Skanderbeg in literature and art

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Frontispiece of Historia de vita et gestis Scanderbegi, Epirotarum principisby Marin Barleti

Skanderbeg has been the subject of many works of art and literature and the inspiration for countless others. It is a motif in the visual arts, the performing arts, poetry, prose and music.

Skanderbeg gathered quite a posthumous reputation in Western Europe in the 16th and 17th centuries. With much of the Balkans under Ottoman rule and with the Turks at the gates of Vienna in 1683, nothing could have captivated readers in the West more than an action-packed tale of heroic Christian resistance to the "Moslem hordes".[1]

Literature[edit]

There are two literature works on Skanderbeg written in the 15th century. The first was written at the beginning of 1480 by Serbian writer Martin Segon who was Catholic Bishop of Ulcinj and one of the most notable 15th-century humanists.[2][3] A part of the text he wrote under title Martino Segono di Novo Brdo, vescovo di Dulcigno. Un umanista serbo-dalmata del tardo Quattrocento is short but very important biographical sketch on Skanderbeg (Italian: Narrazioni di Giorgio Castriotto, da i Turchi nella lingua loro chiamato Scander beg, cioe Alesandro Magno).[4][5] Another 15th century literature work with Skanderbeg as one of the main characters was Memoirs of a janissary (Serbian: Успомене јаничара) written in period 1490—1497 by Konstantin Mihailović, a Serb who was a janissary in Ottoman Army.[6][7]

In Western Europe the books on Skanderbeg began to appear in the early 16th century. Raffaelo Maffei published in Rome in 1506 his "Commentariorum" in which he published a short biography on Skanderbeg.[8] Two years later one of the earliest works, the Historia de vita et gestis Scanderbegi, Epirotarum Principis (English: History of the life and deeds of Scanderbeg, Prince of the Epirotes) (Rome, 1508), was published a four decades after Skanderbeg's death. This book was written by Albanian historian Marin Barleti (Latin: Marinus Barletius Scodrensis), who, after experiencing the Ottoman capture of his native Shkodër at firsthand, settled in Padua where he became rector of the parish church of St. Stephan. Barleti dedicated his work to Don Ferrante Kastrioti, Skanderbeg's grandchild, and to posterity. The book was first published in Latin.[9] Barleti is sometimes inaccurate in favour of his hero, for example, according to Gibbon, Barleti claims that the Sultan was killed by disease under the walls of Krujë.[10] Barleti's inaccuracies had also been noticed prior to Gibbon by Laonikos Chalkokondyles.[11] Barleti made up spurious correspondence between Vladislav II of Wallachia and Skanderbeg wrongly assigning it to the year 1443 instead to the year of 1444.[12] Barleti also invented correspondence between Skanderbeg and Sultan Mehmed II to match his interpretations of events.[13]

In the 16th and 17th centuries, Barleti's book was translated into a number of foreign-language versions: in German by Johann Pincianus (1533), in Italian by Pietro Rocca (1554, 1560), in Portuguese by Francisco D'Andrade (1567), in Polish by Ciprian Bazylik (1569), in French by Jaques De Lavardin (French: Histoire de Georges Castriot Surnomé Scanderbeg, Roy d'Albanie, 1576), and in Spanish by Juan Ochoa de la Salde (1582). The English version was a translation made by Zachary Jones Gentleman from de Lavardin's French version, and was published at the end of the 16th century under the title, Historie of George Castriot, surnamed Scanderbeg, King of Albinie; containing his Famous Actes, his Noble Deedes of Armes and Memorable Victories against the Turkes for the Faith of Christ. The Serbian version is the major part and the first manuscript of the Cetinje chronicle.[14][15] All these books, written in the panegyric style that would often characterize medieval historians who regarded history mostly as a branch of rhetoric, inspired a wide range of literary and art works.

