Skanska

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Skanska AB
Publicly traded Aktiebolag
Traded asNasdaq StockholmSKA B
IndustryConstruction
Founded1887; 131 years ago (1887)
HeadquartersStockholm, Sweden
Key people
Anders Danielsson (President and CEO)[1]
Hans Biörck (Chairman)[2]
ProductsResidential development, commercial property development and infrastructure development
RevenueSEK 145.365 billion (2016)[3]
SEK 7.220 billion (2016)[3]
SEK 5.735 billion (2016)[3]
Total assetsSEK 106.505 billion (end 2016)[3]
Total equitySEK 27.506 billion (end 2016)[3]
Number of employees
42,903 (average, 2016)[3]
Websitewww.skanska.com
Footnotes / references
Financial data according to IFRS

Skanska AB (Swedish pronunciation: [²skanːska]) is a multinational construction and development company based in Sweden. Skanska is the fifth largest construction company in the world according to the Construction Global magazine.[4] Notable Skanska projects include the World Trade Center Transportation Hub project, 30 St Mary Axe, MetLife Stadium, Mater Dei Hospital, among others.

History[edit]

Aktiebolaget Skånska Cementgjuteriet (Scanian Cement Casting Ltd) was established in Malmö, Sweden, in 1887 by Rudolf Fredrik Berg and started by manufacturing concrete products.[5] It quickly diversified into a construction company and within ten years the company received its first international order.[5] The company played an important role in building Sweden's infrastructure including its roads, power plants, offices and housing.[5]

Growth in Sweden was followed by international expansion. In the mid-1950s Skånska Cementgjuteriet made a major move into international markets. During the next decades it entered South America, Africa and Asia, and in 1971 the United States market, where it today ranks among the largest in its sector.[5] The company was listed on the Stockholm Stock Exchange A-list in 1965. In 1984 the name “Skanska,” already in general use internationally, became the group's official name.[5]

During the latter part of the 1990s, Skanska expanded substantially both organically and by acquisition.[5] In August 2000 it bought the construction division of Kvaerner.[6]

In mid-2004, Skanska decided to divest its Asian investments and sold its Indian subsidiary to the Thailand based construction firm Italian Thai Development Company.[7]

In 2011, Skanska acquired Industrial Contractors, Inc of Evansville, Indiana, United States.[8]

Operations[edit]

Skanska divides its operations into four business streams:

Business stream Yearly revenue, 5-year average (2010 to 2014)[9]
Construction SEK 116,152 million
Residential development SEK 8,721 million
Commercial property development SEK 6,691 million
Infrastructure development SEK 219 million

Construction is the largest business stream by revenue and number of employees. The operations of the other business streams involve investments in projects that are developed and later divested. With regard to infrastructure development, this often involves public–private partnerships (PPP). Geographically, the group operates based on local business units.[10]

Environment[edit]

Skanska was the No. 1 “Green Builder” in the United States in 2007[11] and was ranked No. 3 "Green Contractor" in the United States 2008.[12] In 2011, Skanska was ranked the greenest company in the United Kingdom, despite belonging to an industry with a generally high environmental impact. In 2014, Skanska won the Financial Times and ArcelorMittal “Boldness in Business Award” in the category “corporate responsibility/environment.”[13][14][15][16]

The Financial Times described Skanska in 2014 as aiming to be the “greenest contractor in the world,” while having 57,000 employees, 100,000 suppliers and 250,000 subcontractors, who deliver more than 10,000 projects annually. An official vision stated by Skanska is “the five zeros”: zero loss-making projects, work site accidents, environmental incidents, ethical breaches and defects.[10][16][17]

In the United Kingdom, Skanska has founded the “Supply Chain Sustainability School,” an e-learning initiative, in order to educate construction suppliers on sustainability. As suppliers are frequently shared between construction companies, the school is managed in partnership with several competitors.[16][18][19] In July 2013, Skanska withdrew from the United States Chamber of Commerce, in protest of the chamber's opposition to reformed LEED standards for sustainable buildings.[16]

Skanska was the first company in the industry to implement the ISO 14000 standards globally, with all its business units having been certified according to ISO 14001 since 2000, and it was the first Scandinavian company to have an independent global whistleblowing hotline.[16][20]

Market[edit]

As of March 2015, Skanska was focused on the following selected markets:[9][21]

Skanska is in the process of exiting its operations in Argentina, Brazil, Peru, Chile, Colombia, and Venezuela.[9][17] Skanska will cease to accept new projects in the Latin American market and will divest its operation and maintenance units there.[9]

Region Number of employees Revenue (2014)[9]
The Nordic countries 17,000 SEK 64.0 billion
The rest of Europe 17,000 SEK 35.0 billion
North America 10,000 SEK 49.9 billion
Latin America (being closed down) 14,000 No data available

