|Stages of death|
Skeletonization refers to the final stage of decomposition, during which the last vestiges of the soft tissues of a corpse or carcass have decayed or dried to the point that the skeleton is exposed. By the end of the skeletonization process, all soft tissue will have been eliminated, leaving only disarticulated bones.
In a temperate climate, it usually requires three weeks to several years for a body to completely decompose into a skeleton, depending on factors such as temperature, humidity, presence of insects, and submergence in a substrate such as water. In tropical climates, skeletonization can occur in weeks, while in tundra areas, skeletonization may take years or may never occur, if subzero temperatures persist. Natural embalming processes in peat bogs or salt deserts can delay the process indefinitely, sometimes resulting in natural mummification.
The rate of skeletonization and the present condition of a corpse or carcass can be used to determine the time of death.
After skeletonization, if scavenging animals do not destroy or remove the bones, acids in many fertile soils take about 20 years to completely dissolve the skeleton of mid- to large-size mammals, such as humans, leaving no trace of the organism. In neutral-pH soil or sand, the skeleton can persist for hundreds of years before it finally disintegrates. Alternately, especially in very fine, dry, salty, anoxic, or mildly alkaline soils, bones may undergo fossilization, converting into minerals that may persist indefinitely.
- Tersigni-Tarrant, MariaTeresa A.; Shirley, Natalie R. (2012). Forensic Anthropology: An Introduction. CRC Press. p. 351. ISBN 9781439816462. Retrieved March 11, 2014.
- Senn, David R.; Weems, Richard A. (2013). Manual of Forensic Odontology, Fifth Edition. CRC Press. p. 48. ISBN 9781439851333. Retrieved March 11, 2014.
- Byrd, Jason H.; Castner, James L. (2012). Forensic Entomology: The Utility of Arthropods in Legal Investigations, Second Edition. CRC Press. pp. 407–423. ISBN 9781420008869. Retrieved March 11, 2014.
- Dix, Jay; Graham, Michael (1999). Time of Death, Decomposition and Identification: An Atlas. CRC Press. pp. 11–12. ISBN 9780849323676. Retrieved March 11, 2014.
| Stages of human development
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