Gjon Muzaka, an Albanian nobleman from the Muzaka family, wrote his memoires Breve memoria de li discendenti de nostra casa Musachi [Brief Chronicle on the Descendants of our Musachi Dynasty] in 1510 which contains substantial text about Skanderbeg.[16] In 1562 John Shute translated to English tract Two very notable commentaries: The one of the original of the Turcks and the empire of the house of Ottomanno, and the other of the warre of the Turcke against George Scanderbeg written by Andrea Cambini and Paolo Giovio at the beginning of the 16th century.[17] Michel de Montaigne wrote an essay on Skanderbeg at the end of the 16th century.[18]

Luis Vélez de Guevara, a Spanish dramatist and novelist, wrote three comedies about Skanderbeg referred to as "escanderbechas".[19] The first comedy titled El jenízaro de Albania [The janissary of Albania] was written in period 1608—1610,[20] the second titled El principe Escanderbey [Prince Scanderbeg] in period 1620—1628 and the third titled El principe esclavo [The Slave Prince] in 1629.[21] Skanderbeg was one of the heroes (Scannarebecco) of Pentamerone written by Giambattista Basile, published posthumously in 1634 and 1636.[22]

Frang Bardhi, an albanian Catholic bishop born in Albania, also wrote Kastrioti's biography, prompted by writings of another Catholic bishop, Ivan Tomko Mrnavić.[23][24] His book "Georgius Castriotus, Epirensis vulgo Scanderbegh, Epirotarum Princeps Fortissimus" was published in Latin in 1636.[25] French philosopher, Voltaire, in his works, held in very high consideration the hero from Albania.[A] Ludvig Holberg, a Danish writer and philosopher, claimed that Skanderbeg is one of the greatest generals in history.[26] Sir William Temple considered Skanderbeg to be one of the seven greatest chiefs without a crown, along with Belisarius, Flavius Aetius, John Hunyadi, Gonzalo Fernández de Córdoba, Alexander Farnese, and William the Silent.[27]

A number of poets and composers have also drawn inspiration from his military career. The French 16th-century poet Ronsard wrote a poem about him, as did the 19th-century American poet, Henry Wadsworth Longfellow.[28] Gibbon, the 18th-century historian, holds Skanderbeg in high regard with panegyric expressions.[B]

Ismail Kadare wrote The Castle with Skanderbeg as one of the main characters

Giammaria Biemmi, an Italian priest, published a work on Skanderbeg titled Istoria di Giorgio Castrioto Scanderbeg-Begh in Brescia, Italy in 1742.[29] He claimed that he had found a work published in Venice in 1480 and written by an Albanian humanist from Bar, in modern-day Montenegro[29] whose brother was a warrior in Skanderbeg's personal guard. According to Biemmi, the work had lost pages dealing with Skanderbeg's youth, the events from 1443–1449, the Siege of Krujë (1467), and Skanderbeg's death. Biemmi referred to the author of the work as Antivarino, meaning the man from Bar.[30] The "Anonymous of Antivari" was Biemmi's invention that some historians (Fan S. Noli, and Athanase Gegaj), Albanian writers had not discovered and used his forgery as source in their works.[31]

Numerous Croatian poets and writers wrote about Skanderbeg, like Ivan Gundulić in his greatest work Osman at the beginning of the 17th century, Pavao Ritter Vitezović in 1682[32] and especially Andrija Kačić Miošić whose poems about Skanderbeg, published in 1756, were basis for tragedy Skenderbeg written by Ivan Kukuljević Sakcinski in the 19th century.[33]

Notable works of Tripo Smeća (1755—1812), a historian and writer from Perast in Boka Kotorska, include Italian language tragedy "Skanderbeg".[34] Vuk Karadžić was particularly interested in Skanderbeg's era as important period of joint Albanian-Serbian struggle against the Ottomans in the 15th century, so he paid for translation of one of Skanderbeg's biographies to Serbian language.[35] In 1816 Sima Milutinović Sarajlija, Serbian poet and historian, wrote two poems about Skanderbeg.[36] Milutinović considered himself as spiritual descendant of Skanderbeg.[37]

Miošić's poems about Skanderbeg from his most important work A Pleasant Discourse of the Slavic People were also basis for Život i viteška voevanja slavnog kneza epirskog Đorđa Kastriota Skenderbega written by Serbian playwright Jovan Sterija Popović in 1828.[38] Ljudevit Gaj published in 1839 and 1840 in periodical Danica ilirska two texts about Skanderbeg, Juraj Skenderbeg and Muhammad and Juraj Skenderbeg and Amurat.[39][40] Juraj Matija Šporer wrote a tragedy Kastriota Škenderbeg: tragedija u pet izvedah published in Zagreb in 1849 and depicted Skanderbeg as Slav who gathered around himself all South Slavs from Istria to Krujë.[41][42] Skanderbeg was a subordinate theme in epic poem written by Serbian 19th century academic Jovan Subotić.[43]

Skanderbeg is also mentioned by Prince of Montenegro, Petar II Petrović-Njegoš, one of the greatest poets of Serbian literature, in his poem The Mountain Wreath (1847),[44] and in False Tsar Stephen the Little (1851).[45] In 1855, Camille Paganel wrote Histoire de Scanderbeg, inspired by the Crimean War,[46] whereas in the lengthy poetic tale Childe Harold's Pilgrimage (1812–1819), Byron wrote with admiration about Skanderbeg and his warrior nation.[C].