Skanska is active in construction, commercial property development (office buildings, shopping centers and logistics properties) and infrastructure development (roads, hospitals and schools) in all of its three market regions. The company plans, develops and builds homes in the Nordic region and in the rest of Europe.[17]

In 2013, Skanska was ranked the 9th largest contractor in the world,[22] and in 2014, the 7th largest contractor in the United States.[23]

During the rolling 12-month-period ending in September 2014, Skanska was the largest construction company by total revenue in the Nordic countries.[9] The six largest ones were:

Company Country 12-month revenue[9]
Skanska Sweden SEK 145.0 billion
NCC Sweden SEK 59.2 billion
Peab Sweden SEK 44.2 billion
Veidekke Norway SEK 25.4 billion
Lemminkäinen Finland SEK 18.7 billion
YIT Finland SEK 16.7 billion

Major projects[edit]

Work in progress on 30 St Mary Axe, one of Skanska's most high-profile contracts. Built between 2001 and 2004, the tower was a major addition to London's skyline.

Europe[edit]

Major projects have included the Øresund Bridge which forms part of the road and railway connection between Sweden and Denmark, completed in 2000,[24][25] the Queen Elizabeth Hospital, Woolwich, completed in 2001,[26] the Golden Jubilee wing at King's College Hospital, completed in 2002,[27] 30 St Mary Axe in London, completed in 2004,[28][29] the University Hospital Coventry, completed in 2006,[30] the Mater Dei Hospital in Malta, completed in 2007,[31] the Royal Derby Hospital, completed in 2010,[32] Walsall Manor Hospital completed in 2010,[33] the Heron Tower, completed in 2011,[34] King's Mill Hospital in Ashfield, completed in 2011,[35] new facilities for the Royal London Hospital, completed in 2015[36] and the redevelopment of St Bartholomew's Hospital, completed in 2016.[36]

Skanska is also involved in HS2 lots S1 and S2, working as part of joint venture, with main construction work to start in 2018/9.[37]

United States[edit]

Major projects in the United States include the MetLife Stadium (home to the Giants and the Jets NFL franchises), completed in 2010.[38] In 2010, Skanska was awarded a $115 million (SEK840 million) contract by the Washington State Department of Transportation for construction of a new State Route 99 roadway in downtown Seattle, Washington, part of the project to replace the Alaskan Way Viaduct.[39] Skanska has also developed several commercial and residential buildings in Seattle region, including the upcoming 2&U high-rise office building in downtown Seattle.[40]

Other major projects include the renovation of, and addition to, the headquarters of the United Nations, completed in 2014,[41] the restoration of the World Trade Center site including the removal of debris, the reconstruction of the Port Authority Trans-Hudson and New York City Subway tunnels, and the creation of a World Trade Center Transportation Hub, completed in 2015[42][43][44][45] (including the "Oculus" station entrance designed by Santiago Calatrava)[46][47] and the Second Avenue Subway tunneling project completed in 2016.[48]

Skanska is also part of a joint venture on The Sixth Street Viaduct Replacement Project with Stacy and Witbeck, due to complete in 2020.[49]

Controversies[edit]

In 1996 Skanska was entrusted with the building of a "state-of-the-art" general hospital, Mater Dei Hospital, costing over 700,000,000 in Malta. Later, however, it was discovered that Skanska had used lower-quality cement of the kind that is generally used to build pavements. As a result, the hospital could not develop further floors or build a helipad on the roof. The company made sure to be waived of the responsibility for any evident cheap work and damage once the project was finalised.[50][51][52][53][54][55]

In 2005, Skanska was awarded a large natural gas pipeline contract in Argentina. In 2007, the company was implicated in reports of bribery involving illegal payments to government officials relating to the project award.[56][57] Six former Skanska managers plus a former consultant were arrested for tax evasion.[58] Skanska performed its own investigation, dismissing seven staff, and worked closely with the authorities concerning the inquiry.[59][60] Later bribery allegations related to a pipeline for Petrobras in Brazil,[61] prompting Skanska to be barred from bidding for work for two years by the Brazilian government,[62] and to withdraw completely from operations in South America.[63]

Skanska-owned UK business Kværner/Trafalgar House Plc was involved with the UK's Consulting Association, exposed in 2009 for operating an illegal construction industry blacklist; Skanska was reported to be the industry's most prolific user of the Consulting Association's services, spending over £28,000 on top of a £3,000 annual subscription.[64] Later, Skanska was among eight businesses who launched the Construction Workers Compensation Scheme in 2014,[65] condemned as a "PR stunt" by the GMB union, and described by the Scottish Affairs Select Committee as "an act of bad faith".[66] In December 2017, union Unite announced it had issued high court proceedings against four former chairmen of the Consulting Association, included Skanska's former director of industrial relations, Stephen Quant, alleging breach of privacy, defamation and Data Protection Act offences.[67] Unite also said it was taking action against 12 major contractors including Skanska.[68]

