946)
- GEN Joseph W. Stilwell (1 March 1946 – 12 October 1946)
- MG George P. Hayes (13 October 1946 - June 1947)
- GEN Mark W. Clark (June 1947 - 30 September 1949)
- LTG Albert C. Wedemeyer (1 October 1949 – 31 July 1951)
- LTG Joseph M. Swing (1951–1954)
- LTG Willard G. Wyman (1954–1955)
- LTG Robert N. Young (1955–1957)
- LTG Lemuel Mathewson (1957–1958)
- LTG Charles D. Palmer (1958 – 31 August 1959)
- LTG Robert M. Cannon (1 September 1959 – 31 August 1961)
- LTG John L. Ryan (1 September 1961 – 31 July 1963)
- LTG Frederic J. Brown II (1 August 1963 – 31 July 1965)
- LTG James L. Richardson (1 August 1965 – 1967)
- LTG Ben Harrell (1967–1968)
- LTG Stanley R. Larsen (1968–1971)
- LTG Alexander D. Surles (1971–1972)
- LTG Richard G. Stilwell (1972–1973)
- LTG Elvy B. Roberts (1973–1975)
- LTG Edward M. Flanagan Jr. (1975–1978)
- LTG Eugene P. Forrester (1978–1980)
- LTG Charles M. Hall (1980–1981)
- LTG David E. Grange Jr. (1981–1984)
- LTG Robert Arter (1984–1986)
- LTG Frederick F. Woerner Jr. (1986–1987)
- LTG James E. Moore Jr. (1987–1989)
- LTG William H. Harrison (1989–1991)
- LTG Glynn C. Mallory Jr. (1991–1995)
- "U.S. Army Campaigns: WWII - Asiatic-Pacific Theater". Center of Military History. United States Army. 19 November 2010. Retrieved 11 July 2011.
- Eustace E. Nabbie (22 September 1993). "The Alamo Scouts" (PDF). Center for the study of intelligence. Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved 11 July 2011.
- Cooke, Tim; Adrian Gilbert; Tony Hall; Robert Jackson; Chris McNab; Donald Somerville; Robert Stewart; Ian Westwell (2004). History of World War II. Tarrytown, New York: Marshall Cavendish. p. 383. ISBN 978-0-7614-7482-1. Retrieved 11 June 2011.
- "Leyte". Center of Military History. United States Army. 3 October 2003. Retrieved 11 July 2011.
- Smith, Robert Ross (1963). Triumph in the Philippines. Government Printing Office. p. 45. ISBN 9780160899539. LCCN 62-60000. Retrieved 11 July 2011.
- Video: Allied Bombers Strike On Two Fronts Etc (1945). Universal Newsreel. 1945. Retrieved 21 February 2012.
- "Luzon 1944 - 1945". Center of Military History. United States Army. 3 October 2003. Retrieved 11 July 2011.
- "CHAPTER XIII: "DOWNFALL" THE PLAN FOR THE INVASION OF JAPAN". Center of Military History. United States Army. 20 June 2006. Retrieved 11 July 2011.
- "CHAPTER II: TROOP MOVEMENTS, DISPOSITIONS, AND LOCATIONS". Center of Military History. United States Army. 11 December 2006. Retrieved 11 July 2011.
- Carl Nolte (24 June 1995). "PAGE ONE -- Troops March From Presidio into History". San Francisco Chronicle. Retrieved 11 July 2011.
- Armies and Corps (PDF) (Map). United States Army. Retrieved 21 December 2008.
- Cavallaro, Gina (9 October 2007). "New name, same mission for U.S. Army South". Army Times. Army Times Publishing Company. Retrieved 21 December 2008.
- "Fort Sam Houston, Texas" (PDF). Base Realignment and Closure. United States Army. 6 March 2007. Archived from the original (PDF) on 28 September 2011. Retrieved 11 July 2011.
- "U.S. Army South Organization". arsouth.army.mil. Retrieved 19 November 2019.
- "Sixth Army Commander Appointed". San Francisco Examiner. 26 June 1965. p. 9 – via Newspapers.com.
- List of former commanders of 6th United States Army and United States Army South at United States Army South website
- Sixth U.S. Army
- Fort Ord California
- Born of War ... Dedicated to Peace
- The short film Big Picture: This is Sixth Army is available for free download at the Internet Archive
- A film clip AIR ASSAULT TACTICS [ETC.] (1945) is available at the Internet Archive