Girolamo de Rada-Jeronim de Rada, an Albanian-Italian writer (Arberesh), published poem in albanianScanderbeccu i pa-faan [Misfortunate Scanderbeg] in period 1872—1884.[47] Paul Pisani, French historian and Franciscan friar, wrote La Légende de Skanderbeg in 1891. The first [Albanian poet] who wrote epic account about Skanderbeg's battles against the Ottoman Empire was Naim Frashëri, Albanian poet and writer in Histori e Skënderbeut [History of Skanderbeg] published in 1898.[48]

A short story Đurađ Kastriotić Skenderbeg written by the Serbian writer Stevan Sremac was published in 1909.[49] In The Castle, work written in 1970 by Ismail Kadare, an Albanian writer who was several times candidate for Nobel prize, which refers to Skanderbeg though he is not a protagonist.[50]

Theatre[edit]

Jovan Sterija Popović, author of Serbian Đorđe Kastriotić, 1403–1468, the Greatest Strategian of the World

Skanderbeg is the protagonist of three 18th-century British tragedies: William Havard's Scanderbeg, A Tragedy (1733), George Lillo's The Christian Hero (1735), and Thomas Whincop's Scanderbeg, Or, Love and Liberty (1747).[51] Paul Ulrich Dubuisson, a French playwright, wrote a tragedy Scanderbeg, tragedie (en 5 actes en vers) [in five acts and in verse] performed in the theatre on May 9, 1786.[52]

In 1828 Jovan Sterija Popović, Serbian playwright of Serbian and Aromanian origin and one of the most famous dramatists to emerge from the Balkans in the 19th century, wrote a tragedy Serbian Đorđe Kastriotić, 1403–1468, the Greatest Strategian of the World (Serbian: Скендербег. Србин Ђорђе Кастриотић, 1406–1463. Највећи стратег света).[53] It was adapted for many different theatre plays. It was performed for the first time in 1848 in Belgrade.[54] One of them was theatre play which had its premiere at the beginning of December 1906 in the theatre in Nikšić, Kingdom of Montenegro.[55] Theatre troupe of Serbian National Theatre performed adaptation of Sterija's tragedy Skanderbeg on April 26, 1956, during the first theatre festival Sterija Theater Festival (Serbian: Стеријине позоришне игре) in Novi Sad, in honor of Jovan Sterija Popović and 100 years of his death.[56]

Cinema[edit]

The Great Warrior Skanderbeg (Albanian: Skënderbeu, Russian: Великий воин Албании Скандербег), a 1953 Albanian-Soviet biographical film, earned an International Prize at the 1954 Cannes Film Festival.[57]

Music[edit]

The Italian baroque composer Antonio Vivaldi composed an opera entitled Scanderbeg (first performed 1718), libretto written by Antonio Salvi. Another opera, entitled Scanderbeg, was composed by 18th-century French composer François Francœur (first performed 1763).[58] Serbian choral conductor Kosta Manojlović published in 1933 his collection of six choral songs based on folk songs from Albania and titled it The Songs from the Land of Skenderbeg (Serbian: Песме земље Скендербегове).[59] In the 20th century, Albanian composer Prenkë Jakova composed a third opera, entitled Gjergj Kastrioti Skënderbeu, which premiered in 1968 for the 500th anniversary of the hero's death.[60]

Other[edit]

Skanderbeg's memory has been engraved in many museums, such as the Skanderbeg Museum next to Krujë Castle. A palace in Rome in which Skanderbeg resided during his 1466–67 visits to the Vatican is still called Palazzo Skanderbeg and currently houses the Italian museum of pasta:[61] the palace is located between the Fontana di Trevi and the Quirinal Palace. The Government of Macedonia is financing the building of Skanderbeg Square in Skopje which began on 17 January 2012.[62]

Statues and paintings[edit]