In December 2013 the Supreme Court of the Slovak Republic confirmed that Skanska DS a.s. participated in a bid rigging cartel of construction companies (together with companies of Strabag group and Mota-Engil group) in 2004. Illegal conduct was associated with the tender for the execution of works for the construction of the D1 highway from Mengusovce to Jánovce in Eastern Slovakia.[69]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Management, Senior Executive Team (SET)". Skanska. 15 April 2016. Retrieved 10 July 2016.
  2. ^ "Board". Skanska. 15 April 2016. Retrieved 10 July 2016.
  3. ^ a b c d e f "Annual Report 2016" (PDF). Skanska. 2017. Retrieved 14 July 2017.
  4. ^ "Top 10 Construction Companies in the World". Construction Global. Retrieved 16 June 2015.
  5. ^ a b c d e f Skanska: History Archived 2012-12-17 at the Wayback Machine.
  6. ^ Skanska buys Kvaerner arm for £180m The Telegraph, 30 August 2000
  7. ^ ITD Cementation India
  8. ^ "Skanska USA buys Industrial Contractors, Inc". Evansville Courier & Press. Dec 29, 2011. Archived from the original on 2012-04-13. Retrieved Jan 15, 2013.
  9. ^ a b c d e f g "Annual Report 2014" (PDF). Skanska. 2015. Retrieved 2 July 2015.
  10. ^ a b "Annual Report 2011" (PDF). Skanska. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2012-05-16. Retrieved 20 September 2012.
  11. ^ "Skanska: Green Builder". Archived from the original on 2008-12-26. Retrieved 2009-02-16.
  12. ^ Top Green Contractors ENR
  13. ^ "Revealed: the greenest companies". The Sunday Times. Jun 12, 2011. Retrieved Dec 21, 2012.
  14. ^ John Authers (Mar 23, 2014). "Thorny issues". The Financial Times. Retrieved Aug 26, 2014.
  15. ^ "Financial Times and ArcelorMittal Award Boldest Business Leaders in 2014". The Financial Times. Mar 21, 2014. Retrieved Aug 26, 2014.
  16. ^ a b c d e Andy Sharman (Mar 23, 2014). "How Skanska aims to become the world's greenest construction company". The Financial Times. Retrieved Aug 20, 2014.
  17. ^ a b c "Annual Report 2013" (PDF). Skanska. 2014. Retrieved 10 June 2014.
  18. ^ Katharine Earley (May 16, 2013). "Skanska: working with rivals for the greater good". The Guardian. Retrieved Aug 20, 2014.
  19. ^ "Overall Winner & Best Contribution to Corporate Responsibility: Skanska UK (on behalf of the Supply Chain Sustainability School)". Chartered Institute of Purchasing & Supply. Oct 8, 2013. Retrieved Aug 20, 2014.
  20. ^ "Local impacts". Skanska 2014.
  21. ^ "Publishing of Annual Report 2014 on this website". Skanska AB. February 18, 2015. Retrieved June 2, 2015.
  22. ^ "The Top 250 International Contractors 2013" (PDF). Engineering News-Record. 2013. Retrieved Aug 20, 2014.
  23. ^ "The Top 400 Contractors 2014" (PDF). Engineering News-Record. 2014. Retrieved Aug 20, 2014.
  24. ^ Almar Latour (Mar 19, 1999). "Skanska Builds on Global Strategy; CEO's Expansion Drive Fuels Growth". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved Jan 15, 2013.
  25. ^ Linda Nohrstedt (Mar 25, 2009). "Vi hade en otroligt bra kund" (in Swedish). Byggvärlden. Retrieved Jan 15, 2013.
  26. ^ "Hospital PFI deal". Construction News. 9 July 1998. Retrieved 7 April 2018.
  27. ^ "Building work starts on London hospital". IFM.net. 13 July 2000. Retrieved 22 April 2018.
  28. ^ The erotic gherkin is in a pickle The Telegraph, 23 November 2002
  29. ^ Charles Ajunwa (Nov 18, 2012). "London: The Amazing Attractions". This Day. Archived from the original on 2012-11-21. Retrieved Jan 15, 2013.
  30. ^ "Fire safety fears force remedial work at Skanska PFI hospital". Construction Enquirer. 30 August 2016. Retrieved 13 April 2018.
  31. ^ Times of Malta 30 July 2009
  32. ^ "Huge PFI hospital for Derby". BBC. 3 September 2003. Retrieved 14 April 2018.
  33. ^ "Walsall's new £174million hospital is leading the green revolution". Birmingham Mail. 24 October 2012. Retrieved 5 May 2018.