In 1884 Paja Jovanović, one of the greatest Serbian Realist painters, painted one of his very valuable works titled The Poem of Skanderbeg (Serbian: Песма о Скендербегу).[63][64]

Many monuments are dedicated to his memory in the Albanian cities of Tirana (in the Skanderbeg Square by Odhise Paskali), Krujë, and Peshkopi. Monuments or statues of Skanderbeg have also been erected in the cities of Skopje and Debar, in the Republic of Macedonia; Pristina, in Kosovo; Geneva, in Switzerland; Brussels, in Belgium; and other settlements in southern Italy where there is an Arbëreshë community. In 2006, a statue of Skanderbeg was unveiled on the grounds of St. Paul's Albanian Catholic Community in Rochester Hills, Michigan, the first Skanderbeg statue in the United States.[65] Also in Rome, a statue is dedicated to the Albanian hero in Piazza Albania.

Gallery[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Voltaire started his chapter "The Taking of Constantinople" with the following catchy phrase:[66]
  2. ^ Gibbon attributes to Hunyiadi and Skanderbeg that they are both entitled to our notice, since their occupation of the Ottoman arms delayed the ruin of the Greek empire.[67]
  3. ^ In his lengthy poetic tale Childe Harold's Pilgrimage (1812–1819), Byron wrote about Skanderbeg and his warrior nation in the following terms:[68]

    Land of Albania! where Iskander rose,
    Theme of the young, and beacon of the wise,
    And he his namesake, whose oft-baffled foes,
    Shrunk from his deeds of chivalrous emprize:
    Land of Albania! let me bend mine eyes
    On thee, thou rugged nurse of savage men!
    The cross descends, thy minarets arise,
    And the pale crescent sparkles in the glen,
    Through many a cypress grove within each city's ken."

    .
  4. ^ Kosovo is the subject of a territorial dispute between the Republic of Kosovo and the Republic of Serbia. The Republic of Kosovo unilaterally declared independence on 17 February 2008, but Serbia continues to claim it as part of its own sovereign territory. The two governments began to normalise relations in 2013, as part of the Brussels Agreement. Kosovo has received formal recognition as an independent state from 111 out of 193 United Nations member states.

References[edit]

  1. ^ Hodgkinson 2005, p. xii
  2. ^ Zbornik Matice srpske za književnost i jezik (in Serbian). Novi Sad: Matica srpska. 1991. p. 91. Retrieved 2 April 2012. Мартина Сегона, по сопственој изјави "српског писца" 
  3. ^ Zgodovinski časopis, Vol. 54. Zgodovinsko društvo za Slovenijo. 2000. p. 131. Retrieved 1 April 2012. Martin Segon je eden najvidnejših humanistov s konca 15. stoletja. Znano je, daje bil sin Jovana de Segonis iz Kotora in daje bil kanonik cerkve sv. Marije v znanem rudarskem mestu Novo Brdo. 
  4. ^ Studi storici (in Italian). Istituto storico italiano per il medio evo. pp. 142–145. Retrieved 1 April 2012. Narrazioni di Giorgio Castriotto, da i Turchi nella lingua loro chiamato Scander beg, cioe Alesandro Magno 
  5. ^ UNVOLLSTÄNDIGER TEXTENTWURF ZUR DISKUSSION AM 6.2.2012 (PDF). 2012. p. 9. Retrieved 2 April 2012. Martinus Segonus verfasste eine der frühesten „Landeskunden" des spätmittelalterlichen Balkans und eine kurze, aber sehr wichtige biographische Skizze zu Skanderbeg 
  6. ^ Živanović, Đorđe. "Konstantin Mihailović iz Ostrovice". Predgovor spisu Konstantina Mihailovića "Janičarove uspomene ili turska hronika" (in Serbian). Projekat Rastko, Poljska. Archived from the original on 19 April 2011. Retrieved 19 April 2011. Taj rukopis je... postao pre 1500. godine, a po svoj prilici još za vlade Kazimira Jagjelovića (1445-1492)....Kao što smo već rekli, Konstantin Mihailović je negde između 1497. i 1501. napisao jedino svoje književno delo, koje je sačuvano u raznim prepisima sve do naših dana....delo napisano verovatno između 1490. i 1497, i to zbog toga što se u njemu Matija Korvin spominje kao već mrtav, a poljski kralj Jan Olbraht kao živ. 
  7. ^ Mihailović, Konstantin (1865) [1490—1501], Turska istorija ili kronika (Турска историја или кроника (Memoirs af a Janissary)) (in Serbian), 18, Glasnik Srpskoga učenog društva (Serbian Learned Society), pp. 135, 140–145, Глава XXXIV... спомиње се и Скендербег, кнез Епирски и Албански,....(Chapter XXXIV... there is mention of Skanderbeg, prince of Epirus and Albania) 
  8. ^ Noli, Fan Stylian (1947). George Castroiti Scanderbeg (1405-1468). International Universities Press. p. 82. ... in the short biography of Scanderbeg, given to us by the humanist, historian and theologian, Raffaele Maffei Volaterrano (1434-1516) ... 
  9. ^ Minna Skafte Jensen, 2006,A Heroic Tale: Edin Barleti's Scanderbeg between orality and literacy
  10. ^ Gibbon 1901, p. 465
  11. ^ see Laonikos Chalkokondyles, l vii. p. 185, l. viii. p. 229
  12. ^ Setton, Kenneth (1976–1984), The Papacy and the Levant, 1204-1571, four volumes, American Philosophical Society, p. 73, ISBN 978-0-87169-114-9, ...... The spurious correspondence of July and August 1443, between Ladislas and Scanderbeg (made up by Barletius, who should assigned it to the year 1444) ... 
  13. ^ Setton, Kenneth (1976–1984), The Papacy and the Levant, 1204-1571, four volumes, American Philosophical Society, p. 73, ISBN 978-0-87169-114-9, ...... He also invented a correspondence between Skanderbeg and Sultan Mehmed II to fit his interpretations of the events in 1461—1463 ... 
  14. ^ Martinović 1962

    Najviše prostora u "Ljetopisu" zauzima zapis "Povijest o Skender begu Černojeviću va svetom kršteni narečenom Georgiju".

  15. ^ Petrović, Vasilije; Radmilo Marojević (1985) [1754], Istorija o Crnoj Gori [History of Montenegro] (in Serbian), Podgorica: Leksikografski zavod Crne Gore, p. 133, OCLC 439864504, Није познато када је и ко превео или само прерадио већ учињени словенски превод Барлецијевог опширног дјела о Ђурађу Кастриоту. Да ли сам Василије Петровић који је преписивао текстове тога љетописа. Приметно је да је ова "историја о Скендербегу" у Љетопису скраћена,...Рукопис је Василијев. 
  16. ^ Hopf, Karl; Gjon Muzaka (1873) [1510], "Breve memoria de li discendenti de nostra casa Musachi", Chroniques gréco-romanes inédites ou peu connues publiées avec notes et tables généalogiques (in French), Berlin: Weidmann, pp. 270–340, OCLC 174336942, Later, during the reign of Murad the Second, Scanderbeg arrived, the son of Lord John Castriota, who ruled over Matia (Mat) in Albania. 
  17. ^ Healey, Robin (2011). Italian Literature Before 1900. Toronto: University of Toronto Press. p. 368. ISBN 978-1-4426-4269-0. Retrieved 29 November 2011. 
  18. ^ Michel de Montaigne (1 June 2009). Essays. The Floating Press. p. 1090. ISBN 978-1-77541-586-2. Retrieved 2 January 2014. 
  19. ^ García-Luengos, Germán Vega (1998), "La reescritura permanente del teatro español del Siglo de Oro: nuevas evidencias" (PDF), CRITICÓN (in Spanish), 72, Universidad de Valladolid, p. 15, ...grupo de las «escanderbecas»...(the group held "escanderbecas") 
  20. ^ García-Luengos, Germán Vega (1998), "La reescritura permanente del teatro español del Siglo de Oro: nuevas evidencias" (PDF), CRITICÓN (in Spanish), 72, Universidad de Valladolid, p. 14, ... El jenízaro de Albania, ... la única copia conservada, y la fechan hacia 1608-10 
  21. ^ Hochman, Stanley (1984), McGraw-Hill encyclopedia of world drama : an international reference work in 5 vol., 1 (2. ed.), New York: McGraw-Hill, p. 100, ISBN 978-0-07-079169-5, OCLC 643823855, retrieved 28 November 2011, El principe Escanderbey (Prince Scanderbeg) Published 1634. Produced ca. 1620?/28? ...52. El principe esclavo (The Slave Prince). Comedia historica. Produced ca. 1629? Part II of El principe Escanderbey 
  22. ^ Giambattista, Basile (1990). Lo cunto de li cunti, ovvero, Lo trattenimiento de' peccerille. Schena. p. 285. Retrieved 30 July 2012. Scannarebecco: Scanderbeg, l'eroe albanese passato in prov. 
  23. ^ Bartl, Peter (2007). Bardhyl Demiraj, ed. Pjetër Bogdani und die Anfänge des alb. Buchdrucks. Nach Vier hundert fünfzig Jahren (in German). Otto Harrassowitz Verlag. p. 273. ISBN 9783447054683. Retrieved 26 September 2012. 
  24. ^ Elsie, Robert. "1959 Arshi Pipa: Communism and Albanian Writers". www.albanianhistory.net. Archived from the original on 10 January 2012. Retrieved 10 January 2012. He also raised his voice to defend the Albanian identity of Scanderbeg against a Slavic Catholic priest who claimed that our national hero was a Slav. 