  34. ^ Skanska win Heron Tower contract Skyscrapernews, 31 October 2007
  35. ^ "Skanska wins PFI hospital scheme in Nottinghamshire". Modern Building Services. 18 December 2005. Retrieved 2 May 2018.
  36. ^ a b "Skanska sells London hospital stakes". The Construction Index. 7 December 2015. Retrieved 13 April 2018.
  37. ^ "HS2 contracts worth £6.6bn awarded by UK government". the Guardian. 17 July 2017. Retrieved 2017-10-13.
  38. ^ Meadowlands Stadium
  39. ^ Lamm, Greg (May 13, 2010). "Skanska's $114M viaduct project bid accepted by state". Puget Sound Business Journal. Retrieved August 3, 2017.
  40. ^ "Skanska plans office tower at Second and University". Seattle Daily Journal of Commerce. November 7, 2014. Retrieved August 3, 2017.
  41. ^ UN signs contract with Skanska Reuters, 27 July 2007
  42. ^ "Project Updates: World Trade Center Transportation Hub". Lower Manhattan Construction Command Center. Archived from the original on September 28, 2010. Retrieved September 2, 2010.
  43. ^ Grynbaum, Michael M. (February 24, 2011). "Trade Center Transit Hub's Cost Now Over $3.4 Billion". The New York Times. Retrieved February 25, 2011.
  44. ^ Calatrava's WTC Transportation Hub Soars Archived 2006-04-27 at the Wayback Machine. – lowermanhattan.info
  45. ^ Gralla, Joan (October 2, 2008). "NYC World Trade Center site faces fresh delays". Yahoo! News. Retrieved October 3, 2008.[dead link]
  46. ^ Phoenix Constructors
  47. ^ "Skanska To Fabricate Oculus Building At Ground Zero Transit Hub". ENR New York. May 9, 2011. Retrieved Jan 15, 2013.
  48. ^ New York Construction: Top Projects
  49. ^ "About the project". Sixth Street Viaduct. Retrieved 25 October 2018.
  50. ^ Balzan, Saviour (21 September 2015). Skanska snubs government over hospital damage claims. Malta Today. Retrieved 1 July 2016.
  51. ^ Waiver exonerated Skanska and Maltese partners on Mater Dei.
  52. ^ PM orders investigation into Mater Dei concrete.
  53. ^ Read: Hospital inquiry report, Arup report on Emergency Department.
  54. ^ ARUP report. Volume 2.
  55. ^ Inquiry report.
  56. ^ "Gas and graft". The Economist. May 10, 2007. Retrieved Dec 21, 2012.
  57. ^ "Corruption in Argentina". The Economist. 11 July 2007. Retrieved 4 December 2017.
  58. ^ Ekman, Ivar (11 May 2007). "Sweden's squeaky-clean image sullied by scandals". New York Times. Retrieved 4 December 2017.
  59. ^ "Skanska likely to be involved in a corruption scandal in Argentina". Pravda. Mar 20, 2007. Retrieved Jan 15, 2013.
  60. ^ "Argentine Corruption: Skanska's Version". Latin Business Chronicle. Jul 30, 2007. Archived from the original on 2013-03-21. Retrieved Dec 21, 2012.
  61. ^ "Skanska embroiled in a major corruption scandal". Sveriges Radio. 28 November 2014. Retrieved 4 December 2017.
  62. ^ "Brazil bars Skanska unit from public tenders in Petrobras probe". Reuters. Reuters. 9 June 2016. Retrieved 4 December 2017.
  63. ^ "Skanska quits South America over corruption". The Local. 28 November 2014. Retrieved 4 December 2017.
  64. ^ Mathiason, Nick (24 March 2009). "Skanska billed £28,000 by employee blacklist firm". The Guardian. Retrieved 4 December 2017.
  65. ^ "Construction blacklist compensation scheme opens". BBC News: Business. BBC. 4 July 2014. Retrieved 7 September 2015.
  66. ^ "Scottish Affairs - Seventh Report Blacklisting in Employment: Final Report". www.parliament.uk. Scottish Affairs Select Committee. Retrieved 7 September 2015.
  67. ^ "Union sues blacklist ringleaders". The Construction Index. 4 December 2017. Retrieved 4 December 2017.
  68. ^ Prior, Grant (4 December 2017). "Unite launches new round of blacklisting legal action". Construction Enquirer. Retrieved 4 December 2017.
  69. ^ The Supreme Court upheld the decisions of the Antimonopoly Office of the Slovak Republic in the matter of a cartel of six construction companies

External links[edit]