  25. ^ Georgius Castriotus Epirensis, vulgo Scanderbegh. Per Franciscum Blancum, De Alumnis Collegij de Propaganda Fide Episcopum Sappatensem etc. Venetiis, Typis Marci Ginammi, MDCXXXVI (1636).
  26. ^ Holberg on Scanderbeg by Bjoern Andersen
  27. ^ Temple 1705, pp. 285–286
  28. ^ Longfellow 1880, pp. 286–296
  29. ^ a b Frashëri, Kristo (2002) (in Albanian), Gjergj Kastrioti Skënderbeu: jeta dhe vepra, p. 9.
  30. ^ Frashëri, Kristo (2002) (in Albanian), Gjergj Kastrioti Skënderbeu: jeta dhe vepra, p. 10.
  31. ^ Setton, Kenneth M. (1978), The Papacy and the Levant (1204–1571), Volume II: The Fifteenth Century, DIANE Publishing, p. 102, ISBN 0-87169-127-2, Unfortunately Athanase Gegaj, L'Albanie et I'invasion turque au XV siecle, Louvain and Paris, 1937, pp. 77-80, had not discovered that the "Anonymous of Antivari" was an invention of Biemmi, nor had Noli even by 1947. 
  32. ^ Ritter, Paulus alias Vitezovich (1682). Novus Skenderbeg. 
  33. ^ Botica, Stipe (2003), Andrija Kačić Miošić (in Croatian), Zagreb: Školska knjiga, p. 123, ISBN 978-953-0-61577-9, OCLC 57736273, retrieved 26 November 2011, O Skenderbegu... Njega pominje u svome Osmanu i Ivan Gundulić... Osobito o njemu pjeva fra Kačić Miošić. Zanimljivo je istaknuti da je Ivan Kukuljević-Kacinski na osnovi pevanja fra Andrije Kačića-Miošića napisao tragediju pod naslovom Skenderbeg koja se u rukopisu čuva u Arhivu HAZU [About Skanderbeg... Ivan Gundulić mentioned him in his Osman. He is particularly present in poems of friar Kačić Miošić. It is interesting to emphasize that Ivan Kukuljević-Kacinski, on the basis of songs of friar Andrija Kačić-Miošić, wrote a tragedy titled Skanderbeg which manuscript is kept in Archive of HAZU 
  34. ^ Sbutega, Antun (2006). Storia del Montenegro: dalle origini ai giorni nostri. Rubbettino. p. 218. ISBN 978-88-498-1489-7. ...mentre Tripo Smechia di Perast compose in italiano la tragedia Skanderbeg. 
  35. ^ Referati i saopštenja. Međunarodni slavistički centar. 1987. p. 430. ... једна важа епоха заједничке српско-албанске борбе против турака у 15 веку. Књигу „Житије Ђорђа Кастриота" Вук је претплатио за себе, за руског конзула у Дубровнику и за друге књижевне и културне личности ондашње Србије, међу којима је и Сима Милутиновић-Сарајлија, српски песник и историчар 
  36. ^ Republika. Udruženje za jugoslovensku demokratsku inicijativu. 1998. p. XIVII. Sima Milutinović-Sarajlija je 1816. ispevao pesme „Kastriotu“ i „Piscu istorije Đorđa Kastriota Skenderbega (na dar)“. 
  37. ^ Vladan Nedić (1959). Sima Milutinović Sarajlija. Nolit. p. 26. 
  38. ^ Šurmin, Đuro (1898), Povjest književnosti hrvatske i srpske (History of Croatian and Serbian literature) (in Croatian), Zagreb: Tisak i naklada knjižare L. Hartmana, Kugli i Deutsch, p. 260, OCLC 11356363, retrieved 26 November 2011, "Život i viteška voevanja slavnog kneza epirskoga Đorđa Kastriota Skenderbega" imade i Kačićevih pjesama po kojima je pisac i radio to svoje djelo. 
  39. ^ Kolo Matice hrvatske, 4, Matica hrvatska, 2001, p. 57, U tom smislu se o njemu i piše u Danici ilirskoj pod naslovom Juraj Skenderbeg i Amurat odnosno Juraj Skenderbeg i Muhamed 
  40. ^ Gaj, Ljudevit (November 1839—1840), Danica ilirska (in Croatian), 4 and 46, Zagreb: Ljudevit Gaj, pp. 14–16, 182–184, Juraj Skenderbeg i Muamed.... Juraj Skenderbeg i Amurat...  Check date values in: |date= (help)
  41. ^ Milaković, Josip (1907). Hrvatska pjesma: izbor umjetnog pjesništva za puk. Naklada Drus̆tva Svetojeronimskoga. p. 5. ... prvi propovjednik jugoslavenstva Juraj Matić Šporer u drami »Kastriota Škenderbeg» prikazao svojega glavnoga junaka kao Slavena, oko kojega se okupljaju svi južni Slaveni «od Istrije do Kroje«. 
  42. ^ Pet stoljeća hrvatske knjizevnosti (in Croatian), 28, Matica Hrvatska, 1965, p. 171, retrieved 28 November 2011, Kastriota Škenderbeg. Tragedija u 5 izvedah. Zagreb 1849 
  43. ^ Летопис Матице српске. У Српској народној задружној штампарији. 1969. p. 155. Retrieved 19 June 2013. Мање је запажено да се и Јован Суботић користио Скендербеговом историјом као споредном темом, 
  44. ^ The Mountain Wreath, Petar II Petrović-Njegoš (Serbian)
  45. ^ False Tsar Stephen the Little, Petar II Petrović-Njegoš (Serbian)
  46. ^ Camille Paganel, 1855,"Histoire de Scanderbeg, ou Turcs et Chrétiens du XVe siècle"
  47. ^ Robert Elsie (2006). Albanian Literature : A Short History. I. B. Tauris. p. 50. ISBN 1-84511-031-5. 
  48. ^ Schwandner-Sievers, Stephanie; Bernd Jürgen Fischer; Roderick Bailey; Isa Blumi; Nathalie Clayer; Ger Dujizings; Denisa Costovicova; Annie Lafontaine; Fatos Lubonja; Nicola Mai; Noel Malcolm; Piro Misha; Mariella Pandolfi; Gilles de Rapper; Fabian Schmidt; George Shopflin; Elias G. Skoulidas; Alex Standish; Galia Vatchinova (2002), Albanian identities: myth and history, USA: Indiana University Press, p. 68, ISBN 0-253-34189-2, retrieved 29 November 2011, Naim Frasheri...History of Skanderbeg, ... published in 1898...as the first epic account of Skanderbeg's fight against Ottomans written by a Muslim 
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  58. ^ The Scanderberg Operas by Vivaldi and Francouer by Del Brebner
  59. ^ Stana Đurić-Klajn (1972). A Survey of Serbian Music Through the Ages. Association of Composers of Serbia. p. 145. To that cycle he also gave a romantic and poetic title Pesme zemlje Skenderbegove (Songs from Skenderbey's Country) 
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  63. ^ Paja Jovanović. Muzej Grada, Beograda. 1970. p. 41. „Песма Скендербега“ од П. Јовановића је по вредности врло значајан рад. 
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  65. ^ Delaney, Robert (29 September 2006). "Welcoming Skanderbeg — Cd. Maida, Albanian president unveil statue of Albanian hero". The Michigan Catholic. Archdiocese of Detroit. 
  66. ^ Voltaire, 1762, Works, Vol 3.
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  68. ^ Galt 1835, p. 96

Sources[edit]

External links[edit]

  • Život i viteška vojevanja slavnog kneza epirskoga Đorđa Kastriota Skenderbega written by Jovan Sterija Popović in 1828 Online text on Digital National library of Serbia